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3.11: Common Summary Phrases

  • Page ID
    110023
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    Audio Version (January 2022):

    Here are all of the common phrases discussed in Chapter 3 for summarizing different elements of an argument and comparing two arguments. The section headings link to more information.

    Introducing the argument

    • In an article for _____________, writer _____________ discusses _____________.
    • The recent account of _____________ by _____________ focuses on _____________.
    • Writing in the journal _____________, the scholar _____________ argues that _____________.

    Claims

    Controversial claims of fact

    • They argue that _____________.
    • She maintains that _____________.
    • He contends that _____________.
    • They assert that _____________.
    • She holds that _____________.
    • He insists that _____________.
    • She thinks_____________.
    • They believe that_____________.

    Widely accepted claims of fact

    • He informs us of _____________.
    • She describes_____________.
    • They note that _____________.
    • He observes that _____________.
    • She explains that _____________.
    • The writer points out the way in which_____________.

    Positive claims of value 

    • They praise_____________.
    • He celebrates_____________.
    • She applauds the notion that_____________.
    • They endorse_____________.
    • He admires_____________.
    • She finds value in_____________.
    • They rave about_____________.

    Negative claims of value

    • The author criticizes_____________.
    • She deplores____________.
    • He finds fault in_____________.
    • They regret that_____________.
    • They complain that_____________.
    • The authors are disappointed in_____________.

    Mixed claims of value

    • The author gives a mixed review of_____________.
    • She sees strengths and weaknesses in_____________.
    • They endorse_____________ with some reservations.
    • He praises_____________ while finding some fault in _____________
    • The authors have mixed feelings about_____________. On the one hand, they are impressed by_____________, but on the other hand, they find much to be desired in_____________.

    Strongly felt claims of policy

    • They advocate for_____________.
    • She recommends_____________.
    • They encourage_____________to _____________.
    • The writers urge_____________.
    • The author is promoting_____________.
    • He calls for_____________.
    • She demands_____________.

    Tentative claims of policy

    • He suggests_____________.
    • The researchers explore the possibility of_____________.
    • They hope that_____________can take action to_____________.
    • She shows why we should give more thought to developing a plan to_____________.
    • The writer asks us to consider_____________.

    Reasons

    • She reasons that _____________.
    • He explains this by_____________.
    • The author justifies this with_____________.
    • To support this perspective, the author points out that_____________.
    • The writer bases this claim on the idea that_____________.
    • They argue that_____________ implies that _____________ because_____________.
    • She argues that if _____________, then _____________.
    • He claims that _____________ necessarily means that_____________ .
    • She substantiates this idea by_____________.
    • He supports this idea by_____________.
    • The writer gives evidence in the form of_____________.
    • They back this up with_____________.
    • She demonstrates this by_____________.
    • He proves attempts to prove this by _____________.
    • They cite studies of _____________.
    • On the basis of _____________, she concludes that _____________.

    Counterarguments

    Concession to a counterargument

    • The writer acknowledges that _____________, but still insists that _____________.
    • They concede that _____________; however they consider that _____________.
    • He grants the idea that _____________, yet still maintains that _____________.
    • She admits that _____________, but she points out that_____________.
    • The author sees merit in the idea that _____________, but cannot accept_____________.
    • Even though he sympathizes with those who believe _____________, the author emphasizes that _____________.

    Rejection of a counterargument

    • She refutes this claim by arguing that _____________.
    • However, he questions the very idea that _____________, observing that _____________.
    • She disagrees with the claim that _____________ because _____________.
    • They challenge the idea that _____________ by arguing that _____________.
    • He rejects the argument that_____________, claiming that _____________.
    • She defends her position against those who claim _____________ by explaining that _____________.

    Limits

    • He qualifies his position by_____________.
    • She limits her claim by_____________.
    • They clarify that this only holds if _____________.
    • The author restricts their claim to cases where_____________.
    • He makes an exception for_____________.

    Comparing two arguments

    Similarities

    • Just as A does, B believes that______________.
    • Both A and B see ______________ as an important issue.
    • We have seen how A maintains that ______________. Similarly, B ______________.
    • A argues that______________. Likewise, B ______________.
    • A and B agree on the idea that ______________. 

    Differences

    • A focuses on______________; however, B is more interested in______________.
    • A’s claim is that______________.  Conversely, B maintains that ______________.
    • Whereas A argues that______________, B______________.
    • While A emphasizes______________, B______________.
    • Unlike A, B believes that______________.
    • Rather than ______________ like A, B______________,
    • Whereas A argues that ______________, B maintains ______________.  

    Similarities and differences together

    • While A condemns the weaknesses of ______________, B praises its strengths.
    • A outlines the problem of ______________ in the abstract while B proposes solutions to the problem.
    • Though A and B agree on the root cause of ______________, they differ on its solution.
       

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