Skip to main content
Humanities Libertexts

6: The Sophisticated Art of Cultures (200 CE – 1400 CE)

  • Page ID
    56269
  • Civilizations have emerged, expanded and collapsed over the last 40,000 years in previous chapters. Civilizations have ascended to power independently due to geographic location (Jomon) or learned to coexist together (Mesopotamia). To become a civilization, people must be capable of social development, sustainable farming/harvesting, obtaining access to water, organizing a government, emanating progress and innovation, and possessing an enlightened culture. The word “civilization” is derived from the Latin “civilis”.

    • 6.1: Overview
      Civilizations have emerged, expanded, and collapsed over the last 40,000 years in previous chapters. Civilizations have ascended to power independently due to geographic location (Jomon) or learned to coexist together (Mesopotamia). To become a civilization, people must be capable of social development, sustainable farming/harvesting, obtaining access to water, organizing a government, emanating progress and innovation, and possessing an enlightened culture.
    • 6.2: Late Roman Empire (3rd C – 6th C)
      One of the most powerful empires to date was the Roman Empire, at one period, ruling the entire Mediterranean Sea. Pagan power and religion shaped this passionate empire, and at the waning end of their reign, Christianity began to absorb the citizens, creating important religious centers.
    • 6.3: Byzantine (330 CE – 1453 CE)
      The new “Roman Capital” signified the beginning of the Byzantine period extending from 330 CE as Christianity grew and replacing the Roman Empire until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE.
    • 6.4: Islamic Golden Age (mid 7th C – mid 13th C)
      The Islamic Golden Age started in the mid 7th century CE on the Saudi Arabian Peninsula and lasted until the mid 13th century, expanding into Northern Africa, Spain, and Western Asia by 750 CE.
    • 6.5: Viking (Late 8th C – late 11th C)
      The Viking civilization started in the Scandinavian countries and spread across northern and central Europe from the late 8th century to the late 11th century.
    • 6.6: Romanesque (1000 CE – 1150 CE)
      The Romanesque period began in 1000 CE to 1150 CE and grew as the ideas of monasticism expanded, and more people pursued a life of spiritual work. Europe’s art scene was expanding, and art was no longer in the exclusive purview of the ruling class and church hierarchy.
    • 6.7: Gothic (12th C – end of 15th C)
      Gothic architecture in the cathedrals led the movement for Gothic art as it emerged from France and spread throughout Europe with Christian iconography following the Romanesque period in the 12th century.
    • 6.8: Igbo of Nigeria (10th C – 13th C)
      The Igbo of Nigeria are believed to have originated in an area near the confluence of the Niger and Benue Rivers in Nigeria, moving onto the Awka-Orlu plateau about four to five thousand years ago.
    • 6.9: Djenne of Mali (9th C – 15th C)
      Djenne-Djenno is one of the oldest known cities in sub-Saharan Africa, located on the Niger River in Mali, and may have participated in extended trade. They reached a high peak in the 9th century before starting to decline. Islam was the main religion, and Djenne is the home of the Great Mosque today.
    • 6.10: Gupta Period (320 CE – 550 CE)
      Maharaja Sri Gupta, the notable leader of the ancient Indian empire and founder of the Gupta Period, was known for his support of the arts and innovation.
    • 6.11: Khmer Empire (802 CE – 1431 CE)
      At its peak, the Khmer Empire controlled most of Southeast Asia, including the current areas of Cambodia, Laos, southern Vietnam, and Thailand along the Mekong River, the world’s seventh longest river.
    • 6.12: Song Dynasty (960 CE – 1276 CE)
      The Song Dynasty had two distinct reigns; the Northern Song from 960 CE – 1127 CE, who controlled most of the inner part of China, and the Southern Song in 1127 CE – 1279 CE ruling in the southern regions.
    • 6.13: Asuka, Nara and Heian Periods (538 CE – 1185 CE)
      The Asuka Period lasted from 538 CE to 710 CE and is known for its social and artistic transformations based on the introduction of Buddhism from the Koreans.
    • 6.14: Rapa Nui Island (7th CE est. – ongoing)
      The most remote island in the world is Rapa Nui (named Easter Island by the Europeans), over two thousand miles from any other island or mainland.
    • 6.15: Ancestral Puebloans (700 CE – 1300 CE)
      The Ancestral Puebloans lived in the United States in the four-corners area where the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah meet. They lived in the area from approximately 700 CE to 1300 CE.
    • 6.16: Mayan Classic Period (250 CE – 1539 CE)
      The classic Mayan period is defined as the era the Mayans created sculpted monuments on the Yucatan peninsula, approximately from 250 CE to 1539 CE.
    • 6.17: Incan Empire (Early 12th C – 1572)
      In pre-Columbian America, the Incan Empire was established in Peru in the early 12th century and lasted until the Spanish invaded in 1532 CE.
    • 6.18: Aztecs (14th – 16th)
      The Aztecs dominated from the 14th to the 16th centuries inhabiting Tenochtitlan and two other associated city-states.
    • 6.19: Conclusion and Contrast
    • 6.20: Chapter Six Attributions

    • Was this article helpful?