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Chapter 2: Ancient Mesopotamian Civilizations

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    • 2.1: The First Urban Civilizations
    • 2.2: Akkadian Empire
      The first civilizations formed in river valleys, and were characterized by a caste system and a strong government that controlled water access and resources.
    • 2.3: Babylonia
      Following the collapse of the Akkadians, the Babylonian Empire flourished under Hammurabi, who conquered many surrounding peoples and empires, in addition to developing an extensive code of law and establishing Babylon as a “holy city” of southern Mesopotamia.
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