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17.8: Chronology

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    The following chronology is a list of important dates and events associated with this chapter.

    Date Event
    Spring 1862 Union officials began the process of reconstruction on South Carolina’s Sea Islands
    November 1863 Union officials began the Davis Bend experiment based on the principles of free labor
    December 1863 Lincoln issued the “Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction” or the Ten Percent Plan
    March 1864 Unionists in Arkansas adopted a new constitution under the Ten Percent Plan
    April 1864 Unionists in Virginia adopted a new constitution under the Ten Percent Plan
    July 1864 Unionists in Louisiana adopted a new constitution under the Ten Percent Plan; Congress approved the Wade-Davis bill; Lincoln vetoed the measure
    January 1865 Sherman met with former slaves in Savannah to discuss the meaning of freedom and then issued Special Field Order No. 15
    March 1865 Congress approved and Lincoln signed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill
    April 1865 Lee surrendered to Grant; Civil War ended Lincoln assassinated; Vice President Andrew Johnson replaced him as President
    May 1865 President Johnson issued the Amnesty Proclamation
    Summer 1865 Black Codes established in most Southern States
    December 1865 Congress created Joint Committee of Fifteen on Reconstruction; Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in the United States; Ku Klux Klan formed in Tennessee
    February 1866 Powers of Freedmen’s Bureau expanded by Congress
    April 1866 Civil Rights Act of 1866 passed over Johnson’s veto
    May 1866 Race Riot occurred in Memphis, Tennessee; Race Riot occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana
    June 1866 Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution approved by Congress
    February 1867 House of Representatives voted to impeach President Andrew Johnson
    March 1867 First Congressional Reconstruction Act passed over Johnson’s veto; Tenure of Office Act passed by Congress
    May 1867 Senate voted to acquit President Johnson
    July 1867 Addenda to the Reconstruction Act passed by Congress over Johnson’s veto
    Summer 1868 Ku Klux Klan violence increased in the South as the presidential election neared
    July 1868 Fourteenth Amendment ratified by the states
    November 1886 Ulysses S. Grant defeated Horatio Seymour in the presidential race
    February 1869 Fifteenth Amendment passed by Congress
    December 1869 Grant encouraged Congress to readmit Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas, the last of the unreconstructed states; Grant asked Congress to return Georgia to military rule because conservatives in the state legislature refused to seat the black representatives
    May 1870 Congress passed the First Enforcement Act
    December 1870 Grant asked Congress to consider civil service reform and Congress created a commission to look into the matter in early 1871
    February 1871 Second Enforcement Act passed by Congress
    April 1871 Third Enforcement Act (the Ku Klux Klan Act) passed by Congress
    October 1871 Grant suspended habeas corpus for nine counties in South Carolina and sent federal troops to maintain order
    May 1872 Liberal Republicans nominated Horace Greeley for president; the Democrats later endorsed their selection
    September 1872 New York Sun exposed the Crédit Mobilier affair
    November 1872 Ulysses S. Grant defeated Horace Greeley in the presidential race
    April 1873 Colfax Massacre occurred
    September 1873 Jay Cooke &Co. failed setting off the Panic of 1873
    March 1873 Congress voted to increase government salaries touching off the Back Pay Grab scandal
    March 1874 Congress approved the inflation bill to infuse money into the American economy, but Grant vetoed the measure
    June 1874 Benjamin Bristow took over as the secretary of treasury and began to investigate the Whiskey Ring
    September 1874 The White League in Louisiana attempted to overthrow the Republican governor; Grant dispatched federal troops to end the violence
    November 1874 Democrats regained control of the House of Representatives
    January 1875 Congress passed the Specie Resumption Act
    March 1875 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act
    September 1875 Mississippi requested federal assistance to fight Klan violence, and the Grant administration refused
    March 1876 Grant accepted William Belknap’s resignation before the House impeached him for accepting bribes; Supreme Court issued its decision in U.S. v. Reese and U.S. v. Cruikshank
    June 1876 Republicans nominated Ohio Governor Rutherford B. Hayes for president; Democrats nominated New York Governor Samuel J. Tilden for president
    July 1876 Violence broke out in South Carolina after the Hamburg Massacre; Grant sent troops to respond to the situation
    November 1876 Tilden won popular vote in the presidential election, but the Republicans and the Democrats debated over the Electoral College votes of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina
    February 1877 Congress agreed to create an electoral commission to review the Electoral College returns; the commission awarded the states to Hayes
    March 1877 Hayes took the oath of office, and Reconstruction effectively ended

    This page titled 17.8: Chronology is shared under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Catherine Locks, Sarah Mergel, Pamela Roseman, Tamara Spike & Marie Lasseter (GALILEO Open Learning Materials) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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