# 4.2: Spelling

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##### Learning Objectives
• Identify common spelling rules.
• Identify commonly misused homonyms.
• Identify commonly misspelled words.

One essential aspect of good writing is accurate spelling. With computer spell checkers, spelling may seem simple, but these programs fail to catch every error. Spell checkers identify some errors, but writers still have to consider the flagged words and suggested replacements. Writers are still responsible for the errors that remain.

For example, if the spell checker highlights a word that is misspelled and gives you a list of alternative words, you may choose a word that you never intended even though it is spelled correctly. This can change the meaning of your sentence. It can also confuse readers, making them lose interest. Computer spell checkers are useful editing tools, but they can never replace human knowledge of spelling rules, homonyms, and commonly misspelled words.

## Common Spelling Rules

The best way to master new words is to understand the key spelling rules. Keep in mind, however, that some spelling rules carry exceptions. A spell checker may catch these exceptions, but knowing them yourself will prepare you to spell accurately on the first try. You may want to try memorizing each rule and its exception like you would memorize a rhyme or lyrics to a song.

Write i before e except after c, or when pronounced ay like “neighbor” or “weigh.”

• achieve, niece, alien

When words end in a consonant plus y, drop the y and add an i before adding another ending.

• happy + er = happier
• cry + ed = cried

When words end in a vowel plus y, keep the y and add the ending.

• delay + ed = delayed

Memorize the following exceptions to this rule: day, lay, say, pay = daily, laid, said, paid

When adding an ending that begins with a vowel, such as –able, –ence, –ing, or –ity, drop the last e in a word.

• write + ing = writing
• pure + ity = purity

When adding an ending that begins with a consonant, such as –less, –ment, or –ly, keep the last e in a word.

• hope + less = hopeless

For many words ending in a consonant and an o, add –s when using the plural form.

• photo + s = photos
• soprano + s = sopranos

Add –es to words that end in s, ch, sh, and x.

• church + es = churches
• fax + es = faxes
##### Exercise $$\PageIndex{1}$$

Identify and correct the nine misspelled words in the following paragraph.

Sherman J. Alexie Jr. was born in October 1966. He is a Spokane/Coeur d’Alene Indian and an American writer, poet, and filmmaker. Alexie was born with hydrocephalus, or water on the brain. This condition led doctors to predict that he would likly suffer long-term brain damage and possibly mental retardation. Although Alexie survived with no mental disabilitys, he did suffer other serious side effects from his condition that plagud him throughout his childhood. Amazingly, Alexie learned to read by the age of three, and by age five he had read novels such as John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Raised on an Indian reservation, Alexie often felt aleinated from his peers due to his avid love for reading and also from the long-term effects of his illness, which often kept him from socializeing with his peers on the reservation. The reading skills he displaid at such a young age foreshadowed what he would later become. Today Alexie is a prolific and successful writer with several story anthologeis to his credit, noteably The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven and The Toughest Indian in the World. Most of his fiction is about contemporary Native Americans who are influenced by pop culture and pow wows and everything in between. His work is sometimes funny but always thoughtful and full of richness and depth. Alexie also writes poetry, novels, and screenplays. His latest collection of storys is called War Dances, which came out in 2009.

### Collaboration

##### Eight Tips to Improve Spelling Skills
1. Read the words in your assignment carefully, and avoid skimming over the page. Focusing on your written assignment word by word will help you pay close attention to each word’s spelling. Skimming quickly, you may overlook misspelled words.
2. Use mnemonic devices to remember the correct spelling of words. Mnemonic devices, or memory techniques and learning aids, include inventive sayings or practices that help you remember. For example, the saying “It is important to be a beautiful person inside and out” may help you remember that beautiful begins with “be a.” The practice of pronouncing the word Wednesday Wed-nes-day may help you remember how to spell the word correctly.
3. Use a dictionary. Many professional writers rely on the dictionary—either in print or online. If you find it difficult to use a regular dictionary, ask your instructor to help you find a “poor speller’s dictionary.”
4. Use your computer’s spell checker. The spell checker will not solve all your spelling problems, but it is a useful tool. See the introduction to this section for cautions about spell checkers.
5. Keep a list of frequently misspelled words. You will often misspell the same words again and again, but do not let this discourage you. All writers struggle with the spellings of certain words; they become aware of their spelling weaknesses and work to improve. Be aware of which words you commonly misspell, and you can add them to a list to learn to spell them correctly.
6. Look over corrected papers for misspelled words. Add these words to your list and practice writing each word four to five times each. Writing teachers will especially notice which words you frequently misspell, and it will help you excel in your classes if they see your spelling improve.
7. Test yourself with flashcards. Sometimes the old-fashioned methods are best, and for spelling, this tried and true technique has worked for many students. You can work with a peer or alone.
8. Review the common spelling rules explained in this chapter. Take the necessary time to master the material; you may return to the rules in this chapter again and again, as needed.
##### Tip

Remember to focus on spelling during the editing and revising step of the writing process. Start with the big ideas such as organizing your piece of writing and developing effective paragraphs, and then work your way down toward the smaller—but equally important—details like spelling and punctuation. To read more about the writing process and editing and revising, see Chapter 8.

## Homonyms

Homonyms are words that sound like one another but have different meanings.

##### Commonly Misused Homonyms

Principle, Principal

• Principle (noun). A fundamental concept that is accepted as true.

The principle of human equality is an important foundation for all nations.

• Principal (noun). The original amount of debt on which interest is calculated.

The payment plan allows me to pay back only the principal amount, not any compounded interest.

• Principal (noun). A person who is the main authority of a school.

The principal held a conference for both parents and teachers.

Where, Wear, Ware

• Where (adverb). The place in which something happens.

Where is the restaurant?

• Wear (verb). To carry or have on the body.

I will wear my hiking shoes when go on a climb tomorrow morning.

• Ware (noun). Articles of merchandise or manufacture (usually, wares).

When I return from shopping, I will show you my wares.

• Lead (noun). A type of metal used in pipes and batteries.

The lead pipes in my homes are old and need to be replaced.

• Led (verb). The past tense of the verb lead.

After the garden, she led the patrons through the museum.

Which, Witch

• Which (pronoun). Replaces one out of a group.

Which apartment is yours?

• Witch (noun). A person who practices sorcery or who has supernatural powers.

She thinks she is a witch, but she does not seem to have any powers.

Peace, Piece

• Peace (noun). A state of tranquility or quiet.

For once, there was peace between the argumentative brothers.

• Piece (noun). A part of a whole.

I would like a large piece of cake, thank you.

Passed, Past

• Passed (verb). To go away or move.

He passed the slower cars on the road using the left lane.

• Past (noun). Having existed or taken place in a period before the present.

The argument happened in the past, so there is no use in dwelling on it.

Lessen, Lesson

• Lessen (verb). To reduce in number, size, or degree.

My dentist gave me medicine to lessen the pain of my aching tooth.

• Lesson (noun). A reading or exercise to be studied by a student.

Today’s lesson was about mortgage interest rates.

Patience, Patients

• Patience (noun). The capacity of being patient (waiting for a period of time or enduring pains and trials calmly).

The novice teacher’s patience with the unruly class was astounding.

• Patients (plural noun). Individuals under medical care.

The patients were tired of eating the hospital food, and they could not wait for a home-cooked meal.

Sees, Seas, Seize

• Sees (verb). To perceive with the eye.

He sees a whale through his binoculars.

• Seas (plural noun). The plural of sea, a great body of salt water.

The tidal fluctuation of the oceans and seas are influenced by the moon.

• Seize (verb). To possess or take by force.

The king plans to seize all the peasants’ land.

Threw, Through

• Threw (verb). The past tense of throw.

She threw the football with perfect form.

• Through (preposition). A word that indicates movement.

She walked through the door and out of his life.

##### Exercise $$\PageIndex{2}$$

Complete the following sentences by selecting the correct homonym.

1. Do you agree with the underlying ________(principle, principal) that ensures copyrights are protected in the digital age?
2. I like to ________(where, wear, ware) unique clothing from thrift stores that do not have company logos on them.
3. Marjorie felt like she was being ________(led, lead) on a wild goose chase, and she did not like it one bit.
4. Serina described ________(witch, which) house was hers, but now that I am here, they all look the same.
5. Seeing his friend without a lunch, Miguel gave her a ________(peace, piece) of his apple.
6. Do you think that it is healthy for mother to talk about the ________(passed, past) all the time?
7. Eating healthier foods will ________(lessen, lesson) the risk of heart disease.
8. I know it sounds cliché, but my father had the ________(patients, patience) of a saint.
9. Daniela ________(sees, seas, seize) possibilities in the bleakest situations, and that it is why she is successful.
10. Everyone goes ________(through, threw) hardships in life regardless of who they are.

## Commonly Misspelled Words

Below is a list of commonly misspelled words. You probably use these words every day in either speaking or writing. Each word has a segment in bold type, which indicates the problem area of the word that is often spelled incorrectly. If you can, use this list as a guide before, during, and after you write.

##### Tip

Use the following two tricks to help you master these troublesome words:

1. Copy each word a few times and underline the problem area.
2. Copy the words onto flash cards and have a friend test you.
 across disappoint integration particular separate address disapprove intelligent perform similar answer doesn’t interest perhaps since argument eighth interfere personnel speech athlete embarrass jewelry possess strength beginning environment judgment possible success behavior exaggerate knowledge prefer surprise calendar familiar maintain prejudice taught career finally mathematics privilege temperature conscience government meant probably thorough crowded grammar necessary psychology thought definite height nervous pursue tired describe illegal occasion reference until desperate immediately opinion rhythm weight different important optimist ridiculous written
##### Exercise $$\PageIndex{3}$$

Identify and correct the ten commonly misspelled words in the following paragraph.

Brooklyn is one of the five boroughs that make up New York City. It is located on the eastern shore of Long Island directly accross the East River from the island of Manhattan. Its beginings stretch back to the sixteenth century when it was founded by the Dutch who originally called it “Breuckelen.” Immedietely after the Dutch settled Brooklyn, it came under British rule. However, neither the Dutch nor the British were Brooklyn’s first inhabitants. When European settlers first arrived, Brooklyn was largely inhabited by the Lenapi, a collective name for several organized bands of Native American people who settled a large area of land that extended from upstate New York through the entire state of New Jersey. They are sometimes referred to as the Delaware Indians. Over time, the Lenapi succumbed to European diseases or conflicts between European settlers or other Native American enemies. Finalley they were pushed out of Brooklyn completely by the British.
In 1776, Brooklyn was the site of the first importent battle of the American Revolution known as the Battle of Brooklyn. The colonists lost this battle, which was led by George Washington, but over the next two years they would win the war, kicking the British out of the colonies once and for all.
By the end of the nineteenth century, Brooklyn grew to be a city in its own right. The completion of the Brooklyn Bridge was an ocasion for celebration; transportation and commerce between Brooklyn and Manhattan now became much easier. Eventually, in 1898, Brooklyn lost its seperate identity as an independent city and became one of five boroughs of New York City. However, in some people’s opinien, the intagration into New York City should have never happened; they though Brooklyn should have remained an independent city.

### Collaboration

##### Writing at Work

In today’s job market, writing e-mails has become a means by which many people find employment. E-mails to prospective employers require thoughtful word choice, accurate spelling, and perfect punctuation. Employers’ inboxes are inundated with countless e-mails daily. If even the subject line of an e-mail contains a spelling error, it will likely be overlooked and someone else’s e-mail will take priority.

The best thing to do after you proofread an e-mail to an employer and run the spell checker is to have an additional set of eyes go over it with you; one of your teachers may be able to read the e-mail and give you suggestions for improvement. Most colleges and universities have writing centers, which may also be able to assist you.