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    Glossary Entries

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    abbot An abbot is the head of a monastery, known as an abbey.        
    academic painting Academic art favored naturalism and finish based on the traditions of the European art academies of the 18th and 19th centuries.        
    Almoravids The earlier of two North African dynasties that conquered parts of the Iberian Peninsula. The Almoravids ruled from 1062 until 1150 when they fell to the Almohads. Initially the Almoravids arrived in the Iberian Peninsula to help stave off the Reconquista, but eventually conquered the Party Kingdoms under the leadership of Yusuf ibn Tashfin (d. 1106).        
    apse An apse is a a large semicircular recess in a church, typically located at the eastern end and usually containing the altar.        
    Ark of the Covenant According to the Hebrew Bible, the Ark of the Covenant was a wooden chest covered with gold containing the tablets on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed.        
    bark paper Called amate in Nahuatl, the language spoken by the Aztecs and their descendants, paper was made from the bark of numerous plants, most commonly Trema micrantha and Ficus aurea.        
    Brotherhood of the Black Heads The Brotherhood of the Black Heads was a local urban group, or confraternity, made up of unmarried and up-and-coming merchants from Tallinn and abroad. These young merchants often served as journeymen, traveling long distances frequently to conduct trade.        
    diviner A diviner is a person with the power to use invocation and manipulation of spiritual entities, potent objects, and herbal mixtures to intercede with the gods on behalf of the people.        
    fleur-de-lis A fleur-de-lis is a stylized lily that is often associated with the French crown.        
    fresco Water-based pigment applied to fresh moist plaster.        
    golden section In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden section if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities        
    John II Emperor John II Komnenos reigned from 1118–1143.        
    Judson Memorial Church Judson Memorial Church, is a designated landmark and is included in the National Register of Historic Places. It was located in Greenwich Village to serve adjacent African American and immigrant communities in the late 19th century, and social outreach and the arts have been central to its mission.        
    Justinian II Emperor Justinian II reigned from 685–694 and again from 705–711.        
    King Minos of Crete According to the myth, the city of Athens was forced every nine years to send seven youths and seven maidens as tribute to the Cretans. The ship sailed from mainland Greece across the Aegean Sea to Crete. There they headed to a labyrinth (built by Daedalus), which was a huge, maze-like structure. The Minotaur lived inside. This half-human and half-bull creature was the result of Pasiphaë, the wife of King Minos, coupling with the Cretan Bull. The labyrinth was built to contain it, and the human tribute was to feed it.        
    Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon included the Kingdom of Aragon, the Kingdom of Valencia, and the Principality of Catalonia. Sometimes scholars refer to the larger kingdoms that encompass others as "crowns" — for example the Crown of Aragon. In 1479 the Crowns of Aragon and Castile are united with the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile.        
    laypeople Lay people refers to those who are members of a religious faith, but not a member of the clergy.        
    local colors Local color is the true color of an object or a surface as seen in normal daylight.        
    loculus A loculus is a horizontal, rectangular burial niche.        
    Low Countries The Low Countries are the modern-day countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.        
    Manchu a Tungusic people from North East Asia, who comprise a significant minority in China but who are distinct from the majority Han        
    octagon An octagon is an eight-sided shape.        
    Robert Dunn Robert Dunn was an accompanist for Merce Cunningham’s dance company. After taking a composition class with avant-garde composer John Cage at the New School, Cage asked Dunn to teach the choreography class. Dunn had another connection to this circle, he was married to Judith Dunn, a Cunningham dancer.        
    sacrist A sacrist is a position within a monastery. The sacrist was responsible for building works, repair, and the contents of the church.        
    stucco Stucco refers to a material made out of cement, sand, lime, and water that, once set, provides a strong coating for an object or structure. Its malleability ensures that it can be used as both a functional and decorative feature.        
    terracotta Terracotta is a hard, fired but unglazed clay ranging in color from pink to purple-red but typically brownish red, used especially for sculpture and pottery.        
    The Eight The Eight were a group of eight artists (Robert Henri, Arthur B. Davies, William Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan) who organized an exhibition in 1908 at the MacBeth Galleries in New York to challenge the conservative academic biases and restrictive exhibition practices of the National Academy of Art and Design, and to promote aesthetic diversity and experimentation in art.        
    the Peace of the Church The Peace of the Church refers to the toleration of Christianity following the Edict of Milan.        
    thimble rigger "Thimblerig" was a con game similar to three-card monty or a shell game.        
    transculturation Transculturation refers to the complex processes of cultural interactions across borders and places.        
    treatise A treatise is a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject.        
    viceroyalty Spanish territories in the Americas were officially known as viceroyalties, or lands ruled by viceroys who were second to—and a stand-in for—the Spanish king.        
    What is the Commonwealth of Nations? The Commonwealth of Nations, today commonly known as the Commonwealth, but formerly the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.        
    "Wet style" Also known as “wet drapery,” the “wet style” refers to the lavish, thin and nearly transparent garments that cling to the wearer’s body in the High Classical period of Greek sculpture and vase painting.        
    “academic” Academic art refers to the art produced in the art academies of Europe, especially in the French Académie des Beaux-Arts, from roughly the late-18th to the early 20th century.        
    “archaic” In this case, the word "archaic" refers to art of earlier cultures.        
    “art for art’s sake” This term refers to art made purely for the purpose of enjoyment.        
    “Aztec” Triple Alliance The Mexica formed an alliance with Texcoco (Tetzcoco) and Tlacopan (today, Tacuba), known as the Triple Alliance. When we refer to the “Aztecs,” we are talking about the people who formed this alliance. The Triple Alliance claimed dominance over hundreds of other Nahua city-states living throughout Central Mexico at the time of the Spanish invasion 1519–1521.        
    “china poblana” La china poblana refers to Catalina de San Juan reportedly being born in South Asia, where she converted to Catholicism, before being enslaved and sold to a wealthy individual in the city of Puebla in New Spain. Initially someone wanted an enslaved person from "china," which at the time signified Asia more broadly. Poblana refers to the city of Puebla.        
    “Cyclopean masonry” This term was coined by the Greeks, reflecting their belief that only the gigantic, mythical Cyclops would have been strong enough to move such enormous stones.        
    “en plein air” The term "en plein air" describes painting outdoors, as opposed to painting in a studio from sketches.        
    “Forerunner,” The Byzantines often referred to John the Baptist as the "Forerunner" (Greek: Prodromos) because he came before and prepared the way for Christ.        
    “fraternal kiss” The “socialist fraternal kiss” was a way that the leaders of Communist states greeted each other, demonstrating their closeness and solidarity. Normally the kisses were given on the cheek, but sometimes, as in this case, they were given on the mouth.        
    “Great Houses” A great house is a large, multi-storied Ancestral Puebloan structure.        
    “Great Houses” A great house is a large, multi-storied Ancestral Puebloan structure.        
    “Mongol” The Mongols were a nomadic people who ruled much of Central Asia and parts of the Middle East from the twelfth to the seventeenth centuries (Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire).        
    “Mongol” The Mongols were a nomadic people who ruled much of Central Asia and parts of the Middle East from the twelfth to the seventeenth centuries (Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire).        
    “Protoevangelion of James,” The Protoevangelion of James is a second-century narrative of the life of the Virgin which was not included in the Bible but was nevertheless read by Christians.        
    “splashed ink” or “broken ink” technique In the "splashed ink" or "broken ink" technique, ink is spattered from a brush or directly from the hand to render texture and create a sense of volume.        
    (who were the mendicant friars?) Members of one of the religious orders of men sworn to poverty and who came to convert the indigenous people of the Americans, such as the Augustinians, Dominicans, and Franciscans.        
    £150 The equivalent of approximately $29,000 in 2019 value.        
    1 Flint Years in the Aztec calendar used a series of signs combined with numerical coefficients.        
    3.5 million square kilometers 3.5 million square kilometers, or about 1.3 million square miles, is an area about the size of India.        
    69th Regiment Armory Like all of the armories that date from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this was built to serve as training and marshaling center for the National Guard—in this case, the 69th Infantry Regiment. It is located on Lexington Avenue between East 25th and 26th Streets.        
    a razed shrine The Mexica (Aztec) capital—including temples, shrines, and buildings—was destroyed in the Spanish colonial period.        
    Abbasid The Abbasid dynasty took over Damascus and the surrounding areas from the Umayyads in 750, which propelled the last surviving member of the Umayyad dynasty, Abd-al-Rahman I (d. 788), to eventually make his way to al-Andalus.        
    Abdera Abdera was an ancient city, and later a Byzantine settlement, located in northeastern Greece.        
    abolitionists Abolitionists were the most radical opponents of slavery in the 19th-century United States, who sought the immediate end of slavery everywhere it was practiced.        
    About Mahayana Buddhism and the Silk Road Two major schools of Buddhist thought are Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. According to Theravada Buddhists, each person is responsible for their own enlightenment. Mahayana Buddhism was a school that arose c. 100 C.E. Mahayana literally means: the big vehicle. It is a big “vehicle” that transports more sentient beings across the ocean of existence, from the wheel of Samsara (reincarnation) to enlightenment and nirvana. The cornerstone of Mahayana Buddhism is belief in bodhisattvas, altruistic enlightened beings who delay their own final nirvana until every sentient being reaches enlightenment. (explanation by Dr. Melody Rod-ari) The Silk Road is a metaphor for long-distance trade across Asia that first developed from around 300 B.C. to roughly 200 A.D. It was not, in fact, a road," but rather a collection of land and sea routes linking cities, trading posts, caravan watering places, and hostels between the eastern Mediterranean and China." ("The Silk Road." New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions.../the-silk-road (June 2009))        
    About the Greek War of Independence In 1822, tens of thousands of Greeks on the Island of Chios were killed or taken into slavery by the Ottomans during the Greek War of Independence (Greece was then under the control of the Ottoman Empire). In Europe, this conflict took on specific symbolic significance: "In the Greco-Turkish conflict…the French saw no less than Christianity tormented by Islam, and Civilization at grips with Barbarity." (Nina M. Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, French Images from the Greek War of Independence, 1821-1830: Art and Politics Under the Restoration (Yale University Press, 1989), p. 15.        
    About the New Kingdom, Amun-Re, Mut, and Montu Ancient Egyptian history is divided into kingdoms (long politically stable eras). The New Kingdom was the third and final such period.
    Amun-Re was a principal god of ancient Egypt. This deity was a composite of the god Amun, the patron of Thebes, and the Sun god, Re (or Ra).
    Mut was a primordial goddess associated with motherhood. She was at times referred to as mother of the earth and as mother of the gods.
    Montu was the ancient Egyptian god of war and is often depicted with the head of a falcon or a bull.
           
    Academic Academic art in France was produced according to principles taught at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.        
    academic tradition The academic tradition refers to the art advocated by the various art academies of Europe founded in the 17th and 18th centuries—an art that emulated the classical art of ancient Greece and Rome.        
    academically-trained Academically trained artists are schooled at art academies, where they learn the traditions of western—mainly European—art.        
    Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (The Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, also known as the "Academy") was the most important school of fine arts in France. Its students and faculty had a profound influence on the tradition of European art in the 18th and 19th centuries.        
    Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (The Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, also known as the "Academy") was the most important school of fine arts in France. Its students and faculty had a profound influence on the tradition of European art in the 18th and 19th centuries.        
    accoutrements Accoutrements are additional items, such as jewelry, that are worn or used by a person.        
    Achilles Achilles was a hero in the ancient epic poem by Homer, The Illiad, about the Trojan War.        
    adobe Adobe buildings are typically earthen brick structures made of sand, silt, clay, and straw.        
    adzes An adze is like an axe but its blade is set at a right angle to the handle.        
    aedicula An aedicula is a miniature building or architectural frame; often a niche marked by columns and a pediment.        
    Aegean Islands The Aegean Islands are islands in the Aegean Sea, off the east coast of mainland Greece.        
    Aeolian The Aeolian order is similar to the Ionic order, but it has a palmette between the two outer volutes        
    agitprop Agitprop is political propaganda that is spread to the general public through popular media such as literature, plays, pamphlets, films, and other art forms with an explicitly political message.        
    aglets An aglet is the small metal tip of a shoelace or cord.        
    Agonistic Agonistic here refers to the athletic contests of ancient Greece, and also generally to competitiveness.        
    aisles The aisles of a church are typically one or more narrower passageways flanking the nave.        
    Akroteria Akroteria (sg. akroterion) were sculptural decorations placed on each corner of the two pediments of a Greek temple. The central akroterion is generally called the apex akroterion.        
    Al-Andalus Al-Andalus, also known as Muslim Spain, was a medieval Muslim territory that at its peak encompassed most of what are today Spain and Portugal.        
    Alexander Romance The Alexander Romance is an account of the life and exploits of Alexander the Great        
    Alexander the Great Alexander the Great was one of the most successful conquerers in history. His empire stretched from Greece and Egypt to the Indus valley and Afghanistan.        
    Alexander von Humboldt’s Alexander von Humboldt was a well-known scientist and scholar from Prussia (modern-day Germany).        
    all’antica          
    allegorical Allegory is a strategy in literature and art in which a figure or action represents a larger idea or theme.        
    allegorical Allegorical figures are symbolic, usually referring to mythology or other stories with larger morals or meanings.        
    allegories An allegory is a story or symbol that has a larger meaning, often a moral one.        
    Allied Powers The Allied Powers were Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union.        
    Allies The Allies, led by the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union, were the group of countries who opposed the Axis powers (Germany, Japan, and Italy) during World War II.        
    Almohads The second of two North African dynasties that conquered parts of the Iberian Peninsula ruled from 1150 to 1269. The Almohads established a capital in Seville, while maintaining the earlier Almoravid-established capital in Marrakesh, Morocco.        
    Alpha and Omega Alpha and Omega are the first and last letters of the ancient Greek alphabet, used by Christians to symbolize God.        
    altarpieces Altarpieces are generally paintings that stand on or above an altar in a church.        
    amatl paper The Aztecs created amatl paper from the inner bark of trees.        
    Amazonomachy The Amazonomachy was a battle between the Greeks and the Amazons, a tribe of female warriors.        
    ambulatories An ambulatory is a circular hallway outside a central space        
    ambulatories An ambulatory is a circular hallway outside a central space        
    ambulatory Path or hall that allows a worshipper to circumambulate the temple.        
    ambulatory An ambulatory is the circular hallway outside a central space.        
    Ambulatory-planned churches An Ambulatory-planned church has a central space enveloped by a curved aisle, or ambulatory.        
    anamorphic An anamorphic image is a distorted rendition that appears normal when viewed from a particular vantage point or through an appropriate lens or mirror.        
    Anastasis “Anastasis” is the Greek word for “resurrection,” and refers to the image of Christ descending into hades to raise the dead from their tombs.        
    Anastasis Rotunda The Anastasis Rotunda is a circular structure enclosing Christ’s Tomb at the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.        
    Anatolia Anatolia, also known as "Asia Minor," is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.        
    Anatolia Anatolia, also known as "Asia Minor," is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.        
    ancestors An ancestor is one from whom a person is descended and who is usually more remote in the line of descendants than a grandparent.        
    Ancestral heroes In addition to gods, heroes could also receive cult in ancient Greece. Most, like Herakles, were the offspring of the gods whereas others like Pelops, the hero venerated at Olympia, was of mortal descent but won the favor of the gods.        
    ancestral offerings Food offerings for their deceased ancestors was a serious matter to the elites in Bronze Age China. The living sustained the deceased and the deceased, in return, blessed the living.        
    ancestral Puebloans The ancestral Puebloans were an ancient culture residing in the Four Corners region. Many Pueblo people today consider themselves descendants of this culture. The ancestral Puebloans have sometimes been referred to as the Anasazi, but this term, which is a Navajo word meaning "enemy ancestors," is considered objectionable by many modern Pueblo people.        
    ancestral Puebloans The ancestral Puebloans were an ancient culture residing in the Four Corners region. Many Pueblo people today consider themselves descendants of this culture. The ancestral Puebloans have sometimes been referred to as the Anasazi, but this term, which is a Navajo word meaning "enemy ancestors," is considered objectionable by many modern Pueblo people.        
    Andes The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world and form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America.        
    androgyny Androgyny is the ambiguous combination of masculine and feminine traits.        
    Angevin “Angevin” refers to the French noble family of Anjou that conquered the Kingdom of Sicily in 1266.        
    Anglican Although they have previously been referred to as "Anglo-Saxons," the people of early England were not of a singular cultural identity. The period and place were quite diverse. People may have sometimes referred to themselves as Anglicans (or Anglecynns) or Englisc, but Anglo-Saxon is an invented identity with more recent ties to racist and nationalist ideologies. See Anglo-Saxon.        
    Anglo-Saxon After the Romans left Britain in c. 410, the Anglo-Saxons ruled England (they were a mix of people from Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands).        
    aniconic "Aniconic" refers to a symbolic representation, as opposed to "iconic" which refers to representation in human form.        
    Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of native peoples in the Great Lakes region that include the Ojibwa/Chippewa, the Odawa/Ottawa, and other groups. The name Anishinaabe means "the people" or "ourselves."        
    Ankara Ankara was an ancient city in Anatolia, which is now the capital of Turkey.        
    anthropomorphic Anthropomorphic means having a human form.        
    anti-slavery The anti-slavery movement in the United States, which gained traction in the early- and mid-nineteenth century, sought to prevent slavery from expanding into new western states. Advocates of this ideology believed that confining slavery to the U.S. south would cause the institution to die out over time. They differed from abolitionists, who sought an immediate end to slavery everywhere it existed in the United States.        
    apocalyptic Apocalyptic here refers to the world and the second coming of Christ, as described in the Book of Revelation in the New Testament.        
    apotheosis Apotheosis refers to the elevation of a figure to the status of a god.        
    apotropaic Apotropaic is a protective form meant to guard against harm.        
    apron scenes Apron scenes are small, border vignettes showing a Saint during his life or performing posthumous miracles.        
    apse An apse is a semicircular recess, usually terminating the longitudinal axis of a church, containing the altar.        
    apse An apse is a recess at the end or side of a building. It is commonly semicircular and is often topped with a half dome.        
    Apsidal An apsidal structure ends in a semicircle on one side.        
    aqueduct An aqueduct is a structure built to convey water. The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.        
    aqueducts An aqueduct is an artificial conduit used to supply water to a city from another location.        
    arational Arational refers to being outside the domain of reason.        
    Arbeit Macht Frei The infamous slogan, Arbeit Macht Frei (work sets you free) appeared at the entrance to Auschwitz, the German concentration camp in occupied Poland.        
    arcade An arcade is a row of arches supported by columns.        
    arcade An arcade is a row of arches supported by columns.        
    Arcadia Named after a rural region of ancient Greece, a place of rustic innocence and simple, quiet pleasure.        
    Arcadian Arcadian refers to an ideal rustic paradise.        
    Archaic The Archaic period in Rome covers roughly the period of Rome’s early kings, c. 753 to 509 B.C.E. “Archaic Rome” thus refers to this early historical and cultural phase.        
    Archaic kings Tradition holds that following its foundation by Romulus, a series of kings ruled Rome. There were seven kings in all during this Archaic period (an historical period from ca. 753 to 509 B.C.E.) and the final king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was expelled from Rome by a coalition of aristocrats in 509 B.C.E.        
    archetypal In this context, archetypes were thought to be ancient memories described in mythological themes common to all humanity. They were an important part of an approach to the human psyche advocated by Carl Jung.        
    arcosolia An arcosolium is an arched burial niche.        
    arcosolia An arcosolium is an arched burial niche.        
    arcosolium An arcosolium is an arched burial niche.        
    Aristotle Aristotle was an extremely influential ancient Greek philosopher from the 4th century B.C.E.        
    Arno The Arno is the river that runs through the city of Florence.        
    Art Workers Coalition Art Workers Coalition staged actions to democratize museums        
    asantehene Asantehene is the title of the Asante monarch.        
    asceticism Asceticism is the practice of rigorous self-denial.        
    ascetics An ascetic is someone who has renounced earthy comfort for spiritual purposes.        
    ashlar Ashlar is cut-stone masonry.        
    Ashoka Maurya The third emperor of the Mauryan dynasty, Ashoka (pronounced Ashoke), who ruled from c. 279 B.C.E.–232 B.C.E., was the first leader to accept Buddhism and thus the first major patron of Buddhist art.        
    Athonite plan The "Athonite" church plan refers to churches as at the Megisti Lavra and Vatopedi monasteries on Mount Athos that have lateral apses called "choroi" and subsidiary chapels.        
    atmospheric perspective Atmospheric perspective is a painting technique wherein objects that are further away are portrayed as less bright and clear.        
    atoll An atoll is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely        
    atrium The atrium is the forecourt of a church, usually surrounded by porticoes.        
    atrium An atrium is an enclosed area that provides access to several other spaces.        
    atrophied Greek-cross An atrophied Greek-cross is a centrally planned church with a dome braced by arches or narrow barrel vaults on four sides.        
    atrophied Greek-cross plan An atrophied Greek-cross is a centrally planned church with a dome braced by arches or narrow barrel vaults on four sides.        
    Austronesia Austronesia refers to people in Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, the islands of southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Taiwan who have a shared history of languages.        
    auto da fé An auto da fé (literally "act of faith") was a forced public show of penance by those deemed guilty of heresy by the Spanish Inquisition. Though an auto da fé could take many forms, the term has come to be associated with its most extreme form of punishment, burning at the stake.        
    auto da fé An auto da fé (literally "act of faith") was a forced public show of penance by those deemed guilty of heresy by the Spanish Inquisition. Though an auto da fé could take many forms, the term has come to be associated with its most extreme form of punishment, burning at the stake.        
    automata An automaton is a mechanical device that seemingly moves on its own and mimics the actions of human figures or animals.        
    avant-garde Avant-garde, a term taken from the French for the military front line, designates art at the forefront of innovation.        
    avant-garde A term taken from the French for the military front line, designates art at the forefront of innovation.        
    avatar An avatar is a manifestation of a deity.        
    avatars Avatars of Vishnu are born as agents of good to balance evil when it arises.        
    axis mundi Axis mundi is a Latin term that refers to the concept of a central pole or axis that connects heaven and earth.        
    Aztecs Although we call this culture group the “Aztecs,” they would have called themselves the “Mexica.”        
    banderole A banderole is a ribbon-like scroll, usually bearing an inscription.        
    Baptisteries A baptistery is a building or room containing a font for Christian initiation.        
    baptistery A baptistery is a building or room containing a font for Christian initiation.        
    baptistery In this case, a baptistery is a building next to a church, used for baptism.        
    baptistery A baptistery is the place in which baptism takes place.        
    Barbizon School The Barbizon School comprised French artists who moved toward realism in the landscapes they painted in the environs of the Fontainebleau forest outside Paris, beginning in the 1830s, deeply influenced by English painter John Constable.        
    Barons’ War The First Barons War, from 1215–1217, was a civil war in the Kingdom of England in which a group of rebellious major landowners — commonly referred to as barons — waged war against King John of England.        
    barrel vaults A barrel vault is a type of ceiling that forms a half cylinder.        
    bas relief Bas-reliefs are carvings that are raised against a flat background for three-dimensional effect.        
    bas-relief Sculptures in bas-relief remain attached to a background plane.        
    bas-reliefs Bas-reliefs are carvings that are raised against a flat background for three-dimensional effect.        
    basalt Basalt is a volcanic rock.        
    Basil I The Byzantine emperor Basil I reigned from 867-886.        
    basilica A basilica, in this case, refers to a Christian church whose plan echoes the older the ancient Roman civic basilica, a multipurpose public building type.        
    basilica Based on ancient Roman architecture, a basilica is a rectangular building with long central hall, often flanked by aisles.        
    basilica A basilica is a church type based on Roman assembly halls, usually composed of a longitudinal nave flanked by side aisles.        
    basilica church Here the word "basilica" refers to a long rectangular building with an apse (niche) at one end, an architectural form borrowed from ancient Rome and then widely used for Christian churches in the West.        
    basilica plan A basilica is a building with a long central aisle, sometimes with a shorter wing crossing it, forming the shape of a cross.        
    basilicas The basilica is a church type based on Roman assembly halls, usually composed of a longitudinal nave flanked by side aisles.        
    basmala This core declaration of faith, which is central to the Islamic tradition, can be translated as: “In the name of God, the most compassionate, the most merciful.”        
    basque bodices A basque bodice extends below the waist, over the skirt.        
    Battle of Nancy Charles was attempting to take the French town of Nancy, held by the Duke of Lorraine.        
    bays A bay is a space defined by two vertical architectural supports, such as piers, columns or ribs.        
    bays Bays are sections distinguished by columns or pillars.        
    belfry A belfry is a tower with bells.        
    Belgravia Belgravia is an affluent district in Central London.        
    bell The ritual bell (ghanta) is employed for its auspicious sound.        
    bema The area of a church that contains the altar.        
    Benedictine Benedictine monks follow the Rule of Saint Benedict, a monk who lived in the sixth century.        
    Benedictine monastery A Benedictine monastery is a monastery — a complex of buildings comprising the living and work spaces of monks or nuns — that follows the Rule of St Benedict on monastic living.        
    Benedictine monks Monks following the rule of St. Benedict.        
    beyliks Anatolian beyliks were small principalities founded at the end of the 11th century.        
    bimah The bimah is the platform from which the scrolls of the Torah are read aloud.        
    biomorphic Abstract shapes that look like biological organisms.        
    bishop A bishop (episkopos, literally “overseer”) held the highest rank of the three major orders of the clergy in Byzantium (above priest and deacon) and was recognizable by a large sash, known as an omophorion, which was worn around the shoulders and often decorated with crosses.        
    bishop A bishop is a member of the clergy who often holds administrative responsibilities and has the power to ordain.        
    bishop A bishop is a senior member of the Catholic clergy, beneath the pope and the archbishops.        
    Blachernae Palace The Blachernae Palace was located in northwestern Constantinople and served as the primary imperial residence in the Late Byzantine period.        
    Black Death A devastating pandemic which is estimated to have killed between 30-60% of Europe’s population between 1347-51.        
    Black Mountain College Black Mountain College was an experimental college founded in 1933 that became a center of avant-garde art until the late 1950s, when it ceased operations. It fostered a sense of community among faculty and students, who worked together on the college’s farm, shared meals, and created and critiqued art.        
    blackbirders Here, blackbirding refers to the practice of coercing Pacific Islanders to work on plantations — primarily in Australia, but also in South America — in deplorable conditions.        
    BlackPlanet BlackPlanet was an early social network that predated Facebook and Myspace.        
    blind A blind dome is a low windowless dome, usually without drum.        
    blind arcades A blind arcade is one that is applied directly to the surface of a wall, so that the spaces between the arches are filled in.        
    blind arcading An arcade is series of arches supported by piers or columns: when applied to the surface of a wall as decoration it is called a blind arcade        
    blind arches A blind arch is one where the space of the arch is filled in.        
    blind multifoil/polylobed arches These arches are a unique feature of Islamic architecture on the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, and they take this name because they contain multiple foils along the arch. A blind arch is one where potential openings behind the arches have been walled off.        
    blue-and-white Blue-and-white porcelain refers to white-bodied ceramics, typically porcelain, that bear underglaze decoration in blue pigment, usually cobalt oxide.        
    bodhisattvas Bodhisattvas are enlightened beings who help others achieve enlightenment.        
    body politic The body politic is a metaphor comparing a nation to a "corporate entity" made up of many members, like the human body.        
    bole Bole is a clay that lends softness and color to the gilding. The bole offers a soft support for the gold, helping to achieve a smooth, highly reflective surface when burnished.        
    Bonwire Bonwire is the town in the Asante region of Ghana where kente weaving originated.        
    Book of Hours A Book of Hours is a prayer book for private devotion.        
    book of hours A book of hours is a Christian devotional book used widely in the Middle Ages, containing prayers to be said to Virgin Mary at canonical hours, hence the name.        
    bookmatched The Byzantines often matched marble slabs so they appeared to mirror each other, a technique known as “bookmatching,” since it created the appearance of an open book.        
    Bourbon Restoration The Bourbon Restoration was the period following the first fall of Napoleon in 1815, until the July Revolution of 1830.        
    bourgeois Bourgeois refers here to the French middle class or the social class just below the aristocracy        
    Bovid The Bovidae are the biological family of mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, gazelles, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle.        
    bovid The Bovidae are the biological family of mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, gazelles, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle.        
    Brahma Brahma is the Supreme Being; the One self-existent power; the Reality which is the source of all being and all knowing.        
    Breton Breton refers to the people of Brittany, a region in the west of France. In the nineteenth century it was home to a thriving artists colony in the town of Pont-Aven.        
    brise soleil An architectural feature that helps prevent sun from heating up interior spaces.        
    Bronze Age The Bronze Age in China spans from the seventeenth century B.C.E. to the third century B.C.E.        
    bucrania A bucranium (plural bucrania) is the skull of an ox.        
    Buddha Shakyamuni Shakyamuni, also called Siddhārtha Gautama, is the historical Buddha who is believed to have lived sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries B.C.E.        
    Buddha Shakyamuni Buddhism was founded by one individual, Siddhartha Gautama, sometime in sixth or fifth century B.C.E. This man—the historical Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama)—is also known as Shakyamuni. During the time of the Buddha, there was only one school of Buddhism, which is the one that the Buddha taught; however, over time there came to be different sects of Buddhism.        
    Buddha Vairochana Vairochana is the celestial or transcendent Buddha.        
    Buddhist canon Buddhist traditions were transmitted in spoken word for centuries.        
    burgomasters The burgomasters (burgemeesters in Dutch) were the town leaders, similar to a city council today.        
    Burning Bush The Burning Bush is believed to be the bush through which God revealed himself to Moses Exodus 3:1-5.        
    burr A burr is a raised edge of copper.        
    Bursa Bursa was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, today one of the largest cities in Turkey.        
    Byzantine Byzantine means related to the Eastern Roman Empire, taken from the name, Byzantium, used for Constantinople before its rededication under Constantine.        
    Byzantine feet The Byzantine foot, or “pous,” was approximately 31.23 cm, or 1.02 ft.        
    Byzantine rite The “Byzantine rite” refers to the liturgical system of the Byzantine Orthodox Church, which includes sacraments, hours, vigils, and a liturgical calendar of feasts and fasts.        
    cabinet pictures A cabinet painting is a small painting, typically no larger than two feet in either dimension, but often much smaller.        
    cabochon A cabochon is an unfaceted jewel.        
    caduceus A caduceus is the symbol of Mercury, consisting of a staff entwined by two snakes.        
    caliph A caliph is a Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad.        
    caliphate A caliphate is a theocratic state under the rule of a caliph, a religious leader and head of state vested with the authority of Prophet Muhammad.        
    caliphate The territories or government under a caliph.        
    Calvinist Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the teachings of John Calvin.        
    Calvinist A branch of Protestantism that followed the theological traditions put forth by John Calvin (1509 - 64).        
    camelid "Camelid" refers to the wild and domestic species of the camel family in the Americas, including alpacas, llamas, guancos, and vicuñas.        
    Camillus Marcus Furius Camillus was a Roman dictator known as the Second Founder of Rome. He lived around the turn of the fourth century B.C.E.        
    Campaign of the South The Campaign of the South, which began in 1813, was an attempt to gain control over the southern parts of New Granada.        
    campanile A campanile is a free-standing bell tower.        
    Canon A canon is a set of rules, in this case rules that govern the representation of human proportions.        
    canon The "canon" is the set of works considered most important within the history of art.        
    Canon Tables Canon tables are a kind of index indicating which passages are shared in which Gospels.        
    canonical In this case, "canonical" refers to a set of texts accepted by the Catholic church as genuine.        
    Canossa family The House of Canossa was a ruling dynasty in northern Italy from the tenth through the twelfth centuries        
    cantos Cantos are sections of a long poem.        
    capitals A capital is the topmost element of a column, often embellished with decorative motifs.        
    capitals A capital is the decorative element at the top of a column.        
    capitals A capital is the decorative element at the top of a column.        
    Cappadocia Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia, northeast of Lycaonia.        
    Cappadocia Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia (modern Turkey).        
    cardinal directions The cardinal directions are the four directions on the compass—north, south, east, and west.        
    cardo The cardo is the north-south street in an ancient Roman city or military camp.        
    Caroline “Of or pertaining to Charles.”, from the Latin for Charles, Carolus.        
    Carolingian Carolingian means of the era of Charlemagne, the 9th century emperor and King of the Franks, who ruled over much of Europe from 768-814.        
    Carrara marble Carrara marble is a special type of white or blue-grey marble from Carrara, Italy.        
    Carrara marble Carrara marble is a special type of white or blue-grey marble from Carrara, Italy.        
    cartes de visite Cartes de visite (literally "calling cards") were small photographs mounted on cardboard, typically measuring 2.5 x 4 inches. Like baseball cards, they were made to be collected, shared, and traded. They were especially popular in the 1860s.        
    cartographic Cartographic refers to the practice of making maps.        
    cartouche In this example, an oblong shape used to highlight a section.        
    cartouche A cartouche is a ornamental frame containing an inscription.        
    caryatids A caryatid is a human figure that replaces a column to hold up the entablature or roof.        
    cassock A cassock is an ankle-length garment worn by members of the clergy in the Catholic or Anglican Church.        
    cassone Large Italian chests with a hinged lid and often decorated with carving or painting.        
    casta paintings Casta paintings document the inter-ethnic mixing occurring in New Spain among Europeans, indigenous peoples, Africans, and the existing mixed-race population— example here.        
    caste The caste system divides people into hierarchical groups that are hereditary.        
    cathedral A cathedral is the official seat of a bishop.        
    Caucasus The Caucasus is the area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, today mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia.        
    Cecil John Rhodes British Imperialist whose once glorifying monuments are now at the center of the decolonizing movement known as #RhodesMustFall.        
    Celestial South Pole The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth′s axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere. The north and south celestial poles appear permanently directly overhead to observers at the Earth′s North Pole and South Pole, respectively. As the Earth spins on its axis, the two celestial poles remain fixed in the sky, and all other points appear to rotate around them, completing one circuit per day.        
    cell In this case, a cell is a small room or cave housing a monk, nun or hermit.        
    Cella A cella is an interior chamber of an ancient Greek temple.        
    celts Celts are smooth, flat implements that are ground from stone, usually tapered, with a cutting edge on at least one of the two ends.        
    cenotaphs A cenotaph is an empty tomb or monument erected in honor of a person or group of people.        
    centralized plan The focus of a centrally planned church is at the center, in contrast to the more common basilica plan, that has a long hall called the nave.        
    Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta Chavez and Huerta were influential Hispanic labor activists who founded the United Farm Workers union.        
    cession Cession is the formal giving up of rights, property, or territory by a state.        
    chancel The chancel is the area of the church set aside for the clergy and altar.        
    chancel The chancel is the area in which the altar was found.        
    chancel The chancel is the area in which the altar was found.        
    chancel slabs Chancel slabs, also known as parapet slabs, are flat pieces of stone used to create a low barrier, e.g. between the main part of a church (the nave or naos) and the area where the altar is located (the bema).        
    chanoyu 茶の湯 Chanoyu refers to the rituals surrounding the preparation and enjoyment of powdered green tea or matcha.        
    chapter houses A chapter house is a room in a monastery where monks gather.        
    chapter houses A chapter house is a room in a monastery where monks gather.        
    Charlemagne’s Charlemagne was King of the Franks and became the first Holy Roman Emperor in 800 and ruled a vast kingdom, including parts of what is today France, Germany, Belgium. Holland and Italy.        
    Charterhouse A charterhouse, or chartreuse in French, is a term used to describe a Carthusian monastery.        
    chemise á la reine A dress made of layers of thin muslin, loosely draped around the body and belted around the waist with a sash.        
    cherubim Cherub (plural: cherubim) is a Hebrew term for winged angelic beings.        
    cherubim and seraphim Cherubim and seraphim are angelic beings described in the Bible.        
    Chi-Rho Chi-Rho is a sign formed by overlapping the first two letters of “Christos,” the Greek title for Jesus.        
    Chiapas region Chiapas is a southern Mexican state bordering Guatemala.        
    Chibcha Indigenous people who at the time of the Spanish conquest occupied the high valleys surrounding the modern cities of Bogotá and Tunja in Colombia.        
    Chicomoztoc Chicomoztoc is the origin site of the Mexica. It means "the place of the seven caves" and is pronounced "Chee-coe-moze-tock."        
    chinoiserie Chinoiserie refers to motifs and techniques that imitate Chinese art.        
    chiton A chiton is a rectangular tunic, usually made of wool, worn in ancient Greece.        
    chivalric Chivalry was a code of conduct of the medieval knighthood, having to do with military skill and social and moral behavior.        
    chloroform Chloroform is a sweet-smelling liquid, used extensively as a solvent used as an anesthetic in the past.        
    choir The choir is the area of a church that holds seats for clergy who are participating in the liturgy.        
    choir A choir is the area of a church or cathedral reserved for the clergy and church choir.        
    choroi "Choros" (plural: choroi)—literally “choir”—refers to the lateral apse of an Athonite church.        
    Chryselephantine Chryselephantine statuary is sculpture overlaid with gold and ivory.        
    Chryselephantine Made of gold and ivory.        
    Chu state In the late first millennium B.C.E., the Chu state grew to be a dominant power in the Yangtze River region. The territory of Chu stretched from the modern-day Hubei province to Jiangsu at its peak.        
    church of the Holy Apostles The Church of the Holy Apostles (no longer extant) was a cruciform church of Constantinople—first built by Constantine’s sons, and rebuilt in the sixth century under emperor Justinian I—containing relics of some of the Apostles and incorporating mausolea where Byzantine emperors were buried until 1028.        
    ciborium A ciborium is a canopy raised above an altar, throne, or tomb (also called a baldachin).        
    ciborium A ciborium is a canopy raised above an altar, throne, or tomb (also called a baldachin).        
    circumambulate Circumambulation is the act of moving around a central sacred object. It is an important part of Hindu devotional practice.        
    circumambulatory Circumambulation is the devotional practice of moving around a central sacred object.        
    cisgender Cisgender describes a person whose gender identity aligns with the sex they were assigned at birth.        
    Cistercian The Cistercians are a reformed monastic order founded in France in 1098 known for emphasizing manual labor and agricultural work in monastic life.        
    Cistercian The Cistercian were (and still are) monks who broke away from the mainstream Benedictines (specifically the Cluniacs) at the end of the 11th century. They are sometimes referred to as the white monks, a reference to their clothing (habit) or as Bernardines, after Cistercian Saint Bernard of Clairvaux.        
    City-states City-states were small independent political entities such as Aegina, Athens, Corinth, Sparta, etc.        
    City-states Ancient Greece consisted of cities, each with their individual forms of governance and associated entities. Some city-states like Athens and Sparta had influence on their surrounding regions, and territorial disputes caused much friction between city-states.        
    civilizations Civilization refers to a relatively high level of cultural and technological development; the cultural characteristic of a particular time and place.        
    Clarissan Another term for the Poor Clares.        
    class conflict For Rivera class conflict drove history, an idea developed by Karl Marx. Rivera joined the Communist Party in 1922 but was expelled a few years later because of his support for Leon Trotsky, a Bolshevik intellectual who fled Russia for Mexico when Joseph Stalin consolidated power.        
    classical With renewed humanist interest in Greek and Roman culture, artists during the renaissance began to study more intently the representation of human anatomy in Greco-Roman art. Classical writers like Vitruvius had claimed that beauty was found in perfect mathematical ratios (what was called a canon of proportion). Ancient artworks offered renaissance artists the chance to study these classical ideals first hand.        
    classicism Classicism here refers to the naturalistic style of much ancient Greek and Roman art.        
    classicism Here classicism refers to the ancient Greek and Roman style of naturalism that dominates Western artistic taste.        
    classicized Classical art is a term used to refer to the art of ancient Greece and Rome.        
    classicized Classical art is a term used to refer to the art of ancient Greece and Rome.        
    classicizing Referencing ideas from ancient Greece and Rome        
    Clerestory Clerestory refers to windows placed high on a wall often just below the roof.        
    clerestory The clerestory is a row of windows under the roof lighting the central space of a building.        
    clerestory A clerestory is the uppermost part of the wall of a church, often punctuated by a row of windows.        
    clerestory The clerestory is the upper story of an elevation, with window openings        
    clerestory windows Clerestory windows are located high on the walls of a church, often above the side aisles and just below the ceiling of the central space.        
    Clergy The term "clergy" refers to church leaders; in Byzantium, the three major orders of the clergy were the bishops, priests, and deacons.        
    cloisonné masonry Cloisonné masonry is a masonry technique with which individual stones are framed with bricks.        
    cloister A cloister is a covered walkway, typically in the form of an arcade surrounding a courtyard.        
    cloistered emperors Cloistered emperors retired and counterbalanced the power of the Fujiwara regents from the quarters of a Buddhist monastery, while their chosen successors fulfilled official duties.        
    Coca There are several species of coca plants. Erythroxylum coca is the variety typically cultivated in the Andean regions discussed here. Coca leaves are the source of the drug cocaine, but when consumed in its organic form, it has less extreme effects. Because of drug trafficking, the cultivation of coca plants is now strictly regulated.        
    cochineal The cochineal is an insect that lives as a parasite on the prickly pear cactus.        
    Codex Boturini Sometimes called the Tira de la Peregrinación or the Tira del Museo.        
    Cold War The Cold War was a period of extreme political tension between the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) and its affiliates, and the United States and other capitalist nations in the West. It is called the “Cold” War because it did not result in direct military hostilities between the U.S.S.R. and the United States, though both powers fought proxy wars in other places.        
    colonnettes A colonnette is a small column, often appearing in pairs or groups.        
    colonnettes A colonnette is a small, slender column.        
    columns A column is a cylindrical support, commonly consisting of a base, shaft, and capital        
    commedia dell’arte Commedia dell’arte was a popular form of theater in Italy from the 16th to 18th centuries. It was known for its improvised dialogue, ensemble acting, and its stock characters and scenes.        
    commission This commission was called the Commission à la recherche des objets des sciences et des arts dans les pays conquis par les armes de la République (Commission to search for objects of science and the arts in countries conquered by the arms of the Republic)        
    commodified Commodified means making something into a readily exchangeable and exploitable product in a marketplace.        
    Commonwealth The Commonwealth of Nations, today commonly known as the Commonwealth, but formerly the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.        
    communion Christian practice centers on the sacrament of the Eucharist, which is sometimes referred to as Communion.        
    communion Christian practice centers on the sacrament of the Eucharist, which is sometimes referred to as Communion.        
    complementary color Complementary colors are two colors that are directly opposite each other in the color wheel, such as red and green and red-purple and yellow-green.        
    Composite The Composite order is a combination of Ionic and Corinthian orders. The Corinthian order is characterized by acanthus leaf motifs on the capitals of the columns.        
    compound piers A compound pier is a solid, load-bearing support made up of a central mass with one or more columns or shafts attached to it.        
    conch shell The conch shell serves as a war trumpet.        
    conches A conch is a half-dome or quarter-sphere vault        
    Concrete art Concrete art is form of geometric abstraction based on rational scientific principles with no references to nature, emotion, or symbolism.        
    confraternity Confraternities are "lay brotherhoods," or groups of men who are devoted to a religion or cause.        
    Confucianism Confucianism is named after Kong Qiu (later given the Latinized name Confucius) who lived from approximately 551 until 479 B.C.E. Confucianism is a philosophical system that stresses a moral and ethical order. the teachings of Kong Qiu have had an immense impact on Chinese culture for more than two millennium.        
    Conquest of Mexico The Spanish conquistador (conqueror) Hernan Cortés and his men and indigenous allies defeated the Mexica (Aztecs) at their capital city of Tenochtitlan in 1521. Soon after, the first viceroyalty, New Spain, was officially created (viceroyalty refers territory ruled by viceroys—a stand-in for the Spanish king). Tenochtitlan was razed and then rebuilt as Mexico City, the capital of the viceroyalty.        
    conquistador Conquistadors, or "conquerors," were the Spaniards who colonized Latin America by force.        
    conquistador Conquistadors, or "conquerors," were the Spaniards who colonized Latin America by force.        
    conquistadors Conquistador means conqueror, and in this case refers to the Spaniards who invaded Mesoamerica.        
    consciousness raising Consciousness raising is a method of activism promoted by feminists beginning in the late 1960s, which involves activities that shed light on the plight of marginalized groups.        
    Conservation Conservation is a scientific discipline that seeks to preserve cultural heritage for the future and can involve cleaning and repairing—ideally repairs are visible, but not distracting to the viewer.        
    Conservation Center The Conservation Center is part of the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University.        
    Constantina Constantina was the daughter of emperor Constantine.        
    Constantine Constantine was a Roman emperor who ruled from 306 - 337 C.E.; Christianity enjoyed greater toleration during his reign.        
    Constantine IX Monomachos Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos reigned from 1042 - 1055.        
    Constantine V Emperor Constantine V reigned from 741–775.        
    Constantine V Emperor Constantine V reigned from 741 - 775.        
    continuous narrative A continuous narrative is an image that depicts more than one moment of time within a single frame.        
    contour rivalry Contour rivalry occurs when an image can be interpreted in multiple ways, for instance, when a particular figure can be seen when looked at one way, and a different one appears when the image is turned another way.        
    contrapposto Contrapposto refers to the realignment of the body as weight shifts to one leg.        
    contrapposto Contrapposto is a relaxed, standing pose in which the weight rests on one leg.        
    contrapposto Contrapposto is a relaxed, standing pose in which the weight rests on one leg.        
    convict leasing Convict leasing was a system of penal labor practiced in Southern states. Prisoners earned no pay and faced inhumane and dangerous work conditions.        
    cope A cope is the oversized cloak worn by priests during church services.        
    cope A cope is a long ecclesiastical item of clothing.        
    corbeling Corbeling involves building by projecting slabs of stone beyond the length of the slab immediately below.        
    corbels A corbel is a capital (without a column below it) that is usually attached to a wall.        
    Corinth Corinth was an ancient Greek city located in the Peloponnese.        
    Corinthian Corinthian is one of the classical orders, characterized by acanthus leaf motifs on the capitals of the columns or pilasters.        
    Corinthian capitals A capital is the architectural element at the top of a column. Corinthian capitals, which originated in ancient Greek architecture, are characterized by a set of distinctive, elaborate motifs of acanthus leaves and scrolls.        
    Corinthian capitals Capitals are the decorative forms that crown columns. Corinthian capitals come from ancient Greek architecture and have a distinctive design featuring stylized Acanthus leaves and scrolling volutes.        
    Corinthian Order A Corinthian capital includes several motifs, most obviously, the carved leaves of an acanthus plant.        
    cornice A cornice is the decorative molding at the edge of the roof)        
    cornice A cornice is the decorative molding often defining an exterior roofline but can also be found in some interior decorative programs.        
    cornices A cornice is an architectural element that projects from the top of a wall, either where a wall meets the ceiling, or at the top edge of the exterior of a building.        
    Corte Vecchia Corte Vecchia was the old residence of the Mantuan court.        
    corten steel Corten steel is a steel alloy that eliminates the need for painting its surface and that has a rusty appearance when the surface is exposed to weather.        
    Cosmology Cosmology refers to belief about the order and structure of the universe.        
    cotehardie A cotehardie is a long-sleeved outer garment, full-length for women and knee-length for men.        
    Council of Nicaea II In 787, imperial and Church authorities met at a council in the city of Nicaea to try to resolve the Iconoclastic Controversy over images.        
    Council of Trent The Council of Trent was a series of meetings of Catholic officials between 1545 and 1563 that attempted to address the problems arising from the growth of Protestantism.        
    Counter-Reformation The Church initially ignored Martin Luther, but the ideas of Luther (and variations of them, including Calvinism) quickly spread throughout Europe. He was asked to recant (to disavow) his writings at the Diet of Worms (an unfortunate name for a council held by the Holy Roman Emperor in the German city of Worms). When Luther refused, he was excommunicated (in other words, expelled from the church). The response of the Church to the threat from Luther and others during this period is called the Counter-Reformation (“counter” meaning against).        
    country drover’s Men called drovers moved livestock often over great distances.        
    county of Flanders The county of Flanders included most of what is northern Belgium today, as well as parts of France and the Netherlands.        
    coup d’etat An often violent overthrow of a government        
    crenellations Crenellations are series of notches in the top of a wall.        
    crenellations Crenellations are openings on the upper edge of the wall of a defensive structure that allow defenders to shoot projectiles, such as arrows, at invaders.        
    creole Creole refers to Spaniards born in the Americas.        
    creole The word “creole” (criollo) in Latin America was used to refer to people of Spanish descent who had been born in the Americas.        
    Creoles Creole refers to pure-blooded Spaniards who were born in the Americas.        
    creoles Creole refers to pure-blooded Spaniards who were born in the Americas.        
    criollo Criollo refers to people of full Spanish descent born in the Spanish colonies.        
    criollos a person of Spanish decent born in the New World.        
    critical role Washington was a prominent Virginia landowner, leader of the Virginia militia in the French and Indian War, the Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress, and commander-in-chief of the army during the revolution, before being elected the first President of the United States.        
    critical role Washington was a prominent Virginia landowner, leader of the Virginia militia in the French and Indian War, the Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress, and commander-in-chief of the army during the revolution, before being elected the first President of the United States.        
    crockets A crocket is a small ornament typically projecting from the sloping angles of pinnacles, spires, etc., and commonly depicting stylized foliage.        
    crockets A crocket is a small ornament typically projecting from the sloping angles of pinnacles, spires, etc., and commonly depicting stylized foliage.        
    cross-domed unit A cross-domed unit is a structural unit comprising a central dome braced on four sides by vaults        
    cross-in-square A cross-in-square church is a church with a square naos and a central dome braced on four sides by vaults and supported by four columns or piers - giving the appearance of a cross within a square.        
    crossed nimbus A crossed nimbus is a halo with a cross inserted, signifying that the person represented is a member of the Trinity (God the Father, Jesus, or the Holy Ghost).        
    crossing The crossing is the intersection of the nave and the transept.        
    crossing tower The crossing tower is a tower built over where the nave and transepts meet.        
    crozier A crozier is the hooked staff carried by a bishop that symbolizes their role as spiritual shepherds.        
    Cruciform "Cruciform" refers to something that is cross-shaped.        
    crusaders The crusaders were western European fighters, often supported by the pope in Rome, who sought to capture the Holy Land (Palestine) and other regions from Muslims—and sometimes fellow Christians—during the 11th - 14th centuries.        
    crypt A crypt is an underground area of a church that holds burials.        
    crypto-Jews Crypto-Jews are people who secretly practice Judaism while publicly adhering to another faith.        
    crypto-Jews Crypto-Jews are people who secretly practice Judaism while publicly adhering to another faith.        
    cubicula “Cubiculum” can refer to a small room in a Roman house or a burial chamber in the catacombs.        
    cuirass A cuirass is armor that covers the front and back of the torso.        
    cul-de-sacs A culture-de-sac is a dead end street.        
    cult Here, cult refers to a group of people devoted to a particular religious figure.        
    cultures “Culture” refers here to the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon human capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations.        
    cupola A cupola is a dome. In this case, one that projects upward from the center of the building        
    curiosity cabinets Cabinets of curiosities were collections of rare or unusual objects compiled for study and/or entertainment.        
    Dada Dada was an art movement of the early twentieth century that emerged in Europe and New York in response to the horrors of World War I (which killed an estimated 16 million people).        
    dado A dado is the lower part of a wall if it is decorated differently from what is above it.        
    daimyo A daimyo is a Japanese feudal lord.        
    dais A raised platform.        
    Damnatio memoriae This Latin term, which literally means “condemnation of memory,” was not used by the Romans themselves. It was first used in the 17th century.        
    Daoism Taoism (Daoism) is an indigenous Chinese religion. Tao is often translated as “way” or “path.” The teachings of Taoism advocate following the "way" and integrating with the natural world. Its legendary founder was Laozi, who lived in the sixth century B.C.E. However, most scholars believed that the real history of Taoism is rooted in indigenous religion of the second century and that it developed rapidly along with the advancement of Buddhism. Taoism developed its own unique meditation techniques. Taoists also had a particular interest in the pursuit of immortality and alchemy. As in the West, experiments in these pursuits led to unanticipated advances in chemistry and physics. (Zhaoyang Zhang, "Taoism in the Tang and Song dynasties," Khan Academy, https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-...ong-dynasties.).        
    David David was a king of Israel in the Hebrew Bible.        
    David Bowie One of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, and if you are unfamiliar with him then you are in for a treat!        
    deacons A deacon (literally “servant”) held the lowest rank of the three major orders of the clergy in Byzantium (beneath the bishop and priest) and wore a sticharion (tunic) and orarion (sash) that draped over the shoulder; there was also an order of women deacons in Byzantium, although this order fell out of use by the 12th century.        
    declared illegitimate Mary I was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Henry wanted to divorce Catherine and marry Anne Boleyn, but the Catholic Church opposed the divorce, so Henry broke from Rome and created the Church of England.        
    Decorated Style The term Decorated Style describes a type of English architecture from about 1290 to 1350 that is characterized by increasingly elaborate windows, slender and elegant columns, undulating curves, and elaborate vaulting with an increasing number of ribs.        
    decumanus The decumanus was the east-west street in an ancient Roman city or military camp.        
    Deësis The Deësis (Greek for “entreaty”) refers to a motif in Byzantine art, commonly depicting the Virgin and John the Baptist asking Christ to have mercy on humankind, but which may also include other holy figures.        
    defeat at Manzikirt At the Battle of Manzikert, fought near Lake Van (modern Turkey) in 1071, the Seljuq Turks defeated the Byzantines, captured the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes IV, and opened Anatolia to Turkish expansion.        
    deified Deified means raised to the status of a god.        
    dentils Dentils are mall, rectangular blocks that resemble teeth and used as a decoration.        
    diadem A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty.        
    diakonikon The "diakonikon" was a chamber often located to the south of the altar where vestments and other church objects could be stored.        
    diaper-work Diaperwork is a carved surface ornamentation formed by repeated geometrical motifs.        
    diaphragm arches Diaphragm arches stand perpendicular to the nave, or main section of the church, dividing it into segments or bays.        
    Die Fahne Hoch These were the opening words (Flag on high) to the anthem of the Nazi Party.        
    distyle Distyle refers to a building that has a porch supported by two columns.        
    Divine Liturgy The Divine Liturgy is a service of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which, like the Roman Catholic Mass, includes hymnography, readings from the Bible, and the celebration of the Eucharist.        
    Divine Liturgy Like the Mass in the Catholic Church, the Divine Liturgy refers to the celebration of the Eucharist—the transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ—in the Eastern Orthodox Church.        
    diviners A diviner is a person with the power to use invocation and manipulation of spiritual entities,potent objects, and herbal mixtures to intercede with the gods on behalf of the people.        
    domed basilica The domed basilica is a variation of the basilica type—a church composed of a longitudinal nave flanked by side aisles—to which a dome has been added over the nave.        
    Dominican order A Christian religious order of friars who take vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. They are often identifiable by the black capes they wear over white habits.        
    Dominicans and Augustinians Like the Franciscans, the Dominicans and the Augustinians are both mendicant orders (meaning that their members take an oath of poverty).        
    Doric Columns of the Doric order are heavier and simpler than Ionic and Corinthian columns.        
    double-shelled octagons "Double-shelled octagon" refers to a building whose outer walls and interior space are created with two concentric octagons.        
    drum A drum is the cylindrical structure on which a dome is raised        
    duchy A duchy is the territory ruled by a duke or duchess.        
    dun horse A dun horse is a striking-looking mount with a dorsal stripe on its back, striping on the legs and a mane and tail darker than the body coat.        
    eagle standing on a nopal cactus The eagle with a snake in its beak standing atop a cactus is a national symbol of Mexico that references the origin story of the Mexica (the Aztecs) who settled in the Valley of Mexico when they witnessed a similar prophesied image.        
    East Anglia East Anglia is region on the eastern coast of England.        
    East German After World War II, both the city of Berlin and the country of Germany as a whole were divided into four sectors, each one belonging to an Allied power (Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union). Eventually the sections belonging to the Western powers merged into West Germany, and the Soviet sector became East Germany. West Germany was an independent representative democracy, while East Germany was a communist state under the control of the Soviet Union. The two reunited in 1990.        
    Eastern Bloc The Eastern Bloc is a term for the group of Communist states under the direct or indirect control of the Soviet Union.        
    Eastern Orthodox Church The Orthodox Church is the second largest Christian community after the Roman Catholic Church. Christianity split between Orthodoxy in the East and Roman Catholicism in the West in 1054, an event known as the Great Schism.        
    Eastern Orthodox Church The Orthodox Church is the second largest Christian community after the Roman Catholic Church. Christianity split between Orthodoxy in the East and Roman Catholicism in the West in 1054, an event known as the Great Schism.        
    ecclesiastical Relating to Christian clergy or the church.        
    ecclesiastics Ecclesiastics are members of the clergy—priests or other church officials.        
    Edict of Milan (313) The Edict of Milan was a decree supposedly issued by Roman emperors Constantine and Licinius.        
    Edo Edo, which was renamed Tokyo in 1868, was the most powerful city in Japan from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.        
    Egyptian blue Egyptian blue is a blue pigment used to color materials such as wood, plaster, and ceramics.        
    Eight Great Bodhisattvas Bodhisattvas are enlightened beings who have chosen to stay on earth to help others achieve enlightenment. The Eight Great Bodhisattvas each represent a particular characteristic of the Buddha, such as wisdom or compassion.        
    Eirene Born Piroska in Hungary in 1088, Irene married Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos and was venerated as a saint following her death in 1134.        
    El Niño El Niño and La Niña are the warm and cool phases of a recurring climate pattern across the tropical Pacific—the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.        
    El Plan de Santa Barbara El Plan de Santa Barbara formulated at the University of Santa Barbara, was a document that laid the groundwork for establishing Chicanx Studies programs in American higher education.        
    El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan is a manifesto calling on Chicanos to mobilize and take control of their own political and cultural identity.        
    Elector German prince who can help to elect the Holy Roman Emperor        
    elevation An elevation is an interior or exterior view of a building seen from one side.        
    Elis Elis was an ancient district in the Peloponnese in Greece.        
    Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order that freed slaves in ten Southern states.        
    emblemata Emblem books were popular in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The book might contain (on a page) an image, a motto, and a poem, all explaining one moral lesson the reader was expected to learn.        
    emblems An emblem book might contain an image, a motto, and a poem, all explaining one moral lesson the reader was expected to learn. Emblem books became popular sources for visual imagery.        
    emperor Zeno Emperor Zeno reigned from 474 to 491        
    empirical perspective Empirical perspective refers to an illusion of space created through observation, and not the adherence to a mathematically precise linear perspective        
    empiricism Empiricism, or the belief that knowledge should be based on sensory experience, was a philosophical approach that began to gain prominence in the late seventeenth century, especially in Great Britain.        
    encaustic Encaustic is a wax-based technique used in Egypt from at least the late 1st century C.E.,        
    enceintes An enceinte is a line of fortification enclosing a castle or town.        
    encomenderos Encomiendas are royal concessions of Amerindians granted to Spaniards by which the former paid tribute in gold and work in exchange for religious instruction by the encomendero. Enconmiendas were abolished in 1542. After the 1520s, the large rural colonial houses in the island were sugar estates that included not only the plantation area but also the sugar mills operating with mostly enslaved Africans.        
    end of days The end of days refers to the end of time, the Second Coming of Christ, and the creation of the Kingdom of God.        
    enflamed Enflamed means to set on fire. Here, it designates flames surrounding something.        
    English Civil Wars Also known variously as the English Revolution, the Great Rebellion, the British civil wars and the wars of the three kingdoms.        
    enlightened absolutism Enlightened absolutism is a form of autocratic rule inspired by the ideals of the European Enlightenment. Rulers like King Frederick the Great of Prussia, Empress Catherine the Great of Russia, and the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, made some attempts to reform their governments to promote enlightened rationality and humanitarianism.        
    Enlightenment Also known as the Age of Reason, the Enlightenment began in eighteenth-century Europe as a philosophical movement that took science, reason, and inquiry as its guiding principles, in order to challenge tradition and reform society.        
    entablature The entablature is the horizontal area carried by the columns.        
    entablature The entablature is the horizontal grouping of molding and other elements supported by columns.        
    entablature The entablature is a raised, horizontal element supported by columns or a wall.        
    entasis Entasis refers to a slightly convex curve in the shaft of a column, used to correct the visual illusion of concavity that occurs with straight shafts.        
    epaulette An epaulette is an ornamental shoulder piece or decoration, typically worn for military or ceremonial purposes.        
    epaulettes An epaulette is a decorative shoulder item, such as we see on military jackets.        
    Ephesus Ephesus was an ancient Greek, and later Roman, city in Anatolia, near the west coast of modern Turkey.        
    Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) Founded by public interest lawyer Bryan Stevenson, the Equal Justice Initiative provides legal representation to men and women who have been convicted wrongfully and works to end mass incarceration. EJI’s offices are located in Montgomery, Alabama.        
    equerry An attendant in charge of the horses of a prince or noble.        
    equestrian portrait An equestrian portrait depicts the figure on a horse.        
    equinox The moment at which the center of the visible sun is directly above the equator.        
    ether Ether is a flammable liquid used as an anesthetic in the past.        
    Eucharist The Eucharist is the Christian offering and blessing of bread and wine, which are then consumed as the body and blood of Chirst.        
    Eucharist The Eucharist was the ritual offering of bread and wine to God to be transformed into the body and blood of Christ for worshippers to eat.        
    Eucharistic The Eucharist is the Christian offering and blessing of bread and wine, which are then consumed as the body and blood of Chirst.        
    Eucharistic chalice A Eucharistic chalice is the sacred vessel that holds the wine, believed to be transformed into the blood of Christ, in the Catholic Mass.        
    Evangelist "Evangelist" is the title given to authors of the four Gospels.        
    evangelist The evangelists were the writers of the four gospels included in the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John).        
    Ex novo A Latin phrase meaning "from the beginning" or "anew."        
    ex-votos An ex-voto is a religious offering given to fulfil a vow made to a holy intercessor, like a Catholic saint. They can also be given in recognition of a miracle performed.        
    exoticism Exoticism is a cultural phenomenon in which Euro-Americans project fantasies of picturesque difference and alluring foreignness on to non-Euro-American communities. It is the representation of one culture for the explicit consumption by another.        
    expatriate An expatriate is a person residing in a country other than that of their citizenship.        
    expatriate An expatriate is a person residing in a country other than that of their citizenship.        
    expiate Expiate refers to the need to make amends for doing something wrong.        
    Explain Adoration of the Magi. Three Magi (by tradition, kings from the East), follow a miraculous star that leads them to Christ, who has recently been born in a stable. The Magi offer gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh (both are aromatic tree resins), and worship the infant Christ. (Matthew 2)        
    Explain Fluxus Fluxus is an international art movement that emerged in the 1960s. Fluxus artists challenged the authority of museums and “high art” and wanted to bring art to the masses. Influenced by Zen Buddhism, their art often involved the viewer, used everyday objects, and contained an element of chance.        
    Explain Fluxus Fluxus is an international art movement that emerged in the 1960s. Fluxus artists challenged the authority of museums and “high art” and wanted to bring art to the masses. Influenced by Zen Buddhism, their art often involved the viewer, used everyday objects, and contained an element of chance.        
    Explain Fluxus. Fluxus is an international art movement that emerged in the 1960s. Fluxus artists challenged the authority of museums and “high art” and wanted to bring art to the masses. Influenced by Zen Buddhism, their art often involved the viewer, used everyday objects, and contained an element of chance.        
    exquisite corpse The name exquisite corpse derives from the French term cadavre exquis and means rotating body.        
    extramural The term "extramural" refers to something taking place outside or beyond the walls.        
    fa divination Fa is a Fon divination process which predicted the nature and character of their reign.        
    Faience Faience is a type of ceramic with a glass-like surface.        
    Fall from Grace Refers to Adam and Eve breaking the law God had given them and their subsequent exile from paradise in the Garden of Eden. By eating the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge, the two brought sin into the world.        
    farthingale A hooped petticoat worn under a skirt or dress.        
    faun A faun is a half-human, half-goat creature that was popular in Roman mythology.        
    federal armory at Harpers Ferry The federal armory and arsenal at Harpers Ferry both manufactured and stockpiled guns and cannons for the U.S. military.        
    festoons A festoon is a garland of flowers or ribbons. On the exteriors of buildings, festoons are usually carved from stone or molded from clay or stucco.        
    Fill Here, fill refers to rubble used to fill in a part of a wall or floor.        
    fin-de-siècle Fin de siècle is a French term meaning "end of century". The term is typically used to refer to the end of the 19th century.        
    fin-de-siècle Fin de siècle is a French term meaning "end of century". The term is typically used to refer to the end of the 19th century.        
    Findspots A findspot is the place where an object or architectural element is known to have been originally located prior to excavation.        
    findspots A findspot is the place where an object is known to have been found.        
    finial A finial is an ornament at the top or end of an object, often at the apex of a roof or at the end of a pole or rod.        
    first arrival Van Dyck would have three separate stays in England between 1620 and his death in 1641.        
    Flanders A kingdom in Northern Europe encompassing modern-day Belgium as well as parts of the Netherlands and France.        
    Flavian dynasty The Flavian dynasty was a Roman family that ruled Rome from 69 to 96 C.E. The dynasty included emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian.        
    Flemish Flemish means "from Flanders."        
    Florentine The court of the Medicis was located in Florence.        
    Florentine lily This stylized lily is the traditional heraldic device, or symbol, of the city of Florence, Italy.        
    Flounced Flounces are strips of cloth sewn in horizontal layers, for instance on a skirt.        
    flowery war The flowery wars were ritual wars fought by the Aztecs.        
    folios Each leaf within a medieval manuscript is known as a folio.        
    founders Our knowledge about the operation of a foundry at this time is limited. Bronze casting was likely a highly exclusive practice monopolized by the state, which also controlled labor, expertise, and raw materials.        
    four The second column from the left is a modern replacement.        
    Four Corners The Four Corners region includes southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.        
    Four Corners The Four Corners region includes southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.        
    four Gospels The Gospels ("good news"), attributed to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, are the first four books in the Christian New Testament and recount the life and teachings of Jesus.        
    Fourteen Holy Helpers The Fourteen Holy Helpers are Saints Achatius, Ägidius, Barbara, Blasius, Christophorus, Cyriakus, Dionysius, Erasmus, Eustachius, Georg, Katharina, Margareta, Pantaleon, and Vitus.        
    franchise Franchise is the right to vote.        
    Francis Drake Francis Drake was an English naval officer, and, according to the Spanish, a pirate. His attacks on Spanish territory in 1586 was part of a larger conflict between the Spain and England.        
    Franciscan The Franciscans are a group of religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.        
    Franciscan From 1523 to 1580, many religious orders arrived in New Spain, among them the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians, and Jesuits.        
    Franciscans The Franciscans are an order of mendicant friars, or monks who take an oath of poverty.        
    Franciscans The Franciscans are an order of mendicant friars, or monks who have taken a vow of poverty. The Franciscans follow the teachings of St. Francis of Assisi.        
    Francophile A Francophile is someone who has admiration for France and/or French culture.        
    Francophile A Francophile is someone who has admiration for France and/or French culture.        
    frankincense, and myrrh aromatic tree resins        
    Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (c.1818–1895) was a renowned abolitionist writer and orator. He was born into slavery in Maryland but as a young man escaped to the north, where he became a leader of the abolition movement.        
    fresco Fresco is a technique where paint applied to wet plaster.        
    fresco secco, and buon fresco Buon fresco is a water-based pigment applied to fresh moist plaster. Fresco secco (dry) refers to the application of paint upon a dry wall.        
    Frescoes A fresco is a painting done on wet plaster. As the plaster dries, the paint bonds with the plaster staining the surface and the plaster below        
    frescoes Frescoes are wall paintings where pigments are applied to wet plaster.        
    friars A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders. The major mendicant orders are the Franciscans, Augustinians, Dominicans, and Carmelites. Mendicant means that members renounce their worldly possessions and live by begging, or through the support of their surrounding communities.        
    Frieze A frieze is a band of decoration that runs in a horizontal strip, typically at the upper margin of a wall.        
    frontispiece A frontispiece is an ornamented page at the start of a book.        
    galleries The gallery is the upper level in a church, above the side aisles and narthex, where worshippers could participate in church services.        
    galleries A gallery is a covered walkway found on upper stories of a building.        
    gallery A gallery is an open walkway looking onto a central space.        
    gallery A gallery is a space above an aisle that is open to the nave on one side.        
    Ganga Also known as the Ganges.        
    gangherrelle hinges Gangherrelle are ring hinges hand-forged using iron and shaped like two interlocking hairpins.        
    Gateway of the Sun This name was given to the structure long after the Tiwanaku civilization had collapsed. We do not know if the Tiwanakus associated this structure with the sun.        
    Gaul Modern-day France, Belgium, the southern Netherlands, and southwestern Germany.        
    ge-halberds Ge-halberds are blades horizontally mounted onto the top of spears. They were the primary weapons used by foot soldiers.        
    genre painting Genre painting refers to images depicting scenes taken from everyday life.        
    German excavators In the early twentieth century, archaeology at Uruk was undertaken by the German Oriental Society.        
    gesso          
    gesso Gesso is a white mixture consisting of a binder, often glue, mixed with chalk, gypsum, or pigment—here, likely gypsum.        
    Gigantomachy The Gigantomachy was an epic battle between the gods of Mount Olympus and the Giants.        
    gilt-paper-wrapped thread Golden-colored paper that is wrapped around thread.        
    gilt-paper-wrapped thread Golden-colored paper that is wrapped around thread.        
    glazing Using thin layers of paint, called glazes, northern artists created a depth of color that was entirely new.        
    glosses Glosses, in this case, are explanations or interpretations of texts.        
    glyph A glyph is a symbolic figure or a written character that is based on a picture.        
    gold tesserae In Byzantine mosaics, gold tesserae were not solid gold, but were created by “sandwiching” thin pieces of gold leaf between two pieces of clear glass.        
    Gorgon In Greek mythology a Gorgon is a monstrous feminine creature whose appearance would turn anyone who laid eyes upon it to stone.        
    Goryeo dynasty The Goryeo dynasty ruled the Korean peninsula from 918 to 1392. The modern word “Korea” is derived from the name of this dynasty.        
    Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392) The Goryeo or Koryŏ Dynasty unified the Korean Peninsula and was a time of great artistic and cultural achievements. Koryŏ also gives its name to Korea.        
    Grand Tour

    Beginning in the 17th century, men of the upperclass would journey throughout Europe on the Grand Tour, visiting important landmarks and collections from antiquity and the Renaissance.

           
    Grand Tour travelers "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century practice of a cultural tour of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young men as part of their education.        
    Great Guild The Great Guild was a local confraternity comprised of the most elite citizens in the city, many of whom also served on the Tallinn Town Council. Members often started in the Brotherhood of the Black Heads, and after marriage and gaining Tallinn citizenship, became eligible to join the Great Guild.        
    Greater Antilles The Greater Antilles refers to islands in the Caribbean, including Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and also the Cayman Islands.        
    Greater Panathenaia Panathenaia was the main city festival of Athens, open to all Athenians and residents of Attica, the broader area on which Athens had influence. A shorter version of the festival, the Lesser Panathenaia, was celebrated every year. Both festivals consisted of processions, sacrifices, athletic and artistic games, and dedications to Athena.        
    Greek key pattern A Greek key pattern, also called a meander, is made from a continuous line or pair of lines shaped into a continuous geometric motif, usually featuring repeating series of right angles.        
    Griffin A griffin is a mythical animal that combines the physical aspects of a lion and an eagle.        
    grisaille Grisaille, from the French for “grey,” describes painting executed mostly or entirely in grey tones.        
    grisaille Grisaille is a gray tonality that simulates sculpture.        
    grisaille Grisaille is a gray tonality that simulates sculpture.        
    grisaille A monochrome approach, intended to make a painting appear as an imitation of sculpture.        
    groin vault A groin vault is a type of ceiling made from intersecting arches and often strengthened by added strips of stone (ribbing).        
    groin vaults A groin vault is a type of ceiling made from intersecting arches and often strengthened by added strips of stone (ribbing).        
    grotesques Grotesques are motifs inspired by ancient Roman frescoes such as those found in Nero’s Domus Aurea.        
    grotesques Grotesques are motifs inspired by ancient Roman frescoes such as those found in Nero’s Domus Aurea.        
    Gründerzeit The "Gründerzeit" is a term used to describe the period of the late 19th century in Germany and Austria.        
    guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare is type of warfare characterized by raids, ambushes, and hit-and-run tactics, often undertaken by small groups of armed civilians against regular armies.        
    Gueux "Beggars;" so-called because the Spanish regarded them as pitiful and insignificant compared to the Crown.        
    guild The guilds controlled the various arts and trades in a city. In Florence, for example there were guilds for wool merchants, bankers, and for apothecaries (artists belonged to this last guild). They regulated trade, quality, the training of apprentices.        
    gum arabic Gum arabic is derived from the stem of several species of Acacia trees.        
    Gypsum Gypsum is a white mineral powder that is often used to make hard materials such as plaster.        
    habit A habit is part of the religious clothing worn by monks and nuns of the Catholic or Anglican Church. It usually includes a tunic and a cowl (or hood), and different religious orders would distinguish themselves based on its material and color.        
    habit A habit is worn by Franciscan monks and nuns as a sign of their vow of poverty. It is might be made of coarse material.        
    habits Here, “habit” refers to a monk’s robe.        
    Habsburg Spain was ruled by the Austrian House of Habsburg between 1516 and 1700.        
    Habsburg Empire The Habsburgs ruled what was known as the Holy Roman Empire, encompassing much of Central and Eastern Europe from the twelfth to the eighteenth century.        
    Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Hagia Sophia, also referred to as "the Great Church" by the Byzantines, was the cathedral of Constantinople.        
    hagiographies A hagiography is a written account of a saint’s life.        
    haikai-no-renga Haikai-no-renga is a form of collaborative poetry usually entailing two or more poets contributing stanzas to the same poem, according to set rules. Rooted in classical models, haikai-no-renga became a beloved pastime and a generative aspect of popular culture in the Edo period.        
    Haitian Revolution The Haitian Revolution (1791–1804) was led by enslaved laborers on the French-controlled island of Sainte-Domingue. They threw off French colonial rule and established the free nation of Haiti.        
    Han dynasty The Han Dynasty was an Chinese imperial dynasty enduring from 202 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.        
    hand scroll A handscroll is meant to be held and unrolled section by section horizontally in contrast to a scroll that is intended to be hung and is vertically oriented.        
    happenings Often unscripted or lightly scripted performance art events, primarily in the 1960s, that were originally conceived of by Allan Kaprow in which observers and performers were often interchangeable.        
    haptic Relating to the perception and manipulation of objects using the senses of touch and proprioception        
    Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman (c.1820–1913) earned the nickname "Moses" for her role in helping enslaved people escape to freedom. Born into slavery, she escaped from the south and then returned more than a dozen times to guide others north on the Underground Railroad. She guided a raid that freed 750 enslaved people during the Civil War.        
    hatch marks Hatch marks are closely spaced lines.        
    Hawaiki homeland Hawaiki is understood as the original home of the Polynesian peoples, before dispersal across Polynesia.        
    Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible consists of the Books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, which are also found in the Christian Old Testament.        
    Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible consists of the Books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, which are also found in the Christian Old Testament.        
    Helena Helena was the mother of emperor Constantine.        
    Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period begins with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.E. and ends in 31 B.C.E. During this period, Greek rulers retained control over much of the eastern Mediterranean, Northern Africa, and the Middle East, disseminating Greek culture into these areas.        
    hennin A hennin is a coned headdress worn by aristocratic women in the European Middle Ages.        
    heresy In this context, heresy is a belief that contradicts official church doctrine.        
    hermitage A monastic dwelling associated with seclusion.        
    herms Herms are a squared pillar topped with a head, often showing the Greco-Roman god Hermes.        
    Herodotus Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian of the 5th century B.C.E.        
    heroon In ancient Greece, a heroon was a monument or sanctuary dedicated to a hero.        
    heterogeneity The quality or state of being diverse in character or content.        
    heteronormative Relating to a world view that promotes heterosexuality as the normal or preferred sexual orientation.        
    Hetoimasia The Hetoimasia, or “prepared throne,” is a symbolic image that combines such elements as a throne, the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, a Gospel book, a cross, and instruments of the Passion.        
    Hetoimasia The Hetoimasia is a symbolic image that combines such elements as a throne, the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, a Gospel book, a cross, and instruments of the Passion.        
    hierarchic scaling hierarchic scale refers to the use of size to indicate importance.        
    hierarchy of scale Hierarchy of scale refers to representing the sizes of figures according to their importance, rather than how they would objectively appear in reality (also called hieratic scale).        
    Hieronymite A friar belonging to the order of St. Jerome.        
    himation A himation is a long piece of fabric wrapped over the left shoulder and under the right arm, worn as outerwear in the ancient Greek and Roman world.        
    hind Hind here refers to a female deer.        
    hippodrome A hippodrome was a course for horse or chariot racing, framed by stepped seating.        
    history painter Generally history paintings depicted narratives from the Bible or stories from the classical past in dynamic compositions, conveying didactic messages to the viewer.        
    history painting History painting is a category of painting that depicts an event from mythology, religious tradition, or history.        
    Hoards An archaeological hoard is a deposit of items hidden in the earth which an owner intended to collect later but never did.        
    Holy Apostles The Church of the Holy Apostles (no longer extant) was a cruciform church of Constantinople—first built by Constantine’s sons, and rebuilt in the sixth century under emperor Justinian I—containing relics of some of the Apostles and incorporating mausolea where Byzantine emperors were buried until 1028.        
    Holy Roman Emperor The title Holy Roman Emperor refers to the ruler of a central European union of territories centered on modern-day Germany, who traditionally received the title of “Emperor of the Romans” (Latin: Romanorum imperator) from the Pope.        
    Holy Sepulchre The faithful believe that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem contains the site of the crucifixion of Christ and the tomb from which he rose.        
    Holy Thursday Holy Thursday, known as “Maundy Thursday” in the Roman Catholic church, commemorates the Last Supper during Holy Week.        
    homily A homily, or sermon, is a religious discourse often delivered by a member of the clergy following scripture readings in a church.        
    homosocial relationship Same-sex relationships that are not of a romantic or sexual nature.        
    horizon line Linear perspective is a system for creating an illusion of three-dimensional space on a flat, two-dimensional surface. It involves creating a horizontal line (called the horizon line), a point on the horizon line (called the vanishing point), and diagonal lines which appear to recede in space (called orthogonals) which all meet at the vanishing point.        
    horseshoe arches Horseshoe arches are a common feature of Islamic architecture on the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa. Unlike multifoil/polylobed arches that have multiple foils, horseshoe arches resemble their namesake, and consist of a single arch that widens to the midpoint. Horseshoe arches can be pointed or rounded.        
    horseshoe arches A horseshoe arch is one whose curve continues inward at the bottom past the vertical line of the column supporting it, like a horseshoe.        
    hostess gift A hostess gift is a gift given to the host or hostess of an event by guests.        
    House of Orange The House of Orange is the name of the noble family of the Netherlands.        
    Hudson River School The Hudson River School was not an actual school, but a group of New York city-based landscape painters.        
    Huitzilopochtli Huitzilopochtli, a god of war who was associated with the sun, is pronounced "Wheat-zil-oh-poach-lee."        
    Huitzilopochtli Huitzilopochtli, a god of war who was associated with the sun.        
    humanist From the Latin word humanitas. Humanist intellectuals of the late medieval and renaissance eras valued the classical literature of Aristotle, Plato, Cicero, and early Christian writers such as St. Augustine.        
    Humanist From the Lain word humanitas. Humanist intellectuals of the late medieval and renaissance eras valued the classical literature of Aristotle, Plato, Cicero, and early Christian writers such as St. Augustine. They celebrated humanity’s spiritual, intellectual, and physical capabilities.        
    humanists From the Latin word humanitas. Humanist intellectuals of the late medieval and renaissance eras valued the ancient Greek and Roman literature of Aristotle, Plato, Cicero, and early Christian writers such as St. Augustine.        
    humanists From the Latin word humanitas. Humanist intellectuals of the late medieval and renaissance eras valued the ancient Greek and Roman literature of Aristotle, Plato, Cicero, and early Christian writers such as St. Augustine.        
    hymnography Hymnography refers to the poetic songs sung in Byzantine churches.        
    hymnography Hymnography refers to the poetic songs sung in Byzantine churches.        
    I-Kiribati The people of the Republic of Kiribati call themselves I-Kiribati.        
    Iberian Peninsula The peninsula in southwestern Europe where Spain is located        
    Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula is the peninsula that encompasses Spain and Portugal.        
    icon "Icon" is the Greek word for "image."        
    iconoclast An iconoclast is one who destroys images used in religious worship.        
    iconoclastic Iconoclasm literally means broken image, but refers here to an intolerance of visual depictions of humans and animals.        
    iconoclastic In this case, iconoclastic refers to a religious intolerance of images.        
    iconographic Iconography in this context refers to the conventional images or symbols associated with a subject.        
    iconographic program An iconographic program is a set of images and visual motifs invested with symbolic meaning, all on a particular subject or group of related subjects.        
    iconography Iconography are symbols or types of representation that appear in art.        
    iconography Iconography refers to the traditional or conventional images or symbols associated with a subject, especially a religious or legendary subject.        
    iconography Iconography refers to the visual images and symbols used in a work of art.        
    iconography Iconography is the study of the subjects and symbols used in visual images.        
    iconography Iconography is the study of subjects and themes in art work, concerning especially symbolic and allegorical meanings.        
    icons Icons are sacred images—most often of the saints, Christ, and the Virgin. In Byzantine theology, icons offered access to the sacred figure(s) represented.        
    Ifá Ifá is a religion and system of divination.        
    Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius of Loyola was the sixteenth-century founder of the Jesuit order, which focuses on spreading the Catholic faith mainly through education as well as intellectual and cultural pursuits.        
    Il libro dell’arte "Take your best size; cut or tear large or small strips of canvas; sop them in this size; spread them out over the flats of these (panels) with your hands, let them dry for two days." Cennini        
    Iliad and Odyssey These two epic poems are among earliest and most influential pieces of literature in the Western tradition. The Iliad recounts the Trojan War and the Odyssey describes the adventures of Odysseus (also known as Ulysses) after the Trojan War        
    illuminated manuscript An illuminated manuscript is a hand-written book that usually includes lavish painted decorations, such as initials, borders and illustrations.        
    Immaculate Conception* The Immaculate Conception is the doctrine that Mary was conceived without original sin in her mother’s womb.        
    immanent Inherent        
    impasto Impasto refers to an area of thick build up of paint.        
    impasto Impasto is thickly applied paint.        
    impasto Impasto is thickly-applied paint that stands out from the surface of the canvas or support.        
    In situ An archaeological term taken from Latin, which indicates the place of original construction.        
    In the round A sculpture in the round is one that stands freely and can be viewed from all sides, as opposed to a relief, which remains attached to a surface.        
    in the round A single figure is wrapped around the entire stone rather than only covering one side.        
    in-situ In-situ refers to works of art still in their original location.        
    inchoate Not fully formed, undeveloped.        
    inchoate Just begun and so not fully formed or developed.        
    incorrupt Incorrupt here means that her body had not decomposed. This idea is based on the religious belief that divine intervention allows some bodies to avoid the normal process of decay after death as a sign of holiness.        
    incursions by the Arabs In the seventh and eighth centuries, Arab invaders conquered significant parts of the Byzantine Empire.        
    indigo Indigo is a natural dye derived from the leaves of certain plants. In South America, this is usually the anil plant.        
    Indo-Islamic “Indo-Islamic” here refers to the style of Islamic monuments that were built in India.        
    indulgence The sale of indulgences was a practice where the Catholic Church acknowledged a donation or other charitable work with a piece of paper (an indulgence), that certified that your soul would enter heaven more quickly by reducing your time in purgatory.        
    indulgences In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, an indulgence is a reduction of the length of time a soul must spend being punished for their sins in purgatory after death. The practice of selling indulgences lead to widespread abuse in the late Middle Ages.        
    indulgences The sale of indulgences was a practice where the Catholic Church acknowledged a donation or other charitable work with a piece of paper (an indulgence), that certified that your soul would enter heaven more quickly by reducing your time in purgatory.        
    indulgences The sale of indulgences was a practice where the Catholic Church acknowledged a donation or other charitable work with a piece of paper (an indulgence), that certified that your soul would enter heaven more quickly by reducing your time in purgatory.        
    Industrial Revolution The industrial revolution was the shift to an economy that depended on machine manufacturing (instead of things made by hand). It took place between about 1760 and 1840.        
    infinitive form The infinitive form of a verb is the verb in its basic form. In English, this is usually indicated by adding "to", such as "to eat".        
    infrared camera An infrared camera is a modern examination technique used to visualize underdrawing and underpainting with a camera that has a sensor for infrared radiation.        
    inhumation Inhumation describes the placement of a human corpse in a grave, as opposed to cremating the corpse and collecting the burnt remains in an ash urn or container.        
    Inlay Inlay is a type of ornamentation where objects or materials are embedded into a surface.        
    Inquisition Inquisition was a Catholic institution in Spain established to root out heresy, or beliefs that contradict official church doctrine.        
    Inquisition The term "Inquisition" can refer to a number of Catholic institutions established to combat heresy (a lack of orthodox Christian belief or adherence to other religions). Here, the term refers specifically to the Spanish Inquisition, established in 1478 to root out heresy in Spain and its territories.        
    Inquisition. The term "Inquisition" can refer to a number of Catholic institutions established to combat heresy (a lack of orthodox Christian belief or adherence to other religions). Here, the term refers specifically to the Spanish Inquisition, established in 1478 to root out heresy in Spain and its territories.        
    intercolumnar icons The term "intercolumnar icons" refers to the icons sometimes placed between the columns or colonnettes of a Byzantine church templon.        
    International Gothic style The International Gothic style developed in the courts of Europe in the 15th century and often features rich colors, gold, and carefully observed naturalistic details placed within a somewhat illogical space.        
    International Style The International Style is a form of architectural modernism that became popular in Europe and the United States beginning in the 1930s. Characterized by clean lines, industrial materials, and an absence of decoration, it became one of the most popular styles for commercial architecture in the 1950s and 60s.        
    Ionic The Ionic order is denoted by scrolls on the capitals, or tops, of the columns.        
    Irene Empress Irene ruled as regent for her son Constantine VI from 780–700, as co-ruler with Constantine VI from 792–797, and as sole ruler from 797–802.        
    Iron Age The Iron Age in Italy refers to the period from roughly the later tenth to the later eighth centuries B.C.E., a time when proto-urban cultures like the Latial culture and the Villanovan culture flourished. “Latial culture” refers to the material culture of peoples who occupied Old Latium (Latium Vetus) in central Italy. The Villanovan culture flourishes c. 900 to 700 B.C.E. and is the direct antecedent of the Etruscan civilization. These groups develop distinct regional styles of material culture.        
    Iron Curtain The Iron Curtain is the name for the border between the countries controlled by the Soviet Union and those in Western Europe.        
    Jacksonian Democracy The U.S. Democratic Party (still in existence today) was founded in 1828 when Andrew Jackson won the presidency. In this era, the Democratic Party wanted to limit the power of the central government and banks, and support white working men and farmers through territorial expansion.        
    Jainism Jainism is an ancient, religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. Jains do not worship a god. They practice non-violence and hold themselves to a strict code of ethics.        
    James VI and I James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.        
    jatakas Stories of the previous lives of the Buddha.        
    Jesuit Jesuit refers to members of the Society of Jesus, a Catholic order founded in 1534 to do missionary work.        
    Jesuits The Jesuits, also knowns as the Society of Jesus, is a religious order founded in sixteenth-century Spain with the specific mission of spreading Catholicism around the world.        
    Jim Crow Jim Crow was the name given to both the laws and the broader social system in the United States that enabled segregation and discrimination against African Americans from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century.        
    jingoism Jingoism is excessive bias in judging one′s own country as superior to others—an extreme type of nationalism.        
    John II Emperor John II Komnenos reigned from 1118 - 1143.        
    John the Baptist John the Baptist was a Jewish itinerant preacher and one of the most significant figures in the New Testament, also known as the Forerunner of Christ in Christianity and the prophet John in Islam.        
    John VI Kantakouzenos John VI Kantakouzenos was a Byzantine nobleman, statesman, and general, who also served as emperor from 1347 to 1354.        
    Johnson-Reed Act of 1924 The Johnson-Reed act was a law that drastically limited the number of immigrants allowed into the United States.        
    Joseon dynasty The Joseon, or Yi dynasty, was founded in 1392 by the military leader Yi Song-gye and lasted until 1910. It was the last imperial dynasty and the longest in the history of Korea.        
    Justinian’s Emperor Justinian reigned 527–565 and rebuilt the church of Hagia Sophia (the former church of this name destroyed in the Nika riots) between 532–37 C.E.        
    Justinianic The term “Justinianic” refers to the reign of emperor Justinian I who reigned from 527-565.        
    Kalpasutra The Kalpasutra is a religious text that details the life of important Jain figures. Jainism is an ancient religious tradition of the Indian subcontinent.        
    Kalpasutra The Kalpasutra is a religious text that details the life of important Jain figures. Jainism is an ancient religious tradition of the Indian subcontinent.        
    Kamakura period The Kamakura period lasted from 1185 until 1333. It was initiated by the Shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo and marked the beginning of feudal Japan and the samurai caste.        
    Kamakura shogunate Shōgun refers to the rule of a military leader. Shōgun warlords ruled Japan from 1192 until 1867 though they were, in theory, appointed by the emperor. Their rule is known as the shogunate.        
    kastra "Castrum" (plural "castra") was a Roman term for a fortified military camp.        
    katholika “Katholikon” is the modern Greek term for the main church in a monastic complex.        
    keystone The keystone is the wedge-shaped stone piece at the apex of a masonry arch.        
    kin-shaped political system The kings of the Zhou court were not able to effectively control the vast territory under their name. Therefore, the Zhou kings delegated land and populations to their sons, cousins, marital relatives and sometimes non-kin allies to establish vassal states. These states enjoyed political, taxational, and judicial autonomy while remaining politically and ritually subordinate to the king and assuming military and tributary obligations to the central court.        
    King Milutin’s Stefan Uroš II Milutin reigned as king of Serbia from 1282 to 1321.        
    Knidians Knidos was one of the most important cities of Eastern Greece, the region along the Aegean coast of present-day Turkey. In the fourth century B.C.E., Knidians boasted the famous nude Aphrodite carved by Praxiteles.        
    Komnenian period The Komnenian period refers to the reign of the Komnenian Dynasty, 1081–1185.        
    Kouros Kouros is the Greek work for a male youth, and it is the name given to Greek statues representing young male nudes.        
    kufic Kufic is an Arabic angular calligraphy style. It can be challenging to read and is a decorative feature found in found in Islamic art and architecture. Perhaps surprisingly, it has also been found on non-Islamic art and architecture, particularly Christian art such as textiles, due to the prestige that it carried, and this is known as pseudo-kufic.        
    kundika Kundika are ritual pitchers.        
    kundīka vessel Kundīka vessels are jars used for Buddhist ritual purposes.        
    Kushan The Kushan Empire controlled the region that now consists of Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India and parts of China. It lasted from the second century B.C.E. until the third century C.E.        
    Kushan Dynasty The Kushans ruled the regions surrounding northwest India from the second century B.C.E. to the third century C.E.        
    Kylikes Kylikes (sing. kylix) were shallow bowls used to imbibe wine at drinking parties.        
    La Venta La Venta is a Middle Formative period (1000-400 B.C.E.) Olmec culture site located in the Mexican state of Tabasco        
    laity Laity refers to the the ordinary people who are involved with a church but who do not hold official religious positions.        
    Lamassu A lamassu is an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted as having a human head and the body of a bull or a lion, and wings.        
    Laskarids The Laskaris family was a Byzantine noble family that formed the ruling dynasty of the Empire of Nicaea.        
    Laskarids The Laskaris family was a Byzantine noble family that formed the ruling dynasty of the Empire of Nicaea.        
    Latin peoples Latin refers to people identified by their use of the Romance languages and cultures such as Italians, French people, Spaniards, Romanians, Portuguese people, etc.        
    Latin-cross A Latin cross is a cross with unequal arms, like the cross the Christ was understood to be crucified on.        
    lawn Lawn cloth or lawn is a fine plain weave textile. Originally the name applied to plain weave linen, and linen lawn is also called "handkerchief linen". Lawn is designed using fine, high-thread-count yarns, which results in a silky, untextured feel.        
    laypeople In this case, laypeople are believers who are not members of the clergy.        
    Lekythos A lekythos was a small vessel most often used to store scented oils.        
    Lent Lent (or Great Lent) is an annual, forty-day period of fasting that precedes Holy Week and the celebration of Pascha (Easter) in the Eastern Orthodox Church.        
    Leo III Emperor Leo III reigned from 717–741 and was founder of the Isaurian Dynasty.        
    leogryphs Leogryphs are composite mythological creatures. Here they are shown as lions with wings and they are rampant—that is, standing on their hind feet with their forefeet in the air.        
    Leonardo da Vinci who died Vasari relates a tale that Leonardo died in the arms of King Francis—a legend designed to demonstrate the the growing importance of artists in the Renaissance.        
    Levant The Levant is a name for the eastern Mediterranean region, sometimes used to specifically designate the area around Syria.        
    Libation A libation is a drink, generally one poured out as an offering to a deity.        
    Liberal Arts The liberal arts were the trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy).        
    lienzos A lienzo is an Indigenous manuscript made on woven cloth.        
    lineages Lineage refers to the direct descent from an ancestor.        
    lingam A lingam is an ovoid or column-like form often described as an abstract phallus symbolizing god.        
    litter A litter is a wheelless, human-powered vehicle.        
    liturgical Liturgical means referring to forms for public or communal worship.        
    liturgical calendar The liturgical calendar refers to the schedule of Church services that commemorated holy figures and events each year.        
    liturgical fans Liturgical fans, known as rhipidia in Byzantium (and flabella in the Roman Catholic Church), served a largely symbolic function: deacons carried them in processions and waved them over the Eucharistic bread and wine during the celebration of the Divine Liturgy.        
    liturgy The "Divine Liturgy" was the celebration of the Eucharist in Byzantium, analogous to the Mass in the Roman Catholic Church.        
    LM I Sir Arthur Evans, the archaeologist who first uncovered the palace at Knossos, divided Minoan chronology into many different periods with distinct abbreviations. LM I stands for the first part of the Late Minoan period.        
    LM Ib Sir Arthur Evans, the archaeologist who first uncovered the palace at Knossos, divided Minoan chronology into many different periods, including the Late Minoan period, sometimes abbreviated as LM.        
    LM II Sir Arthur Evans, the archaeologist who first uncovered the palace at Knossos, divided Minoan chronology into many different periods with distinct abbreviations. LM II stands for the second part of the Late Minoan period.        
    LM III Sir Arthur Evans divided Minoan chronology into many different periods with distinct abbreviations. LM III stands for the third part of the Late Minoan period.        
    lobes A lobe is a rounded projection, in this case appearing in multiples on the top sections of the blind arches.        
    loggia In this case, "loggia" refers to a long open-air corridor in the Apostolic Palace.        
    longships Longships are a type of long, narrow warship powered by both sails and oars, which originated with the Vikings (the distant ancestors of the Normans).        
    Louisiana Territory The Louisiana Territory comprised 828,000 square miles west of the Mississippi River, including the modern-day states of Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and parts of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Texas, Minnesota, and Louisiana.        
    Low Countries The Low Countries are the modern-day countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.        
    low-relief Low relief is shallow carving that remains attached to a surface.        
    lusterware Lusterware is a type of ceramic with a metallic glaze that gives it an iridescent sheen.        
    Lycaonia Lycaonia is a historical region in Central Anatolia, southwest of Cappadocia.        
    lynched Lynching is defined as a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group. It includes hanging, burning, and bodily mutilation.        
    Macchiaioli The Macchiaioli (from the Italian word “macchia” meaning “stain” or “spot”) were a group of Tuscan painters in the mid-nineteenth century who painted in patches of color        
    Madrilenian A Madrilenian is someone from Madrid.        
    Magi The Magi, also known as the "wise men" or "three kings," follow the star from the east to visit the newborn Jesus in Matthew 2.        
    maguey Maguey is a type of agave plant.        
    Mahishasuramardini The rock-cut cave where the panel is located is identified as Mahishasuramardini mandapa at the UNESCO World Heritage site of Mahabalipuram, otherwise known as Mamallapuram.        
    maiolica Maiolica is tin-glazed earthenware with in-glaze color embellishments.        
    mammy figurines The American stereotype Mammy, depicts a black female domestic slave or servant within a white household who was responsible for the care of the white children and might also be their wet nurse. Mammy images use nostalgia to distract from their overt racism.        
    mandalas Mandalas are diagrams of the universe in Hindu and Buddhist symbolism.        
    mandorla A mandorla is an oval shape that surrounds the entire figure.        
    mandorla A mandorla is an aureole of light surrounding a holy figure.        
    mandorla A mandorla is an almond-shaped frame that surrounds a figure. Mandorlas often surround the figures of Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian iconography. It is distinguished from a halo in that it encircles the entire body and not just the head.        
    mangroves Mangroves are a type of tropical shrub or tree found in coastal swamps. They are especially recognizable by their thick, tangled roots.        
    Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States should extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific.        
    Manila Galleons At its height, the viceroyalty of New Spain consisted of Mexico, much of Central America, parts of the West Indies, the southwestern and central United States, Florida, and the Philippines. The Manila Galleon trade connected the Philippines with Mexico, bringing goods from around Asia to the American continent.        
    manioc Manioc is a root vegetable, also known as cassava.        
    Mannerism

    Mannerist art, which developed at the end of the High Renaissance, especially among the students of Raphael, often seems unnatural (or artificial) in its distortion of the human figure, and collapsing of space, but it also has characteristics of elegance and sophistication.

           
    Manticore A manticore is a mythical beast typically depicted as having the body of a lion, the face of a man, and the sting of a scorpion.        
    manuscript A manuscript is a book or other document written by hand.        
    Māori The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of Aotearoa (now better known as New Zealand).        
    Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. She was known for promoting conservative policies such as economic deregulation and the rolling back of social welfare programs.        
    Marian advocation Marian advocation refers to different manifestations of the Virgin Mary, such as the Virgin of Guadalupe or the Virgin of Mercy. They are all different guises or devotions to aspects of the Virgin Mary.        
    Marian iconography Marian iconography refers to the study of the ways that the Virgin Mary, mother of Christ, is represented—including what she wears or holds, how her body is positioned, etc.        
    marrow A marrow is a type of thin-skinned gourd, such as a zucchini.        
    martyr A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for their religious belief or cause.        
    martyrdom A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for adherence to a cause (especially religious faith).        
    martyria A martyrium is the tomb of a martyr or site that bore witness to the Christian faith.        
    masonry Masonry is the building of structures from units of materials such as stone or brick.        
    masonry Masonry is cut stone used as a building material.        
    Masquerades A masquerade is a social gathering of persons wearing masks and often fantastical costumes.        
    masques Masques were entertainments featuring dancing and dramatic performances by masked players.        
    MASS Design Group MASS is a nonprofit architectural group whose mission is “to research, build, and advocate for architecture that promotes justice and human dignity.”        
    material culture Material culture refers to art, architecture, written records, and everyday objects used by a culture.        
    matrix The matrix is the object upon which a design has been carved.        
    matte Matte means dull, or without shine.        
    maulstick A maulstick is a device used to support and steady the painter’s hand.        
    Mauritshuis The Mauritshuis was originally a residence built for a 17th-century noble in The Hague, and is now a well-known art museum housing many Dutch Golden Age works.        
    mausolea A mausoleum is a monumental building for burial.        
    mechanikoi In Byzantium, a mechanikos was an architect-engineer with a broadly based, theoretical education.        
    medium A medium is a person claiming to be in contact with the spirits of the dead and able to communicate between the dead and the living.        
    megalithic Megalithic refers to forms made of large stones.        
    Melanesia Melanesia refers to a region of the western Pacific that includes the islands and island groups of Fiji, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.        
    mendicant The term mendicant refers to a series of Christian monastic religious orders that live in community, take vows of chastity, poverty and others (depending on each order), and which, in the New World acted as missionaries to convert the natives into Christianity. Examples of mendicant orders are the Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians.        
    mendicant friars A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders. The major mendicant orders are the Franciscans, Augustinians, Dominicans, and Carmelites. Mendicant means that members renounce their worldly possessions and live by begging, or through the support of their surrounding communities.        
    mendicant order Mendicant means that members renounce their worldly possessions and live by begging, or through the support of their surrounding communities. A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders. The major mendicant orders are the Franciscans, Augustinians, Dominicans, and Carmelites.        
    mendicant orders’ Mendicant orders are Christian religious orders that adopted a lifestyle of poverty and living in urban areas for purposes of preaching, evangelization, and ministry, especially to the poor. Mendicant orders include Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians.        
    Menologion A menologion was a book containing descriptions of saints' lives and sacred events arranged according to the date of their commemoration in the Church calendar.        
    mercy seat According to the Hebrew Bible, the mercy-seat was the gold cover on the Ark of the Covenant, which was understood as God’s resting place.        
    Merovingian the Merovingians were a powerful dynasty of Frankish rulers        
    Merzbau Merzbau is a combination of Merz and Bau, the German word for a construction or building.        
    messianic religions A messianic religion is one that includes a messiah figure who is promised to save believers.        
    mestizo A mestizo was someone of both Spanish and indigenous descent.        
    mestizo Mestizo was the term used in colonial Latin America to denote people of mixed Spanish and Amerindian heritage.        
    Meta Warrick Fuller Meta Warrick Fuller was born in Philadelphia in 1877, trained in Paris from 1899-1902, and created in Boston until her death in 1968.        
    Metabolist movement Metabolism is the name of a postwar architectural movement whose core ideas entailed a rapprochement between interconnected architectural structures and the principles and appearances of organic growth.        
    Methodius I Methodius I was Patriarch of Constantinople from 843–847.        
    Mexica Mexica is pronounced "Mesh-ee-ka."        
    Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution started when liberals and intellectuals began to challenge the regime of Porfirio Díaz, a dictator who had been in power since 1877.        
    Michael Glabas Tarchaniotes Michael Doukas Glabas Tarchaneiotes was a Byzantine aristocrat and general who lived c. 1235 to c. 1305-08.        
    Michael VIII Palaiologos Michael VIII Palaiologos reigned as Byzantine emperor from 1261–1282        
    microarchitectural Microarchitectural refers to the use of visual forms borrowed from architecture on small objects like reliquaries.        
    Micronesia The region of the western Pacific referred to as Micronesia includes the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Kiribati, Mariana Islands, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, and Wake Island.        
    Middle Stone Age The Middle Stone Age was a period of African prehistory between the Early Stone Age and the Later Stone Age, generally considered to have begun around 280,000 years ago and ended around 50–25,000 years ago.        
    Mimbres pottery The Mimbres occupied southwestern New Mexico from about 1000 to 1250 C.E. Mimbres pottery is known for distinctive feather and grid patterns, as well as figurative elements—including birds, bats, turtles, mountain goats, and humans. These pots influenced later Pueblo potters.        
    mimetic Mimesis refers to imitation. In this case, an artist trying to capture something mimetically is attempting to copy nature or make something naturalistically.        
    minarets A minaret is a tower associated with a mosque and is often used to elevate the call to prayer.        
    miniatures A miniature is an image in an illuminated book that is set apart from the rest of the page by a discrete border or frame.        
    Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise was a piece of legislation passed in 1820. It drew a line at the 36 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude (from the southern border of Missouri to the western border of the United States), above which all future states admitted to the Union would prohibit slavery.        
    miter A type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial headdress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity.        
    mithraia A mithraeum was a temple for the worship of the god Mithras.        
    mnemonic device A mnemonic device is a technique a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something.        
    mnemonic device A mnemonic device is a technique a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something.        
    modeling Modeling is the use of light and dark hues to depict volume.        
    modern European painting In this case, Geller specifically utilized techniques associated with Cubism and Futurism.        
    Moldova Moldova and Moldavia are used interchangeably— Moldavia is the anglicized version of the original name, Moldova, and the Principality of Moldavia is the medieval precursor of both modern Moldova and the region of Moldova in modern Romania.        
    monastic typikon A monastic typikon was a document outlining the organization, rules, and liturgical observances for a monastery.        
    monastics The term "monastic" refers to monks or nuns.        
    Monemvasia Monemvasia was a fortified city on a small island off the east coast of the Peloponnese.        
    Mongol The Mongols, who originated in central Asia, established an empire during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries that, at its height, stretched from the Pacific to the Mediterranean.        
    monochromatic palette A monochromatic palette refers to the use of colors that are so similar they are almost one (monochrome means "one color").        
    moral suasion Moral suasion is the strategy of changing personal behavior by appealing to morality. Abolitionists believed that moral suasion was the best way to change the minds of people who supported slavery.        
    Morava School The so-called Morava Schoolwas an ecclesiastical architectural style that flourished in the Serbia Late Middle Ages, from around the mid-14th to the mid-15th century.        
    More about Peter Sometimes called the Prince of the Apostles, Peter was originally known as Simon and was a fisherman. He was given the name Cephas (in Aramaic) or Petros (in Latin) by Christ, which is translated as Peter and means rock (petra). Christ’s words, “And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church…. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth, will be loosed in heaven" (Matthew 16:13-20). Catholics therefore see the apostle Peter as the first in the long succession of Popes. The absolute authority of the papacy, even its power to excommunicate, rests on the charge Christ gives to St. Peter. According to tradition, St. Peter was crucified upside down in Rome, and buried under what is now the site of The Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican.        
    mortars and pestles A mortar is a bowl and pestle is an object used to grind against the sides of the mortar. Mortars and pestles are commonly made of hard material such as stone and are often used to prepare food.        
    Mount Vesuvius Mount Vesuvius is a volcano in southern Italy.        
    movable type Movable type is a system of printing where individual letters or other symbols are cast in metal and can be arranged and rearranged in order to create printed text.        
    Mozarabic Mozarab refers to Christians living under Islamic rule in al-Andalus. Mozarabs were often culturally Islamic and generally spoke Arabic.        
    Mudéjar Mudéjar in art and architecture refers to the influence of the Islamic cultures from the Iberian Peninsula that became incorporated into Christian Spanish art and architecture after the Reconquista.        
    Mughal dynasty Mughal (1526-1858). Though Islam had been introduced in India centuries before, the Mughals were responsible for some of the greatest works of art produced in the canons of both Indian and Islamic art. The empire established itself when Babur, himself a Timurid prince of Turkish and Central Asian descent, came to Hindustan and defeated the existing Islamic sultanate in Delhi.        
    Mughal empire The Mughals controlled much of the Indian subcontinent from 1526 to 1858.        
    mulled Mulling disperses particles in a medium by grinding them with a glass muller, usually on a slab of marble.        
    multiple aspects to their identities These aspects often had specific terms that would be added to the deity’s name as epithets.        
    mural program A mural program is two or more works on a wall surface that work together as a theme or idea.        
    Muslim Sultanate of Adal The Sultanate of Adal was a Muslim state located in the Horn of Africa, c. 1415 to 1577.        
    myrrhbearing In Byzantium, the term myron referred to a variety of fragrant oils, ointments, and perfumes.        
    Nahua Today, the Nahuas comprise the largest indigenous group in Mexico and second largest group in El Salvador. The Aztec and Toltec cultures were of Nahua ethnicity.        
    Nahuatl Nahuatl is the indigenous language of the Mexica, or Aztecs.        
    Nahuatl The language spoken by the Aztecs/Mexica.        
    Nahuatl Nahuatl was the language of the Mexica. Approximately 1.5 million people speak it today, making it one of the most widely-spoken indigenous languages of the Americas.        
    Nahuatl The Nahua are an ethnic group from Central Mexico whose pre-Hispanic empire, the Aztec empire, was defeated by the Spanish in 1521. The language they spoke, Nahuatl, was the indigenous lingua franca in the colonial period in New Spain, and is still spoken today in Mexico (definition from Vistas.)        
    nao-bells Nao-bells are a bronze bell tradition indigenous to the middle to lower Yangtze River region. Usually geometric in surface decoration and found in the hilltop or river bank, nao-bells are considerably more voluminous than their northern counterparts. The larger ones can be over 1-meter tall and weigh over 100 kg.        
    naos Generally, the term naos refers to a church or temple; in Middle and Late Byzantine churches, the term naos often refers to the main space of a centrally planned church (equivalent to the nave of a basilica).        
    Napoleon Napoleon was a military leader who led many successful campaigns during and after the French Revolution and ultimately became emperor of France in 1804.        
    Napoléon III Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (or Napoléon III) ruled during the Second Empire (1852–70), and was the great-nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France in the early 19th century.        
    narthex The narthex is the entry vestibule preceding the nave or naos of a Byzantine church, and may be doubled to include inner and outer narthexes.        
    Nasrids The Nasrids ruled from their capital in Granada in southern Iberia from 1232 to 1492. They were defeated by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel in 1492, ending Muslim rule in Iberia and leading to the expulsion of these communities.        
    Nat Turner’s rebellion Nat Turner led an 1831 uprising of enslaved people in Southhampton County, Virginia. Turner, a deeply religious enslaved man, led a group of enslaved people to kill more than 50 white people. The panic that this rebellion created among slaveholders led whites to kill at least 160 Black people, both free and enslaved.        
    nativism Nativism is the belief that the rights of native-born people should be protected over those of immigrants.        
    naturalism Naturalism is the faithful representation of the observable world.        
    naturalism Naturalism is the faithful representation of the observable world.        
    Naturalism Naturalism refers here to a late nineteenth-century literary movement that rejected Romanticism and embraced realism, objectivity, and social commentary.        
    Nature More than flora and fauna, Nature refers to the entirely of what people understood as the created world.        
    nave The nave is the central aisle of a basilica.        
    nave A nave is a narrow, elongated hall which functions as the main gathering area of a church.        
    nave The nave is the area of the church used to accommodate the congregation, usually located to the west.        
    nave arcade The nave arcade is a series of arches supported by piers or columns        
    Necropolis A necropolisis a large cemetery. The name stems from the Ancient Greek, literally meaning "city of the dead.”        
    Neopalatial period Sir Arthur Evans, the archaeologist who first uncovered the palace at Knossos, divided Minoan chronology into many different periods, including the Neopalatial period, sometimes abbreviated as MM III.        
    New Spain At its height, the viceroyalty of New Spain consisted of Mexico, much of Central America, parts of the West Indies, the southwestern and central United States, Florida, and the Philippines.        
    New Spain At its height, the viceroyalty of New Spain consisted of Mexico, much of Central America, parts of the West Indies, the southwestern and central United States, Florida, and the Philippines.        
    New Spanish At its height, the viceroyalty of New Spain consisted of Mexico, much of Central America, parts of the West Indies, the southwestern and central United States, Florida, and the Philippines.        
    Nicaea Nicaea (modern İznik, Turkey) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia.        
    Nicaea Nicaea (modern İznik) was an ancient Greek city, and later, one of the major cities of the Byzantine Empire, located in northwestern Anatolia (modern Turkey).        
    niches A niche is a shallow recess.        
    Nikephoros Phokas Emperor Nikephoros Phokas reigned from 963 to 969.        
    Nikomedia A city located in northwest Asia Minor, Nikomedia was the residence of Diocletian and his successors.        
    Nkyinkyim Installation Nkyinkyim is an Adinkra symbol of the Asante peoples of Ghana that symbolizes the twists and turns in the journey of life.        
    nodding ogee canopy An ogee is a form that began to be used in England around 1290, but already had a long history. They are first seen in India, but also used in Middle Eastern and Byzantine architecture. It is an arch that curves back on itself at the point, creating a pinch. A nodding ogee is one that curves in multiple dimensions, having not only the pinch, but that also nods forward. The nodding ogee undulates and projects out into the realm of the viewer.        
    Noh Noh is a type of slow and ritualized dramatic performance with roots in Chinese dramatic arts and infused with Buddhist ideals.        
    non plus ultra “Nothing further beyond,” the highest point or culmination.        
    Normandy Normandy is a region on the northwest coast of France.        
    Obelisk An obelisk in ancient Egypt is commonly a very tall four-sided stone that tapers upward and is topped with a pyramid shape. Each side is often heavily inscribed with hieroglyphs. The stone is often a single piece of granite. The obelisk from Karnak (now in Rome) is estimated to weigh more than 900,000 pounds.        
    octaconch An octaconch is an eight-niched structure.        
    octagon-domed church An octagon-domed church is a centrally planned church with a dome supported above eight points.        
    oculus An oculus is a round window. In many typical Portuguese churches, an oculus filled the space above the doorway.        
    Odysseus Odysseus—also known as Ulysses—was the hero in the ancient epic poem by Homer, The Odyssey.        
    Odysseus and Penelope Odysseus (also known as Ulysses) left his wife Penelope for twenty years to fight in the Trojan War.        
    Ohrmazd Ohrmazd is perhaps best known as Ahura Mazda. The variations are respectively in Middle Persian (spoken under the Sasanian Empire) and Old Persian (spoken under the earlier Achaemenid Empire).        
    oikoi Oikos (plural: oikoi) is Greek for house.        
    onomatopoeia The formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named.        
    open wooden roof An open wooden roof is one in which the structure of the roof is left visible, forming the ceiling of the space below.        
    order Orders are usually Catholic communities of religious devotees who take vows of celibacy and dedicated their lives to the church. They include monks, nuns, friars, and priests. Though they adhere to Roman Catholic doctrine, different orders are organized according to distinct doctrines and ways of life.        
    Orhan Orhan was the son and successor of Osman I as leader of the Ottoman Turks, reigning 1323/4 - 1362.        
    Orthodoxy "Orthodoxy" refers to right Christian belief, believed to be essential for salvation.        
    orthodoxy Orthodoxy is a set of strict rules or doctrines, in this case set by the Catholic church.        
    osculation Kissing.        
    Osman Osman I was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and founder of the Ottoman dynasty, reigning c. 1299 ‒ 1323/4.        
    Ottoman Turks The Ottomans were a Turkish dynasty whose name derived from their founder, Osman, and who ruled from the late 13th century until the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1924.        
    Ottomans The Ottomans were a Turkish dynasty whose name derived from their founder, Osman, and who ruled from the late 13th century until the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1924.        
    paddle steamer A paddle steamer is a steamship or steamboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water.        
    palaces of Theophilos According to historical sources, emperor Theophilos, who reigned from 829-842, added to Constantinople’s Great Palace and constructed additional palaces as well.        
    Palazzo Signoria The Palazzo Signoria is the town hall (seat of government) of Florence.        
    palings Palings are wooden stakes for fencing.        
    palisade A palisade is a fence or barricade.        
    Pallava The Pallava rulers were a powerful dynasty in South India from the third through the ninth centuries.        
    Palm Sunday Palm Sunday is the annual commemoration of Christ's entry into Jerusalem the Sunday before Pascha (Easter)        
    Panagia "Panagia," which means "all holy," is a title of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus.        
    pandanus leaf Pandanus is a palm-like plant with long frond-like leaves used for weaving.        
    Panhellenic Panhellenic means open to all Greeks.        
    Pantokrator The Byzantines referred to Christ as “Pantokrator,” which means “almighty” or “ruler of the universe.”        
    papal bull A papal bull is a decree issued by the pope.        
    Papal Keys Two crossed keys, the traditional symbol of the Papacy. They refer to the keys of the kingdom of heaven belonging to the first Pope, Saint Peter, that were given to him by Christ in the Gospel of Matthew.        
    parekklesion A parekklesion is a subsidiary chapel.        
    parijata This is a type of coral tree.        
    Paris and Helen Paris was the son of the king of Troy. He abducted Helen, wife of King Menelaus, sparking the Trojan War.        
    parish priest A parish priest is the Catholic priest of the local church.        
    paschal candle The paschal candle was lit at the first service of Easter and burned throughout the Easter season and on major holidays.        
    Passion The “Passion” refers to Christ’s suffering during Holy Week, which culminated with the Crucifixion.        
    Passion The Passion refers to the last days of Christ’s life, from his return to Jerusalem to his death by crucifixion.        
    Passion

    Passion comes from the Greek “to suffer” and refers to the final period of Christ’s life leading to the crucifixion. Accounts of the Passion are found in the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.

           
    Passion narrative Passion comes from the Greek “to suffer” and refers to the final period of Christ’s life leading to the crucifixion. Accounts of the Passion are found in the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.        
    Passion of Christ The Passion (from the Latin verb: patior, passus sum — to suffer, bear, endure) refers to the short final period in the life of Jesus.        
    Passion of Christ The Passion (from the Latin verb: patior, passus sum — to suffer, bear, endure) refers to the short final period in the life of Jesus.        
    Passover The Passover is a Jewish holiday, which commemorates God “passing over” the houses of the Israelites during the last of the ten plagues in Egypt, which led to the Israelites’ Exodus from slavery in Egypt.        
    patriarch The Byzantines used the term “patriarch” to refer to the bishop of Constantinople and other high ranking bishops of major cities.        
    patrician Patrician means noble.        
    patricians Patricians were Roman aristocrats.        
    pavilions Pavilions, in this case, are projecting subdivisions of the façade.        
    pediment A pediment is a triangular-shaped space above a doorway.        
    pediment In classical architecture, the pediment is the triangular space or gable end above the entablature that supports a pitched roof. A broken pediment is one where the left and right sides have split.        
    Pedralbes Fun fact: Pedralbes is so named because it had nice white stone, or petras albas.        
    pelisse A pelisse is a fur-lined cloak.        
    pelta-shaped frontalia The pelta is the crescent-shaped shield that here forms the end of the frontalia—part of the trappings for an animal such as a horse, bull or elephant.        
    Peninsular War The Peninsular War (also known as the Spanish War of Independence) was a military conflict for control of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) during the Napoleonic Wars.        
    peninsulares a person born in Spain.        
    Peninsulares Peninsulares are people born in Spain, but who resided in the Spanish colonies.        
    Pentelic marble Pentelic marble is prized for its golden white color and was used in Athens and later in Rome.        
    pentimenti Pentimenti refers to alteration made by the artist that can become more evident over time or be made visible with scientific analysis.        
    perforators Perforators were pointed implements, usually made of hard stone or stingray spines, used to draw blood as a form of autosacrifice.        
    peristyle A peristyle is a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard.        
    peristyle A peristyle is a colonnade or row of columns surrounding a space such as a temple, courtyard, church, or cloister.        
    Persian Wars The Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek city-states and the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, from 499-449 B.C.E        
    personified The Byzantines often personified natural forces and abstract concepts by imagining them as human characters in their art and hymnography.        
    Pesaro Pesaro is a coastal port city in the province of Urbino.        
    photomontage Photomontage is a technique using cut, combined, or otherwise manipulated photographs.        
    photostat A photostat is a type of photocopy. Photostat machines required special paper and a specialized operator, and were later replaced by Xerox machines.        
    physiognomy Physiognomy is the practice of assessing the personalities or characters of people based on physical characteristics, especially facial features or expressions. It is often linked to stereotyping with regard to ethnicity or gender.        
    pi-shaped Something pi-shaped takes the form of the Greek letter Π (pi).        
    piazza An open, public square.        
    piece-mold casting While the lost-wax casting prevailed in the Mediterranean world, the piece-mold casting was the primary casting method uniquely used in China. This technology draws on the rich tradition of pottery making in the Neolithic societies and employs an inner clay core and outer clay molds to cast bronze vessels. Decoration is either drawn directly on the outer molds or transferred to the molds from the original model.        
    piers A pier is a free-standing architectural element that bears the weight of the structures above.        
    piers Piers are large, often rectangular supports that help bear the weight of a building.        
    pigments Pigments are substances used in paint to give it a particular hue. They are often derived from minerals.        
    Pilaster A pilaster is a shallow, rectangular decorative feature projecting from a wall. A pilaster usually has a capital and a base, like a flattened, attached column.        
    pilasters A pilaster is a rectangular column that projects from a wall.        
    pilasters A pilaster is a column with a rectangular profile that is attached to a wall.        
    pilasters A pilaster is an attached rectangular column.        
    pilasters A pilaster is a rectangular column, usually attached to a wall.        
    pilasters A pilaster is a square column that is often set into a wall.        
    pilgrims Pilgrims are people who embark on journeys for religious purposes.        
    plan view A plan is an overhead rendering of a building or geographic space that shows its dimensions and structure.        
    planographic Planographic refers to a printmaking technique using a matrix with a flat printing surface.        
    plantations Plantations were labor camps dedicated to growing cash crops. On plantations, white enslavers forced Black people to work planting and harvesting crops under the threat of torture or death.        
    plateresque Plateresque is the name of an architectural style particular to Spain and its dominions in the Americas from the 15th and 16th centuries. Its name derives from the word “plata,” silver in Spanish, and denotes its silversmith quality, referring to profuse and delicate ornamentation that characterized the style.        
    Plateresque Plateresque is the name of an architectural style particular to Spain and its dominions in the Americas from the 15th and 16th centuries. Its name derives from the word “plata,” silver in Spanish, and denotes its silversmith quality, referring to profuse and delicate ornamentation that characterized the style.        
    poleis "Polis" (plural "poleis") was the Greek word for city.        
    polychrome Polychrome refers to many colors.        
    polychrome Polychrome means "many colors," and here refers to the process of painting sculptures with multiple colors.        
    polychrome Polychrome literally means many-colored. Here it refers to wood sculpture that has been painted with naturalistic colors        
    polychromed Polychrome means "many colors," and here refers to the process of painting sculptures with multiple colors. In Spain, such sculptures were also frequently gilded (a thin layer of gold was applied to certain parts of the surface).        
    polychromy Polychromy is the use of multiple colors of paint.        
    polymath A polymath is person of wide-ranging knowledge or learning.        
    Polynesian triangle The Polynesian triangle stretches from Hawaii in the north to Aotearoa (New Zealand) in the south, and Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the east        
    Pontius Pilate Pilate was governor of the Roman province of Judaea from 26/27 to 36/37 C.E. and best known for being the official who presided over the trial of Jesus and ordered his crucifixion.        
    Poor Clares Clare of Assisi and Francis of Assisi established the second branch of the Franciscan order in 1212 for women.        
    popish Popish is a term used to denote a person whose loyalties were to the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.        
    portcullises A portcullis is a strong, heavy grating that can be lowered over a gateway to block it.        
    post-Byzantine "Post-Byzantine" refers to the period following the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in 1453.        
    post-Iconoclastic The post-Iconoclastic era refers to the period following 843, which marked the conclusion of the Byzantine Iconoclastic Controversy—a dispute over religious images—in the eighth and ninth centuries.        
    postcolonial reality Between 1950 and 1965 more than 30 African nations gained independence from European colonial rule.        
    potsherds A potsherd is a piece or fragment of earthenware or pot that is made of fired or baked clay.        
    Pre-Columbian Pre-Columbian refers to the Indigenous cultures of Latin American prior to European colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.        
    pre-Columbian Pre-Columbian means before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in North America        
    pre-imperial China Pre-imperial China is a historical concept that predates the establishment of the Qin Empire (221–207 B.C.E.). The Qin Empire was the first empire in the history of China. One of the most prominent transformations that brought forth by the Qin was the replacement of the kinship-based government with a centralized bureaucratic system.        
    predella A predella is a horizontally oriented, painted panel or panels forming the lowest element of an altarpiece.        
    prehistoric Prehistory refers to a time before written records.        
    presbytery A presbytery is a part of the church reserved for the clergy (church officials).        
    prie-dieu A prie-dieu is a piece of furniture used for kneeling in prayer.        
    Primary deities The ancient Greek pantheon placed twelve deities above all others. These were Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaistos, Ares, Hermes, Aphrodite, and Dionysos.        
    primed A primed canvas is one that has a layer—often of gesso—between the paint and the support (usually canvas or wood) that seals it and prepares it for painting.        
    Princes’ Islands The Princes’ Islands, or Kızıl Adalar, are nine islands southeast of Constantinople (Istanbul) in the Sea of Marmara, which were occupied by several monasteries during the Byzantine period.        
    Prix de Rome The Prix de Rome (Rome Prize) was a highly competitive scholarship that allowed students to study in Rome for three to five years.        
    Prix de Rome The Prix de Rome (Rome Prize) was a highly competitive scholarship that allowed students to study in Rome for three to five years.        
    problematic A thing that constitutes a problem or difficulty.        
    Proclamation Proclamations were official decrees issued by the monarch and their advisors, which in Tudor England effectively carried the weight of a law. Sometimes proclamations were drafted but never officially issued.        
    prognostication The act of foretelling the future.        
    prophecy of Calcas A soothsayer who accompanied the Achaean Greeks to Troy. He predicted the Trojan War would last ten years.        
    prophecy of Calcas A soothsayer who accompanied the Achaean Greeks to Troy. He predicted the Trojan War would last ten years.        
    proscenium A proscenium is the frame into which the audience observes the events taking place upon the stage during a theatrical performance.        
    Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation is the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and other early Protestant Reformers whose aim was to reform the Church. They challenged the authority of the Church and the Pope in Rome.        
    Protestants In art history, the sixteenth century sees the styles we call the High Renaissance followed by Mannerism, and—at the end of the century—the emergence of the Baroque style. Naturally, these styles are all shaped by historical forces, the most significant being the successful challenge the Protestant Reformation mounted to the spiritual and political power of the Church in Rome.        
    prothesis The "prothesis" was a chamber often located to the north of the altar where the bread and wine could be prepared for the celebration of the Eucharist and sacred vessels could be stored.        
    proto-maiolica Proto-maiolica ware was a type of pottery with a tin glaze and light-colored fabric found throughout the eastern Mediterranean in the 13th to 14th centuries.        
    proto-social Before the advent of web browsers, communities developed around internet Bulletin Board Systems and newsgroups in the late 1970s, LISTSERVs and Chat in the 1980s, and AOLs Instant Messenger in the 1990s.        
    Provenance Provenance means place of origin. In art history, it is also commonly used to refer to the history of ownership of a particular work.        
    provenance The provenance of an artwork is its documented history of creation and ownership through time.        
    Prussia Prussia is a state (in what is today Germany) that originated in 1525 and was transferred to German control in 1932. The Kingdom of Prussia lasted between 1701–1918.        
    Prussian The kingdom of Prussia encompassed parts of modern-day Germany and Poland.        
    Psalter A psalter is a book containing the Psalms from the Hebrew Bible.        
    Psalters A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms (one of the books of the Bible), often with other devotional material.        
    pseudo-kufic “Pseudo-kufic” refers to decorative motifs that imitate Arabic scripts.        
    psychobiology The branch of science that deals with the biological basis of behavior and mental phenomena.        
    Ptolemy’s Ptolemy was a second-century Greek thinker who is known, among other things, for his treatise on geography.        
    pudenda The word pudenda refers to a exterior genitals, especially belonging to a woman.        
    puja The ritual and devotional worship of god.        
    punching Punching refers to creating patterns in the gold by stamping with a punch.        
    Purbeck marble Purbeck is not actually marble, but type of dark green-gray limestone that can be highly polished. It comes from Purbeck, a peninsula on the southern coast of England.        
    purchased In 1973 the Gallery is reported to have paid 1.3 million dollars for the painting Blue Poles        
    putti A putto (plural putti) is an image of a naked child, such as a cherub.        
    putti A putto (putti is plural), is a chubby infant boy commonly represented nude and with wings.        
    putto A naked child, such as a cherub.        
    pyro-engraved Decorating a material with burn marks resulting from the controlled application of a heated object such as a poker.        
    Quechua The language of the Inka, Quechua is still spoken today by approximately 10 million people in South America, primarily Peru and Bolivia.        
    quetzal Quetzals are colorful birds native to Mexico and the southern United States.        
    quipu A quipu (or khipu in Quechua) is a knotted string implement that recorded narratives and other types of information.        
    Raimondi Stele The stele is named after the Italian-Peruvian geographer and scientist Antonio Raimondi, who first documented the stele in 1874.        
    Raman spectroscopy This technique utilizes the properties of Raman Scattering, which emits a laser beam to detect the vibration of molecules and, subsequently, analyze the chemical composition of the sample.        
    Ramesside Ramesside refers to the period when Egypt was ruled by the eleven pharaohs named Ramses.        
    Ramoncita Gonzales (Tom Po Qui) The Pueblo peoples are American Indians based in the Southwestern United States who use two names: a traditional Pueblo name, and a Catholic name with which they are baptized. The dual naming tradition shows the lasting influence of Spanish culture in the area as well as the continuance of indigenous traditions. “Tom Po Qui” is this woman’s Pueblo name, which Henri understood to be translated to “Water of Antelope.” Ramoncita Gonzales is her Catholic name.        
    rebus A rebus is a representation of words with pictures, sometimes forming a visual puzzle. The term comes from the Latin phrase “nōn verbīs sed rebus,” which means “not by words but by things.”        
    Reconquista This term refers to the conquest of Islamic lands on the Iberian Peninsula by Christian rulers. Some scholars argue that it began at practically the same time as the Islamic conquest of Iberia at the Battle of Covadonga. The Reconquista was essentially completed in 1492 with the triumphant capture of Granada by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel.        
    Reconstruction Reconstruction was the period from 1865 to 1877 in which the basic civil rights of the formerly enslaved were guaranteed through the 13th and 14th Amendments of the U.S. Constitution. Widespread violence and resistance by the Southern states led to its failure.        
    red-slipped Slip is made up of tiny particles of clay suspended in water and can be colored with iron oxide or other minerals to decorate the surface of a pot.        
    regent A regent is a person appointed to govern a state temporarily because the regnant monarch is a minor, is absent, or is incapacitated.        
    Registers Here, the word register refers to a separate band of decoration that is directly above or below another band.        
    regnal years The years in which a monarch ruled.        
    Reign of Terror The Reign of Terror was the most violent period of the French Revolution, from 1793-94, during which thousands of people were sentenced to death and publicly executed.        
    relic A relic is a holy object associated with a saint, in this case, a piece of the cross that, it was believed, Christ was crucified on.        
    relics Relics are remains of saints or objects considered holy because they touched the bodies of saints.        
    relics Relics are remains of saints or objects considered holy because they touched the bodies of saints.        
    relics A relic is a holy object associated with a saint.        
    relics Relics are religious objects generally connected to a saint, or some other venerated person. A relic might be a body part, a saint’s finger, a cloth worn by the Virgin Mary, or a piece of the True Cross.        
    Relief A relief is a sculpture that remains attached to the flat surface from which it was carved.        
    relief A relief sculpture is one that remains attached to a solid background. High relief means that the carving is deep, while low relief indicates a shallower carving.        
    relief Here, relief refers to the distance between the sculpture and the surface to which it is attached.        
    relief Relief sculpture remains attached to a surface.        
    religious orders A religious order is a group that follows the teachings of a particular founder.        
    reliquary A reliquary is a container or shrine in which relics or objects of related importance are kept.        
    removed by a collector The frescoes are now part of the Torlonia collection at the Villa Albani in Rome.        
    repoussé Repoussé is a form of metalworking in which a three-dimensional design is created by hammering metal upwards from behind.        
    repoussé Repoussé is the technique of hammering silver or other metal into relief from the back side.        
    republican nature of Dutch politics The Dutch Republic, a confederation of several provinces ruled by a representative body called the States General, was founded in 1588, but was not recognized by the Spanish Empire, that had previously ruled this region, until 1648.        
    resin Resins are usually sticky, semi-translucent yellowish or brownish substances derived from trees.        
    Restored Restoration generally involves returning a site (or objects) to an earlier state, often through the use of non-original material. Ideally, all added material is detectable and treatments are reversible.        
    Retrojection Literally "to throw backwards," to project a modern concept into the past        
    revetments Revetment is cladding or facing of marble or other luxury stones to decorate walls and piers.        
    Revolution of 1830 The revolution of 1830 is also called the July Revolution, or the Three Glorious Days.        
    Rhyta A rhyton, pluralized as rhyta, is a type of conical drinking vessel commonly found in the ancient world.        
    rib vaults A rib vault is are a stone vault with a thin web that is set within a framework of ribs        
    rickets Rickets is a childhood disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, characterized by imperfect formation of the bones, typically resulting in bowed legs.        
    rocaille Rocaille is a decorative motif with curves, counter curves and undulations modeled on nature.        
    rocailles A rocaille is a decorative motif based on the form of a shell.        
    rock-cut cave temple Rock-cut cave temples are created by excavating solid rock.        
    Roman silver Beginning in the 1st century parts of Britain were conquered by the Roman Empire.        
    Romanos Lekapenos Emperor Romanos Lekapenos reigned from 919 - 944.        
    Romanos Lekapenos Emperor Romanos Lekapenos reigned from 919 - 944.        
    roof boss A stone or wood decorative form at the intersection of the ribs of a vault that is often decoratively carved.        
    roof comb A roof comb is a decorative element on the roof of many Maya structures, sometimes solid stone and decorated with mosaic or stucco and sometimes an open lattice.        
    rosary A rosary is string of beads used for prayer and chanting.        
    roundels A roundel is a round decorative motif.        
    Royal Audience A real audiencia was an apellate court, which in the Spanish colonies had a quasi-legislative role in the government. Each audiencia was named after its jurisdiction, in this case, a large area centered on Cuzco.        
    runestones Runes are letter forms from a family of alphabets used to write Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic languages before the adoption the Latin alphabet in Northern Europe, often a result of Christianization. Runestones are stones with runes carved onto them.        
    rusticated Rustication is a technique whereby the outlines of stones in the facade remain visible.        
    sabi Sabi is an important Japanese aesthetic concept that stands for seeking beauty in what is simple, solitary, and withered.        
    Sack of Rome The sack of Rome in 1527 refers to the mutinous troops of Charles V capturing and plundering Rome.        
    Sack of Rome (1527)          
    sacrifice of Polyxena According to Greek legend, the famous warrior Achilles fell in love with the Trojan princess, Polyxena. Achilles was offered her hand in marriage if he promised to end the Trojan War. Polyxena asked Achilles to come meet her to make a sacrifice to Apollo, but it was a set up; her brother Paris shoots Achilles in the heel (his one mortal weakness). Before his death, Achilles asked that Polyxena die for her treachery.        
    sacrifice of Polyxena According to Greek legend, the famous warrior Achilles fell in love with the Trojan princess, Polyxena. Achilles was offered her hand in marriage if he promised to end the Trojan War. Polyxena asked Achilles to come meet her to make a sacrifice to Apollo, but it was a set up; her brother Paris shoots Achilles in the heel (his one mortal weakness). Before his death, Achilles asked that Polyxena die for her treachery.        
    Sacro-civic Sacro-civic architecture refers architecture that fulfills the functions of communal, public ritual, for example, public temples in a sacred area such as the Capitoline Hill or the Roman Forum.        
    Safavid The Safavids were an important ruling dynasty in Persia (Iran) from 1501 to 1722.        
    Safavid The Safavids were an important ruling dynasty in Persia (Iran) from 1501 to 1722.        
    Saint Panteleimon Saint Panteleimon (sometimes referred to as “Pantaleon”) is believed to be a healer who was martyred in Asia Minor in 305 C.E. during the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian.        
    Salon The Salon, beginning in 1667, was the official art exhibition of the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris.        
    salon The salon was the annual and semi-annual official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) in Paris where works of art were selected by a jury.        
    Salon The Salon was an annual public art exhibition in Paris, organized by the prestigious Academy of Painting and Sculpture.        
    salvific Salvific means having to do with salvation, in this case the figure of Christ as savior of mankind.        
    samba Samba is a rhythmic Afro-Brazilian musical and dance form associated with Brazilian Carnival that originated in the region of Bahia in the 17th century after being imported from Central Africa via the slave trade.        
    San Juan Pueblo In 2005, San Juan Pueblo elected to return to its pre-Spanish name Ohkay Owingeh.        
    Sarcophagus A sarcophagus is a stone coffin.        
    Sardis Sardis was an ancient city in Anatolia, now located in modern Turkey.        
    scarification patterns Scarification refers to patterns incised, scratched, or cut into the skin, which may signify a person’s status, accomplishments, or ideal of beauty.        
    schistose a form of metamorphic rock prone to flaking        
    Schmalkaldic League A military alliance of Lutheran (Protestant) princes.        
    scudi Scudi were silver coins used in many Italian states.        
    Scuola The scuole were confraternities, or brotherhoods, founded as devotional (religious) institutions, that were set up with the purpose of providing mutual assistance.        
    Second Coming In Christianity, the Second Coming refers to the future return of Jesus to Earth to judge of all of mankind. Different denominations of Christianity hold different views of this event.        
    Second Council of Nicaea The Second Council of Nicaea was the last of seven councils recognized by both Orthodox and Catholic Christians        
    second wave feminism Second wave feminism was a movement beginning in the 1960s in which women began to fight broadly for equality in all aspects of life, including work and social relationships.        
    self-fashioning Self-fashioning is a concept used to describe the deliberate construction of a public self-image, typically one that advertises a socially acceptable and politically legitimate presence.        
    Seljuq The Seljuqs were a Turkish dynasty that invaded the Byzantine Empire and ruled in Asia Minor in the 11th-13th centuries.        
    sepulcher A sepulcher is a stone tomb or sarcophagus.        
    Serpentine Serpentine is a type of green stone.        
    Sesodiya Rajput "Rajput" literally means "son of kings" and refers to the Hindu rulers of northwestern India. This family of Rajput rulers belonged to the Sesodiya clan based in the region of Mewar, Rajasthan.        
    setback The 1916 NYC resolution was the very first zoning law in the United States. It mandated that at a certain height a building had to set back in order to allow sunlight to reach the street below.        
    setback The 1916 NYC resolution was the very first zoning law in the United States. It mandated that at a certain height a building had to set back in order to allow sunlight to reach the street below.        
    sfumato Sfumato refers to a smokey haziness used to soften outlines and create an atmospheric effect around the figure.        
    shade of Patroclus In Greek mythology, Patroclus and Achilles were Greek warriors who fought an epic battle against the Trojans. When Patroclus was killed in battle, Achilles retrieved his body and refused to bury it until the shade, or ghost, of Patroclus appeared to him and demanded to be buried.        
    Shaft graves A shaft grave is a deep rectangular shaft that leads down to a stone-walled chamber        
    Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty, located along the Yellow River in present-day Henan Province, was the earliest archaeologically recorded Chinese Dynasty, c. 1600-1046 B.C.E.        
    sharecroppers Sharecropping (also known as tenant farming) is a system where a landowner allows a tenant to work their land in return for a share of the crops.        
    sherds Pottery sherds, or potsherds, are broken pieces of ceramic material.        
    sherds Pottery sherds, or potsherds, are broken pieces of ceramic material.        
    Shesha Shesha is the king of all snakes, Vishnu’s devotee, and a powerful ally for the gods in Hindu mythology.        
    Shi’i After the Prophet Muhammad died in 632, the Sunni/Shi’i schism developed—a result of competing claims over who was the rightful spiritual leader of the faith.        
    Shintō Japan’s indigineous religion, Shintō entails belief in the sacred power of animate and inanimate things, as well as ritual practices for the worship of ancestors and gods, known as kami.        
    Shiva Shiva is a major deity in the Hindu pantheon. His consort is the goddess Parvati. They have two sons — the warrior god Skanda and the elephant-headed god Ganesha. Followers of Shiva are known as Shaivites.        
    shōen system Shōen were tax-exempt private estates that undermined state control.        
    shogunate “The shogunate refers to Japan’s feudal military government, which in effect held judicial and administrative control of the country, limiting the emperor’s power to a symbol of sovereignty.”        
    side aisles The aisles of a church are typically one or more narrower passageways flanking the nave.        
    Silk Road Ancient trade routes connecting China and the Mediterranean used by caravan traders, pilgrims and travelers.        
    siltation Siltation is the buildup of silt, or minerals, in water, which can create sediment.        
    single-nave A nave is the central aisle of a church.        
    Sir Arthur Evans Sir Arthur Evans was an English archaeologist who was the first to unearth the ruins at Knossos beginning in 1900.        
    sitter A sitter is the main figure of a portrait.        
    slave states seceded Seven slave states withdrew (seceded) from the United States in the months following the election of Abraham Lincoln in November 1860. Ultimately 11 southern states would leave in order to protect slavery, starting the Civil War.        
    Slip Slip is a liquid mixture of thinned clay used to join or decorate pottery.        
    slip Slip is a liquid clay mixture used in the production and decoration of pottery.        
    slip Slip is a liquid mixture of clay and/or other materials suspended in water, it can be used as a paint to decorate ceramics before they are fired.        
    social constructionism Social constructionism is a sociological theory that argues that our understanding of reality is culturally constructed.        
    Social Darwinism Social Darwinism holds that human beings (like animals and plants) compete in a struggle for existence in which natural selection results in the "survival of the fittest."        
    socially engaged art practices Approaches to art in which audiences, publics, and communities are engaged in social discourse, interaction, and collaboration, often to effect social and/or political change.        
    Society of Jesus Members of the Society of Jesus are called the Jesuits. They are a Roman Catholic religious order founded during the 16th century.        
    solder Soldering is a method of joining two metals using another metal with a lower melting point.        
    Solomon Solomon was a king of Israel in the Hebrew Bible.        
    Solomonic columns A Solomonic column is characterized by a spiraling shaft, similar in shape to a corkscrew.        
    solstice Either of the two times in the year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.        
    sound poetry Sound poetry is based on the repetition and the resonance of unusual sounds.        
    Spanish Crown The term "Spanish Crown" refers to the Spanish monarchy.        
    Spanish viceroyalty Viceroyalty refers to lands ruled by viceroys who was second to—and a stand-in for—the Spanish king.        
    Sparta Sparta was an ancient Greek city located in southeastern Peloponnese, known during the Byzantine period as Lacedaemonia.        
    Spectacolor board The Spectacolor board was an early flat-screen technology that was used to display simple animated advertisements.        
    speculation The terminology “on speculation” refers to the production of prints not made at the request of a specific client, but distributed and sold on the open market.        
    spolia Spolia refers to the reuse of building stone or decorative sculpture on a new monument.        
    spolia Spolia are elements from earlier structures or artworks that are reused.        
    spolia Spolia are elements from earlier structures or artworks that are reused.        
    spoliation Spoliation is the reuse of stone for new construction.        
    squinches A squinch is a quarter-dome vault bridging the corner of a square or rectangular space, used to support a structure above.        
    Srivijaya The kingdom of Srivijaya was active from the seventh to the fourteenth centuries C.E. and was politically and culturally influential across a large part of Southeast Asia.        
    St. Mary the Younger St. Mary the Younger was a Byzantine saint of Armenian origin who died c. 902.        
    Steatite Steatite is a type of rock, also known as soapstone, which is mainly composed of talc.        
    stelae A stele is a vertical stone monument or marker often inscribed with text or relief carving. Stelae is the plural of stele.        
    stele A stele is a rectangular object, commonly made of stone, erected in the ancient world as a monument. Grave stelae (pl.) were used for funerary or commemorative functions.        
    Steppe A geophysical term for vast, flat, unforested grasslands. This Steppe refers to the Eurasian Steppe, stretching from present-day Hungary through Russia and Kazakhstan to Mongolia.        
    stigmata In the Christian tradition, the term stigmata has come to refer to the wounds on Jesus’ body due to his crucifixion. The stigmata also came to represent a symbol of Jesus’ sacrifice, pain, and resurrection. Many mystics, like St. Francis Assisi and St. Catherine, for instance, were said to have "received" the stigmata, meaning the wounds appeared on their bodies as a sign of godly intervention on their lives and as physical marks on their bodies, linking them to Jesus himself.        
    still lifes Still life can be roughly defined as the painting of inanimate objects.        
    stippled planes A stippled plane is a surface with numerous small dots or specks.        
    strapwork Strapwork is a decorative motif of stylized, interlaced scrolls and other ribbon-like elements.        
    stratigraphic archaeology Stratigraphic archaeology is the study of stratification, layers deposited one atop another over time.        
    stucco Stucco is a type of plaster commonly used for decorative motifs in architecture.        
    stucco Stucco refers to carved plaster (plaster is a pasty composition, often made from lime, water, and sand, that hardens on drying.)        
    stuccowork Plaster built up to created three-dimensional forms.        
    sublime In this context the word sublime refers to beauty so overwhelming, so awesome, it is tinged with terror. An example is the overpowering experience one has when seeing an infinite number of stars on a clear night and feeling dwarfed by the immensity of the universe.        
    Sufi shaikhs A shaikh is a Sufic teacher.        
    superstructure The superstructure of a building comprises the parts built above ground level, which are supported by the underlying substructure        
    surimono Surimono are high-quality, privately-commissioned woodblock prints, mainly produced during the late Edo period.        
    tableaux vivants Tableaux vivants or “living pictures” are presentations in which groups of costumed actors present static, posed scenes.        
    Taíno The word “Taíno,” used to designate the Arawakan-speaking peoples Columbus encountered in the Greater Antilles, is a misnomer. Natives did not refer to themselves as “Taíno” (i.e. good), but used the term (for Europeans) to differentiate themselves from their reportedly bellicose and flesh-eating neighbors, the Caribs. Today, groups with ancestral ties to the Greater Antilles claim the term to assert a shared cultural legacy.        
    Talmud The Talmud is one of the most important works of the Jewish people, and records the teachings of early rabbis, with a focus on law—on how the commandments of the Torah should be carried out.        
    Talmud The Talmud is one of the most important works of the Jewish people, and records the teachings of early rabbis, with a focus on law—on how the commandments of the Torah should be carried out.        
    talud-tablero A sloping wall, talud, that is surmounted by a vertical wall, tablero.        
    Tao-Klarjeti region Tao-Klarjeti is a historically Georgian region, which today is located in northeastern Turkey and southwestern Georgia.        
    temper Temper, often sand, or other added materials, reduces the elasticity of the clay (how much it shrinks) and helps to avoid cracking during the firing process.        
    tempera paint Tempera paint is commonly made by mixing egg whites with water and pigment.        
    temperance movement The temperance movement argued for limits on alcohol consumption and led to the passage of the 18th Amendment in 1919 outlawing the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.        
    templon barrier The templon is a screen separating the nave or naos from the sanctuary (also called chancel barrier).        
    templon beam A templon beam, which may also be referred to as an epistyle or architrave, is a horizontal beam supported by colonnettes in a Byzantine templon (a barrier separating the main part of the church from the area where the altar is located).        
    Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan is known today as Mexico City. It is pronounced "Ten-oach-teet-lan."        
    Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Mexica (Aztec) empire, and is today Mexico City.        
    teocalli A teocalli is a Mesoamerican pyramid with a temple on top.        
    tepictoton The Nahuatl term tepictoton comes from the word meaning an object worn or ground down to a smaller-sized thing, especially a pebble (tepictli), and this concept likely related to the idea that tepictoton were concretions of ground seeds.        
    terakoya Temple schools where commoner children could learn basic reading and writing.        
    Teresa of Ávila Teresa of Ávila was a sixteenth-century Catholic nun who encouraged practices of humility, poverty, and contemplative prayer and meditation. She is a national patron saint of Spain.        
    terminus ante quem This term refers to the latest possible date for something.        
    terracotta Terracotta is a type of earthenware.        
    tesserae Tesserae (singular: tessera) are small pieces of stone, glass, or other materials used to create mosaics.        
    tetraconch "Tetraconch," Greek for "four shells," refers to a building with four apses.        
    Tetrarchy The Tetrarchy was a system of rule shared among four Roman emperors instituted by emperor Diocletian in 293 C.E.        
    Texians Texians were supporters of the Texas Revolution, which sought independence from Mexico.        
    thatch Thatch roofs are usually made of straw, leaves, or a similar organic material.        
    the East India Company The East India Company was an English company formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies" that ended up seizing control of the Indian subcontinent.        
    The Hague The Hague (Den Haag in Dutch) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands. Beginning in 1588, it was the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic.        
    the Middle Stone Age The Middle Stone Age was a period of African prehistory between the Early Stone Age and the Later Stone Age, generally considered to have begun around 280,000 years ago and ended around 50–25,000 years ago.        
    the Pax Romana The Pax Romana (Roman Peace) was a period of relative peace in the Roman Empire for a period of about 200 years—from the time of Augustus until the political instability of the 3rd century C.E.        
    The pediment The pediment is a triangular element on the exterior of a classical building, frequently decorated with sculpture.        
    the swadeshi movement The swadeshi movement was a protest movement fueled by anticolonial sentiment and aimed at economic and cultural self-reliance.        
    the unification of Italy in 1860 The unification of Italy refers to a consolidation of the different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy.        
    Thebes Thebes was an ancient Greek city located in central Greece.        
    Theodora Empress Theodora ruled as regent for her son, Michael III, from 842–856.        
    Theodosian Code The Theodosian Code was a collection of Roman law issued in 438 by Theodosius II and Valentinian III.        
    Theoktistos Theoktistos was a eunuch and Byzantine official who served as a regent for the young emperor Michael III and advisor to Michael’s mother, the empress Theodora.        
    theology of images Those who argued in favor of images during the Iconoclastic controversy of the eighth and ninth centuries developed religious justifications for sacred images, or "icons" — creating a theology of images.        
    Theophilus Emperor Theophilos reigned from 829–842.        
    Theotokos "Theotokos" is a Greek term for the Virgin Mary that means "God-bearer."        
    Theotokos Pammakaristos "Theotokos Pammakaristos" is a title of the Virgin Mary, meaning "All-blessed God-bearer."        
    Theotokos tou Libos Dedicated to the Virgin Mary (“Theotokos” literally means “God-bearer”), this monastery is also named for its founder, Constantine Lips, an aristocrat and military official.        
    Theravada Buddhism Theravada translates to the “speech of the elders,” and is considered the oldest extant lineage of Buddhism that adheres to the Buddha’s original teachings or dharma.        
    Thermoluminescence Thermoluminescence is a geological method used for dating, especially objects made of clay.        
    Theseus and Ariadne In Greek mythology, the hero Theseus slew the Minotaur (a creature with the head of a bull and the body of a man) with aid from Ariadne, then sailed with her to the island of Naxos.        
    Thomas Becket Thomas Becket was an English archbishop who was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170. He was canonized as a saint and is venerated as a martyr.        
    three-quarter view A three-quarter view is halfway between frontal and profile views.        
    Tigray region Tigray is the northernmost of the nine regions of Ethiopia.        
    tilting Tilting is a type of jousting, a sport in which two opponents on horseback fight with lances.        
    Timucua Timucua, pronounced Tee-MOO-qua, were native Floridians. This once populous people ceased to exist by the early 19th century as a result of European disease, enslavement, and other pressures.        
    Timucua Timucua, pronounced Tee-MOO-qua, were native Floridians. This once populous people ceased to exist by the early 19th century as a result of European disease, enslavement, and other pressures.        
    Timucua Timucua, pronounced Tee-MOO-qua, were native Floridians. This once populous people ceased to exist by the early 19th century as a result of European disease, enslavement, and other pressures.        
    Titus Tatius According to the Roman foundation myth, Titus Tatius was king of the neighboring Sabines. After the Romans abducted women from his kingdom, he waged a famous war on Romulus before reconciling and ruling jointly with him for five years until he was assassinated.        
    Tlaxcala Tlaxcala was a city-state in central Mexico.        
    tocapu Tocapu are compartmentalized geometric designs found in Inca textiles.        
    toga picta In Roman tradition, the toga picta, or painted toga, was a purple toga richly embroidered with gold. It was typically worn by victorious generals and other important figures.        
    togate Togate refers to the wearing of a toga, a traditional Roman garment made from a large, semicircular piece of cloth that was draped over the shoulders and around the body.        
    tooling Tooling refers to working a gilt surface.        
    Torah ark The Torah ark is the sacred place where the Torah scrolls are kept, usually taking the form of a chest, cupboard, or closet, often located in a niche.        
    transept In this case, the transept is a space which crosses the main axis of the mosque.        
    transept A transept is a space that projects at a right angle from the nave of a church.        
    transept A transept is a section of a church built perpendicular to the main gathering area of the church (the nave), which together form a cross shape when viewed from above.        
    transepts The transepts are sections of a church built perpendicular to the main gathering area of the church (the nave), which together form a cross shape when viewed from above.        
    Transubstantiation The Catholic belief that the bread and wine transform (or transubstantiate) into the body and blood of Christ during Mass.        
    Transubstantiation The Catholic belief that the bread and wine transform (or transubstantiate) into the body and blood of Christ during Mass.        
    trapeza "Trapeza," Greek for "table," refers to the refectory, or dining hall, of a monastery.        
    trasnational Transnational refers to extending beyond national boundaries.        
    Treaty of Tordesillas The Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement between Spain and Portugal that divided the earth into two parts, giving Spain dominion over territories in the west (the Americas) and Portugal power over the east (Africa and Asia).        
    Tribute Tribute is a form of payment made to a ruling power or state.        
    triclia A triclia is an open, ceremonial banqueting structure found above the catacombs in Rome        
    Triconch "Triconch," Greek for "three shells," refers to a building with three apses.        
    tripartite sanctuary In Byzantine churches, the sanctuary (or bema), where the altar was located, was often divided into three rooms        
    tripartite sanctuary In Byzantine churches, the sanctuary (or bema), where the altar was located, was often divided into three rooms        
    triptych A triptych is a three-paneled altarpiece.        
    triptych A picture or relief carving on three panels, typically hinged, and often used as an altarpiece.        
    triptych A triptych is a three-paneled altarpiece.        
    triumphs A triumph was a victory celebration inherited from Rome that featured a triumphal parade into the capital with troops, captives, booty, and the victorious emperor.        
    trompe l’oeil          
    trompe l’oeil Trompe l’oeil is French for “fool the eye”        
    trompe l’oeil French for "fool the eye"        
    trompe l’oeil A “trompe l’oeil” (“fool the eye”) painting is one that tricks the eye into thinking the objects in it are real.        
    Trussed Trussed means tied up, usually in reference to an animal meant for cooking.        
    trussed timber roof A trussed roof is a timber-frame roof with supporting struts that connect the rafters and tie beams.        
    tuff Tuff is a type of rock made of volcanic ash.        
    tufo Tufo, also referred to as tuff or volcanc tuff, is a type of rock formed from the consolidation of volcanic ash. The geologic landscape of central Italy is marked by numerous sprawling deposits of tufo.        
    Turko-Islamic The first sultan of the Sultanate was a Turk from Central Asia named Qutb al-Din Aibak (pronounced "aye-buhk"). He was a general in the Islamic Ghurid dynasty of Afghanistan when he first arrived in India.        
    Tuscany Tuscany is a region in central Italy.        
    Type site A type site is considered the model of a particular archaeological culture.        
    typikon A monastic typikon was a document outlining the organization, rules, and liturgical observances for a monastery.        
    Tyrrhenian Italy Central Tyrrhenian Italy refers to the area of western central Italy that is drained by the Tiber river, a major watercourse that empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea. This area in antiquity includes cultural regions such as Latium and Etruria and roughly corresponds to the modern Italian provinces of Lazio and Tuscany.        
    ukiyo-e Ukiyo-e literally translates to “pictures of the floating world”; it refers broadly to prints and paintings from the seventeenth to nineteenth century that most commonly depicted genre scenes and featured courtesans and actors.        
    uncanny Something is uncanny when it is eerily familiar.        
    Upper Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic refers to the period between approximately 40,000 and 10,000 years ago.
    "Upper" is the most recent of three sub-divisions of the Paleolithic period (Lower, Middle and Upper). The word itself is made of two parts. "Paleo" which means old and "lithic" which means stone. Stone Age is a reference to the chronology of material technology of a given time. The Stone Age comes before the Bronze Age for example.
    Paleolithic is the oldest of three stone-age periods (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic). Thus "Upper Paleolithic" refers to the most recent period of the old stone age.
           
    ushnisha The ushnisha is a cranial protuberance that is one of the 32 marks of the Buddha.        
    usury Usury refers to charging interest for a loan.        
    vahana Vahanas are a deity’s mount or vehicle. Vahanas typically take the form of an animal and are specific to a particular deity. Shiva’s vahana is a bull named Nandi.        
    vanguard Vanguard refers here to artists leading the way in new developments or ideas.        
    vassal A vassal is someone who swears allegiance to a higher-ranking person or entity.        
    Vedic The Vedas (Sanskrit for “knowledge”) is a body of texts on moral principles, ritual, and liturgy. The Vedas would influence the development of the Hindu religion.        
    Veneto region The Veneto is a northeastern region in Italy stretching from the Dolomite Mountains to the Adriatic Sea.        
    vernacular The local common language spoken by people, such as Italian.        
    verso Verso means either a left-hand page in a book, or the reverse side of a page. In this case, it refers to the back of the Morgan Leaf.        
    vertiginous Causing vertigo, especially by being extremely high or steep.        
    Via Aurelia The Via Aurelia, or Aurelian Way, was a Roman road constructed in approximately the third century B.C.E.        
    Via Triumphalis The Triumphal Way (the exact route is disputed) was the route taken by triumphal processions that celebrated a victorious general and his army, often with booty and prisoners.        
    viceregal Viceregal refers to the viceroyalty of New Spain—the period when the country that is today Mexico was part of a Spanish colony in North America from 1522 to 1821, ruled by a viceroy (a representative of the Spanish King).        
    viceroy The viceroy is the representative of (in this case) the Portuguese monarchy and ruler of Brazil.        
    viceroyalties Viceroyalties were lands ruled by a viceroy who was second to—and a stand-in for—the Spanish king        
    viceroyalty Spanish territories in the Americas were officially known as viceroyalties, or lands ruled by viceroys who were second to—and a stand-in for—the Spanish king.        
    Viceroyalty of New Granada The Viceroyalty of New Granada included all or parts of the modern nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.        
    Vietnam The Vietnamese, who dominated the far north, were under the political control of China for most of the first millennium until 980 C.E. The Vietnamese moved south over the centuries, finally by the 16th century occupied what is today the country of Vietnam. The region of Champa was absorbed into Vietnam, and the Chams remained in Vietnam or migrated to other regions, including Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos.        
    Vishnu Like Shiva, Vishnu is a major deity in the Hindu pantheon. Followers of Vishnu are known as Vaishnavites.He is believed to have ten incarnations, one of which is the popular god Krishna. Vishnu’s consort is Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth.        
    Visigoths Between the fifth and eighth centuries, the Iberian Peninsula was led by this group of Germanic peoples who eventually adopted Christianity and were later defeated by Muslims from the Middle East and North Africa in 711.        
    Visigoths A non-Roman group who migrated into western Europe in the early middle ages.        
    Visnu Anantasayana Visnu sleeping on the cosmic ocean supported by the coils of the serpent Ananta (which is the word for infinite).        
    Vita Basilii The Vita Basilii is an anonymous biography of Byzantine emperor Basil I        
    Vitruvius Vitruvius was a first-century Roman architect whose Ten Books on Architecture became an important text for Renaissance builders.        
    Volute A volute is the scroll that distinguishes an Ionic capital.        
    volutes A volute is a spiraling scroll that projects from the body of a capital.        
    Votives Votives, also known as votive offerings, are objects placed in sacred spaces as gifts for divine beings.        
    voussoirs Voussoirs are stones that form part of the building blocks of arches and vaults. In al-Andalus, voussoirs often alternated in colors such as red and white, which can also be found in the eastern Mediterranean.        
    W.E.B. DuBois W.E.B. DuBois (1868–1963) was a Black historian, sociologist, civil rights activist, and cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).        
    waka Waka are 5-line poems that speak to the confluence of human emotions and observations about the natural world, divided into 2 sections, namely a 2-line part responding to a 3-line part.        
    War of Reform in Mexico (1857–1860) The War of Reform was a civil war in Mexico between Liberals, who wanted to implement reforms limiting the power of the military and Catholic church, and Conservatives, who wanted to maintain that power.        
    Warring States period The Warring States period is the second half of the Eastern Zhou period (770–256 B.C.E.).        
    Weimar The Weimar Republic is the name for the government of Germany between 1918 and 1933. Berlin was known as a cultural and commercial metropolis during these years, and was especially famous for its cabarets, many of which were located around Potsdamer Platz.        
    Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic was the short-lived democratic government in Germany between the end of World War I in 1918 and the rise of the Nazis in 1933.        
    west tower Though towers may appear in various places throughout a cathedral, it is typical to find a tower or towers over the entrance on the west end.        
    Western Church The Western Church refers to the Latin-speaking Catholic church based in Rome, to differentiate it from the Greek-speaking Eastern church then based in Constantinople.        
    wet nurse A wet nurse is a woman who is hired to nurse a newborn baby, often when the mother is not available. During the time of Michelangelo, it was custom for aristocratic mothers to hire one for their infants.        
    wet nurse A wet nurse is a female caregiver employed to breastfeed and care for the baby of an employer. Having a wet nurse was common among the wealthy at this time.        
    What does aniconic mean? "aniconic" here refers to the symbolic representation of a divine or supernatural figure (as opposed to representation in human form)        
    What is a mission church? A Mission is an effort to spread the Christian faith. Missions often involve sending individuals or groups (called "missionaries") across geographical boundaries to convert people to Christianity. Missionaries often establish churches to help them in this work.        
    What is a mission church? A Mission is an effort to spread the Christian faith. Missions often involve sending individuals or groups (called "missionaries") across geographical boundaries to convert people to Christianity. Missionaries often establish churches to help them in this work.        
    What is a shogun? "The term shogun...is an ancient military term that was adopted in the twelfth century for the dominant warlord who held political and martial power in Japan while the emperor in Kyoto maintained his position as figural head of state and cultural leader. The members of the Minamoto, Ashikaga, and Tokugawa families who held the position of shogun successively from the twelfth to nineteenth centuries varied greatly in the extent and security of their authority and the stability and prosperity of the realm under their command." (Department of Asian Art. "Shoguns and Art". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/shga/hd_shga.htm (October 2004))        
    What is a viceroy and a viceroyalty? A viceroy (who leads a territory called a viceroyalty) is a royal official who runs a country or state as a representative of a monarch. In the case of New Spain, the monarch represented by the viceroy was the King of Spain.        
    What is a viceroy and a viceroyalty? A viceroy (who leads a territory called a viceroyalty) is a royal official who runs a country or state as a representative of a monarch. In the case of New Spain, the monarch represented by the viceroy was the King of Spain.        
    What is mezzotint? According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The term reveals its meaning. A mezzotint–from the Italian mezzo ("half") and tinta ("tone")–presents halftones. Specifically, in this type of intaglio (nonrelief) print, subtle gradations of light and shade, rather than lines, form the image." (Elizabeth E. Barker, "The Printed Image in the West: Mezzotint", in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mztn/hd_mztn.htm)        
    What is slip? Slip is a mixture of refined clay and water applied to the surface of a ceramic object prior to firing. (Dr. James Terry, "Art History Glossary," www.blog.stephens.edu/arh101glossary/)        
    What is Socialist Realism? Socialist Realism was a style of art found especially in the Soviet Union, China, other communist nations from the 1930s until the 1980s. Its images of happy, healthy, and productive workers celebrated the role of labor in making the state strong. It used bright colors and bold, easily understood graphics and was often used as propaganda.        
    What is Wesleyanism? Wesleyanism is a Protestant denomination following the theology of John Wesley. Wesleyanism is associated with the Methodist Church.        
    What is Zen Buddhism? "The essential element of Zen Buddhism is found in its name, for Zen means meditation. Zen teaches that enlightenment is achieved through the profound realization that one is already an enlightened being. This awakening can happen gradually or in a flash of insight (as emphasized by the Soto and Rinzai schools, respectively). But in either case, it is the result of the efforts one makes on their own. Deities and scriptures can offer only limited assistance. Zen traces its origins to India, but it was formalized in China. Chan, as it is known in China, was transmitted to Japan and took root there in the thirteenth century." (Department of Asian Art, "Zen Buddhism" in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/zen/hd_zen.htm.)        
    What was the “grand manner”? According to The National Gallery of Art, "Eighteenth-century British artists and patrons used the terms "Grand Manner" or "Great Style" to describe paintings that utilized visual metaphors. By extension, the Grand Manner came to include portraiture—especially at full length and in life size—accompanied by settings and accessories that conveyed the dignified status of the sitters."        
    Wheel-made In wheel-made pottery, clay is spun on a horizontal surface and the potter uses his or her hands to shape it, usually into a hollow form.        
    Whitechapel Whitechapel, along with the enclaves of Wapping, Aldgate, Bethnal Green, Mile End, Limehouse, Bow, Bromley-by-Bow, Poplar, Shadwell and Stepney (collectively known today as "the East End"), was classic "Dickensian" London, with problems of poverty and overcrowding.        
    Who are the Apostles? The apostles are the twelve closest followers of Jesus, including Saint Peter, Saint Andrew, Saint James (the Greater), Saint John the Evangelist, Saint Thomas, Saint James (the Lesser), Saint Jude, Saint Philip, Saint Bartholomew, Saint Matthew, Saint Simon, and Judus Isacariot who was replaced by Saint Matthias. The apostles are sometimes referred to as disciples.        
    Who was Joseph Stalin? Joseph Stalin led the Soviet Union from the 1920s until his death in 1953. He was largely responsible for the push for rapid industrialization and the forced collectivization of farms in the USSR, initiatives that caused wide-spread hardship and famines resulting in the deaths of millions. Stalin entered into a pact with Hitler that allowed Germany to invade Poland though he would later repulse Nazi aggression. Stalin became infamous for condemning the educated elite as enemies of the working class and for political show trials.        
    Who were Abaqa Khan, Il-khan, and Ghengis Khan? Abaqa Khan was a Mongol ruler or "Il-khan" who controlled Persian Ilkhanate or kingdom (present-day Iran) from 1265 until 1282. Abaqa Khan was the great-grandson of Ghengis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire.        
    Who were the Minamoto and the Taira samurai clans? The Taira and Minamoto samurai clans may have originated in the early 9th century when emperors demoted members of their families to the lesser rank of noble. The samurai Taira clan (also known as Heike) was one of four powerful families during this period. The samurai Minamoto clan (also known as Genji) was another of the four noble families of this period.        
    William Penn signed with the Lenni Lenape The "Peace Treaty" was reported to have ended with these words of the Native Americans as quoted by Governor Gordon at the Council at Conestoga, May 26, 1728: We will be brethren, my people and your people, as the children of one father. All the paths shall be open to the Christian and the Indian. The doors of the Christian shall be open to the Indian and the wigwam of the Indian shall be open to the Christian.        
    withers The highest part of the back of a horse.        
    yamato-e Born in the Heian period, yamato-e is a painting style understood as “Japanese” as opposed to “Chinese” or otherwise “foreign.” It refers to specific formats, such as folding screens and room partitions, and to specific themes, including landscapes with recognizably Japanese features and illustrations of Japanese poetry, history, and mythology.        
    Yiddish Yiddish is spoken by many central and eastern European Jews and is based on Middle High German.        
    Yiddish Yiddish is spoken by many central and eastern European Jews and is based on Middle High German.        
    zaibatsu Zaibatsu refers to Japanese industrial and financial conglomerates whose economic and socio-political influence dominated Japan from the Meiji period to the end of World War II.        
    zemi Zemis formed the basis of Taíno religion and politics, and there were many varieties. The three-point stone zemis had a general form that resembled the yucca crop. Many of the small three-point varieties have been found buried in what were once agricultural fields, confirming their use in land fertility rituals. Some were chiefly seats (dúhos) or anthropomorphized receptacles for the ritual smoking of a snuff mixture called cohoba. Powerful leaders had the most potent zemis, and they used them as diplomatic gifts to forge alliances. According to oral testimony taken by Pané, zemis could speak and move, and they frequently communicated to the shaman, carver, or patron what form they wished to take.        
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