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Act 1

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    Act I, Scene 1

    A desert [open] place.

    Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches.

    • First Witch. When shall we three meet again 
      In thunder, lightning, or in rain?
    • Second Witch. When the hurlyburly's done, 
      When the battle's lost and won.5
    • Third Witch. That will be ere the set of sun.
    • First Witch. Where the place?
    • Second Witch. Upon the heath.
    • Third Witch. There to meet with Macbeth.
    • First Witch. I come, Graymalkin!10
    • Second Witch. Paddock calls.
    • Third Witch. Anon.
    • All. Fair is foul, and foul is fair: 
      Hover through the fog and filthy air.



    Act I, Scene 2

    A camp near Forres.     

    [Alarum within. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONALBAIN,] [p]LENNOX, with Attendants, meeting a bleeding Sergeant]

    • Duncan. What bloody man is that? He can report, 
      As seemeth by his plight, of the revolt 
      The newest state.20
    • Malcolm. This is the sergeant 
      Who like a good and hardy soldier fought 
      'Gainst my captivity. Hail, brave friend! 
      Say to the king the knowledge of the broil 
      As thou didst leave it.25
    • Sergeant. Doubtful it stood; 
      As two spent swimmers, that do cling together 
      And choke their art. The merciless Macdonwald— 
      Worthy to be a rebel, for to that 
      The multiplying villanies of nature 30
      Do swarm upon him—from the western isles 
      Of kerns and gallowglasses is supplied; 
      And fortune, on his damned quarrel smiling, 
      Show'd like a rebel's whore: but all's too weak: 
      For brave Macbeth—well he deserves that name— 35
      Disdaining fortune, with his brandish'd steel, 
      Which smoked with bloody execution, 
      Like valour's minion carved out his passage 
      Till he faced the slave; 
      Which ne'er shook hands, nor bade farewell to him, 40
      Till he unseam'd him from the nave to the chaps, 
      And fix'd his head upon our battlements.
    • Duncan. O valiant cousin! worthy gentleman!
    • Sergeant. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection 
      Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders break, 45
      So from that spring whence comfort seem'd to come 
      Discomfort swells. Mark, king of Scotland, mark: 
      No sooner justice had with valour arm'd 
      Compell'd these skipping kerns to trust their heels, 
      But the Norweyan lord surveying vantage, 50
      With furbish'd arms and new supplies of men 
      Began a fresh assault.
    • Duncan. Dismay'd not this 
      Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo?
    • Sergeant. Yes; 55
      As sparrows eagles, or the hare the lion. 
      If I say sooth, I must report they were 
      As cannons overcharged with double cracks, so they 
      Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe: 
      Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds, 60
      Or memorise another Golgotha, 
      I cannot tell. 
      But I am faint, my gashes cry for help.
    • Duncan. So well thy words become thee as thy wounds; 
      They smack of honour both. Go get him surgeons. 65
      [Exit Sergeant, attended] 
      Who comes here?

    [Enter ROSS]

    • Malcolm. The worthy thane of Ross.
    • Lennox. What a haste looks through his eyes! So should he look 70
      That seems to speak things strange.
    • Ross. God save the king!
    • Duncan. Whence camest thou, worthy thane?
    • Ross. From Fife, great king; 
      Where the Norweyan banners flout the sky 75
      And fan our people cold. Norway himself, 
      With terrible numbers, 
      Assisted by that most disloyal traitor 
      The thane of Cawdor, began a dismal conflict; 
      Till that Bellona's bridegroom, lapp'd in proof, 80
      Confronted him with self-comparisons, 
      Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm. 
      Curbing his lavish spirit: and, to conclude, 
      The victory fell on us.
    • Duncan. Great happiness!85
    • Ross. That now 
      Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition: 
      Nor would we deign him burial of his men 
      Till he disbursed at Saint Colme's inch 
      Ten thousand dollars to our general use.90
    • Duncan. No more that thane of Cawdor shall deceive 
      Our bosom interest: go pronounce his present death, 
      And with his former title greet Macbeth.
    • Ross. I'll see it done.
    • Duncan. What he hath lost noble Macbeth hath won.95



    Act I, Scene 3

    A heath near Forres.

    [Thunder. Enter the three Witches]

    • First Witch. Where hast thou been, sister?
    • Second Witch. Killing swine.
    • Third Witch. Sister, where thou?100
    • First Witch. A sailor's wife had chestnuts in her lap, 
      And munch'd, and munch'd, and munch'd:— 
      'Give me,' quoth I: 
      'Aroint thee, witch!' the rump-fed ronyon cries. 
      Her husband's to Aleppo gone, master o' the Tiger: 105
      But in a sieve I'll thither sail, 
      And, like a rat without a tail, 
      I'll do, I'll do, and I'll do.
    • Second Witch. I'll give thee a wind.
    • First Witch. Thou'rt kind.110
    • Third Witch. And I another.
    • First Witch. I myself have all the other, 
      And the very ports they blow, 
      All the quarters that they know 
      I' the shipman's card. 115
      I will drain him dry as hay: 
      Sleep shall neither night nor day 
      Hang upon his pent-house lid; 
      He shall live a man forbid: 
      Weary se'nnights nine times nine 120
      Shall he dwindle, peak and pine: 
      Though his bark cannot be lost, 
      Yet it shall be tempest-tost. 
      Look what I have.
    • Second Witch. Show me, show me.125
    • First Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumb, 
      Wreck'd as homeward he did come.

    [Drum within]

    • Third Witch. A drum, a drum! 
      Macbeth doth come.130
    • All. The weird sisters, hand in hand, 
      Posters of the sea and land, 
      Thus do go about, about: 
      Thrice to thine and thrice to mine 
      And thrice again, to make up nine. 135
      Peace! the charm's wound up.

    [Enter MACBETH and BANQUO]

    • Macbeth. So foul and fair a day I have not seen.
    • Banquo. How far is't call'd to Forres? What are these 
      So wither'd and so wild in their attire, 140
      That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth, 
      And yet are on't? Live you? or are you aught 
      That man may question? You seem to understand me, 
      By each at once her chappy finger laying 
      Upon her skinny lips: you should be women, 145
      And yet your beards forbid me to interpret 
      That you are so.
    • Macbeth. Speak, if you can: what are you?
    • First Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane of Glamis!
    • Second Witch. All hail, Macbeth, hail to thee, thane of Cawdor!150
    • Third Witch. All hail, Macbeth, thou shalt be king hereafter!
    • Banquo. Good sir, why do you start; and seem to fear 
      Things that do sound so fair? I' the name of truth, 
      Are ye fantastical, or that indeed 
      Which outwardly ye show? My noble partner 155
      You greet with present grace and great prediction 
      Of noble having and of royal hope, 
      That he seems rapt withal: to me you speak not. 
      If you can look into the seeds of time, 
      And say which grain will grow and which will not, 160
      Speak then to me, who neither beg nor fear 
      Your favours nor your hate.
    • First Witch. Hail!
    • Second Witch. Hail!
    • Third Witch. Hail!165
    • First Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater.
    • Second Witch. Not so happy, yet much happier.
    • Third Witch. Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none: 
      So all hail, Macbeth and Banquo!
    • First Witch. Banquo and Macbeth, all hail!170
    • Macbeth. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me more: 
      By Sinel's death I know I am thane of Glamis; 
      But how of Cawdor? the thane of Cawdor lives, 
      A prosperous gentleman; and to be king 
      Stands not within the prospect of belief, 175
      No more than to be Cawdor. Say from whence 
      You owe this strange intelligence? or why 
      Upon this blasted heath you stop our way 
      With such prophetic greeting? Speak, I charge you.

    [Witches vanish]

    • Banquo. The earth hath bubbles, as the water has, 
      And these are of them. Whither are they vanish'd?
    • Macbeth. Into the air; and what seem'd corporal melted 
      As breath into the wind. Would they had stay'd!
    • Banquo. Were such things here as we do speak about? 185
      Or have we eaten on the insane root 
      That takes the reason prisoner?
    • Macbeth. Your children shall be kings.
    • Banquo. You shall be king.
    • Macbeth. And thane of Cawdor too: went it not so?190
    • Banquo. To the selfsame tune and words. Who's here?

    [Enter ROSS and ANGUS]

    • Ross. The king hath happily received, Macbeth, 
      The news of thy success; and when he reads 
      Thy personal venture in the rebels' fight, 195
      His wonders and his praises do contend 
      Which should be thine or his: silenced with that, 
      In viewing o'er the rest o' the selfsame day, 
      He finds thee in the stout Norweyan ranks, 
      Nothing afeard of what thyself didst make, 200
      Strange images of death. As thick as hail 
      Came post with post; and every one did bear 
      Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence, 
      And pour'd them down before him.
    • Angus. We are sent 205
      To give thee from our royal master thanks; 
      Only to herald thee into his sight, 
      Not pay thee.
    • Ross. And, for an earnest of a greater honour, 
      He bade me, from him, call thee thane of Cawdor: 210
      In which addition, hail, most worthy thane! 
      For it is thine.
    • Banquo. What, can the devil speak true?
    • Macbeth. The thane of Cawdor lives: why do you dress me 
      In borrow'd robes?215
    • Angus. Who was the thane lives yet; 
      But under heavy judgment bears that life 
      Which he deserves to lose. Whether he was combined 
      With those of Norway, or did line the rebel 
      With hidden help and vantage, or that with both 220
      He labour'd in his country's wreck, I know not; 
      But treasons capital, confess'd and proved, 
      Have overthrown him.
    • Macbeth. [Aside] Glamis, and thane of Cawdor! 
      The greatest is behind. 225
      [To ROSS and ANGUS] 
      Thanks for your pains. 
      [To BANQUO] 
      Do you not hope your children shall be kings, 
      When those that gave the thane of Cawdor to me 230
      Promised no less to them?
    • Banquo. That trusted home 
      Might yet enkindle you unto the crown, 
      Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange: 
      And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, 235
      The instruments of darkness tell us truths, 
      Win us with honest trifles, to betray's 
      In deepest consequence. 
      Cousins, a word, I pray you.
    • Macbeth. [Aside]. Two truths are told, 240
      As happy prologues to the swelling act 
      Of the imperial theme.—I thank you, gentlemen. 
      [Aside] This supernatural soliciting] 
      Cannot be ill, cannot be good: if ill, 
      Why hath it given me earnest of success, 245
      Commencing in a truth? I am thane of Cawdor: 
      If good, why do I yield to that suggestion 
      Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair 
      And make my seated heart knock at my ribs, 
      Against the use of nature? Present fears 250
      Are less than horrible imaginings: 
      My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical, 
      Shakes so my single state of man that function 
      Is smother'd in surmise, and nothing is 
      But what is not.255
    • Banquo. Look, how our partner's rapt.
    • Macbeth. [Aside] If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me, 
      Without my stir.
    • Banquo. New horrors come upon him, 
      Like our strange garments, cleave not to their mould 260
      But with the aid of use.
    • Macbeth. [Aside] Come what come may, 
      Time and the hour runs through the roughest day.
    • Banquo. Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your leisure.
    • Macbeth. Give me your favour: my dull brain was wrought 265
      With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your pains 
      Are register'd where every day I turn 
      The leaf to read them. Let us toward the king. 
      Think upon what hath chanced, and, at more time, 
      The interim having weigh'd it, let us speak 270
      Our free hearts each to other.
    • Banquo. Very gladly.
    • Macbeth. Till then, enough. Come, friends.


    Act I, Scene 4

    Forres. The palace. 

    [Flourish. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONALBAIN, LENNOX, and Attendants]

    • Duncan. Is execution done on Cawdor? Are not 
      Those in commission yet return'd?
    • Malcolm. My liege, 
      They are not yet come back. But I have spoke 
      With one that saw him die: who did report 280
      That very frankly he confess'd his treasons, 
      Implored your highness' pardon and set forth 
      A deep repentance: nothing in his life 
      Became him like the leaving it; he died 
      As one that had been studied in his death 285
      To throw away the dearest thing he owed, 
      As 'twere a careless trifle.
    • Duncan. There's no art 
      To find the mind's construction in the face: 
      He was a gentleman on whom I built 290
      An absolute trust. 
      [Enter MACBETH, BANQUO, ROSS, and ANGUS] 
      O worthiest cousin! 
      The sin of my ingratitude even now 
      Was heavy on me: thou art so far before 295
      That swiftest wing of recompense is slow 
      To overtake thee. Would thou hadst less deserved, 
      That the proportion both of thanks and payment 
      Might have been mine! only I have left to say, 
      More is thy due than more than all can pay.300
    • Macbeth. The service and the loyalty I owe, 
      In doing it, pays itself. Your highness' part 
      Is to receive our duties; and our duties 
      Are to your throne and state children and servants, 
      Which do but what they should, by doing every thing 305
      Safe toward your love and honour.
    • Duncan. Welcome hither: 
      I have begun to plant thee, and will labour 
      To make thee full of growing. Noble Banquo, 
      That hast no less deserved, nor must be known 310
      No less to have done so, let me enfold thee 
      And hold thee to my heart.
    • Banquo. There if I grow, 
      The harvest is your own.
    • Duncan. My plenteous joys, 315
      Wanton in fulness, seek to hide themselves 
      In drops of sorrow. Sons, kinsmen, thanes, 
      And you whose places are the nearest, know 
      We will establish our estate upon 
      Our eldest, Malcolm, whom we name hereafter 320
      The Prince of Cumberland; which honour must 
      Not unaccompanied invest him only, 
      But signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine 
      On all deservers. From hence to Inverness, 
      And bind us further to you.325
    • Macbeth. The rest is labour, which is not used for you: 
      I'll be myself the harbinger and make joyful 
      The hearing of my wife with your approach; 
      So humbly take my leave.
    • Duncan. My worthy Cawdor!330
    • Macbeth. [Aside] The Prince of Cumberland! that is a step 
      On which I must fall down, or else o'erleap, 
      For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires; 
      Let not light see my black and deep desires: 
      The eye wink at the hand; yet let that be, 335
      Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see.


    • Duncan. True, worthy Banquo; he is full so valiant, 
      And in his commendations I am fed; 
      It is a banquet to me. Let's after him, 340
      Whose care is gone before to bid us welcome: 
      It is a peerless kinsman.

    [Flourish. Exeunt]


    Act I, Scene 5

    Inverness. Macbeth’s castle.

    [Enter LADY MACBETH, reading a letter]

    • Lady Macbeth. 'They met me in the day of success: and I have 345
      learned by the perfectest report, they have more in 
      them than mortal knowledge. When I burned in desire 
      to question them further, they made themselves air, 
      into which they vanished. Whiles I stood rapt in 
      the wonder of it, came missives from the king, who 350
      all-hailed me 'Thane of Cawdor;' by which title, 
      before, these weird sisters saluted me, and referred 
      me to the coming on of time, with 'Hail, king that 
      shalt be!' This have I thought good to deliver 
      thee, my dearest partner of greatness, that thou 355
      mightst not lose the dues of rejoicing, by being 
      ignorant of what greatness is promised thee. Lay it 
      to thy heart, and farewell.' 
      Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be 
      What thou art promised: yet do I fear thy nature; 360
      It is too full o' the milk of human kindness 
      To catch the nearest way: thou wouldst be great; 
      Art not without ambition, but without 
      The illness should attend it: what thou wouldst highly, 
      That wouldst thou holily; wouldst not play false, 365
      And yet wouldst wrongly win: thou'ldst have, great Glamis, 
      That which cries 'Thus thou must do, if thou have it; 
      And that which rather thou dost fear to do 
      Than wishest should be undone.' Hie thee hither, 
      That I may pour my spirits in thine ear; 370
      And chastise with the valour of my tongue 
      All that impedes thee from the golden round, 
      Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem 
      To have thee crown'd withal. 
      [Enter a Messenger] 375
      What is your tidings?
    • Messenger. The king comes here to-night.
    • Lady Macbeth. Thou'rt mad to say it: 
      Is not thy master with him? who, were't so, 
      Would have inform'd for preparation.380
    • Messenger. So please you, it is true: our thane is coming: 
      One of my fellows had the speed of him, 
      Who, almost dead for breath, had scarcely more 
      Than would make up his message.
    • Lady Macbeth. Give him tending; 385
      He brings great news. 
      [Exit Messenger] 
      The raven himself is hoarse 
      That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
      Under my battlements. Come, you spirits 390
      That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, 
      And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full 
      Of direst cruelty! make thick my blood; 
      Stop up the access and passage to remorse, 
      That no compunctious visitings of nature 395
      Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between 
      The effect and it! Come to my woman's breasts, 
      And take my milk for gall, you murdering ministers, 
      Wherever in your sightless substances 
      You wait on nature's mischief! Come, thick night, 400
      And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, 
      That my keen knife see not the wound it makes, 
      Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, 
      To cry 'Hold, hold!' 
      [Enter MACBETH] 405
      Great Glamis! worthy Cawdor! 
      Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter! 
      Thy letters have transported me beyond 
      This ignorant present, and I feel now 
      The future in the instant.410
    • Macbeth. My dearest love, 
      Duncan comes here to-night.
    • Lady Macbeth. And when goes hence?
    • Macbeth. To-morrow, as he purposes.
    • Lady Macbeth. O, never 415
      Shall sun that morrow see! 
      Your face, my thane, is as a book where men 
      May read strange matters. To beguile the time, 
      Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, 
      Your hand, your tongue: look like the innocent flower, 420
      But be the serpent under't. He that's coming 
      Must be provided for: and you shall put 
      This night's great business into my dispatch; 
      Which shall to all our nights and days to come 
      Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom.425
    • Macbeth. We will speak further.
    • Lady Macbeth. Only look up clear; 
      To alter favour ever is to fear: 
      Leave all the rest to me.



    Act I, Scene 6

    Before Macbeth’s castle.

    [Hautboys and torches. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM,] [p]DONALBAIN, BANQUO, LENNOX, MACDUFF, ROSS, ANGUS, and Attendants]

    • Duncan. This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air 
      Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
      Unto our gentle senses.435
    • Banquo. This guest of summer, 
      The temple-haunting martlet, does approve, 
      By his loved mansionry, that the heaven's breath 
      Smells wooingly here: no jutty, frieze, 
      Buttress, nor coign of vantage, but this bird 440
      Hath made his pendent bed and procreant cradle: 
      Where they most breed and haunt, I have observed, 
      The air is delicate.

    [Enter LADY MACBETH]

    • Duncan. See, see, our honour'd hostess! 445
      The love that follows us sometime is our trouble, 
      Which still we thank as love. Herein I teach you 
      How you shall bid God 'ild us for your pains, 
      And thank us for your trouble.
    • Lady Macbeth. All our service 450
      In every point twice done and then done double 
      Were poor and single business to contend 
      Against those honours deep and broad wherewith 
      Your majesty loads our house: for those of old, 
      And the late dignities heap'd up to them, 455
      We rest your hermits.
    • Duncan. Where's the thane of Cawdor? 
      We coursed him at the heels, and had a purpose 
      To be his purveyor: but he rides well; 
      And his great love, sharp as his spur, hath holp him 460
      To his home before us. Fair and noble hostess, 
      We are your guest to-night.
    • Lady Macbeth. Your servants ever 
      Have theirs, themselves and what is theirs, in compt, 
      To make their audit at your highness' pleasure, 465
      Still to return your own.
    • Duncan. Give me your hand; 
      Conduct me to mine host: we love him highly, 
      And shall continue our graces towards him. 
      By your leave, hostess.470



    Act I, Scene 7

    Macbeth’s castle.

    [Hautboys and torches. Enter a Sewer, and divers] [p]Servants with dishes and service, and pass over the stage. Then enter MACBETH]

    • Macbeth. If it were done when 'tis done, then 'twere well 
      It were done quickly: if the assassination 475
      Could trammel up the consequence, and catch 
      With his surcease success; that but this blow 
      Might be the be-all and the end-all here, 
      But here, upon this bank and shoal of time, 
      We'ld jump the life to come. But in these cases 480
      We still have judgment here; that we but teach 
      Bloody instructions, which, being taught, return 
      To plague the inventor: this even-handed justice 
      Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice 
      To our own lips. He's here in double trust; 485
      First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, 
      Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, 
      Who should against his murderer shut the door, 
      Not bear the knife myself. Besides, this Duncan 
      Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been 490
      So clear in his great office, that his virtues 
      Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against 
      The deep damnation of his taking-off; 
      And pity, like a naked new-born babe, 
      Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, horsed 495
      Upon the sightless couriers of the air, 
      Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye, 
      That tears shall drown the wind. I have no spur 
      To prick the sides of my intent, but only 
      Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself 500
      And falls on the other. 
      [Enter LADY MACBETH] 
      How now! what news?
    • Lady Macbeth. He has almost supp'd: why have you left the chamber?
    • Macbeth. Hath he ask'd for me?505
    • Lady Macbeth. Know you not he has?
    • Macbeth. We will proceed no further in this business: 
      He hath honour'd me of late; and I have bought 
      Golden opinions from all sorts of people, 
      Which would be worn now in their newest gloss, 510
      Not cast aside so soon.
    • Lady Macbeth. Was the hope drunk 
      Wherein you dress'd yourself? hath it slept since? 
      And wakes it now, to look so green and pale 
      At what it did so freely? From this time 515
      Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard 
      To be the same in thine own act and valour 
      As thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that 
      Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, 
      And live a coward in thine own esteem, 520
      Letting 'I dare not' wait upon 'I would,' 
      Like the poor cat i' the adage?
    • Macbeth. Prithee, peace: 
      I dare do all that may become a man; 
      Who dares do more is none.525
    • Lady Macbeth. What beast was't, then, 
      That made you break this enterprise to me? 
      When you durst do it, then you were a man; 
      And, to be more than what you were, you would 
      Be so much more the man. Nor time nor place 530
      Did then adhere, and yet you would make both: 
      They have made themselves, and that their fitness now 
      Does unmake you. I have given suck, and know 
      How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me: 
      I would, while it was smiling in my face, 535
      Have pluck'd my nipple from his boneless gums, 
      And dash'd the brains out, had I so sworn as you 
      Have done to this.
    • Macbeth. If we should fail?
    • Lady Macbeth. We fail! 540
      But screw your courage to the sticking-place, 
      And we'll not fail. When Duncan is asleep— 
      Whereto the rather shall his day's hard journey 
      Soundly invite him—his two chamberlains 
      Will I with wine and wassail so convince 545
      That memory, the warder of the brain, 
      Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason 
      A limbeck only: when in swinish sleep 
      Their drenched natures lie as in a death, 
      What cannot you and I perform upon 550
      The unguarded Duncan? what not put upon 
      His spongy officers, who shall bear the guilt 
      Of our great quell?
    • Macbeth. Bring forth men-children only; 
      For thy undaunted mettle should compose 555
      Nothing but males. Will it not be received, 
      When we have mark'd with blood those sleepy two 
      Of his own chamber and used their very daggers, 
      That they have done't?
    • Lady Macbeth. Who dares receive it other, 560
      As we shall make our griefs and clamour roar 
      Upon his death?
    • Macbeth. I am settled, and bend up 
      Each corporal agent to this terrible feat. 
      Away, and mock the time with fairest show: 565
      False face must hide what the false heart doth know.


    Act 1 is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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