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4.4: APA Signal Phrases

Keep things interesting for your readers by switching up the language and placement of your signal phrases.


In the words of Peterson (2012), “…”

As Johnson and Allen (2006) have noted, “…”

Einstein and Yvanovich (1956), researchers in physics, pointed out that, “…”

“…,” claimed Carter (1998).

“…,” wrote Dietrich (2002), “…”

Linguists McAllen et al. (2015) have compiled an impressive amount of data for this argument: “…”

Harrison (2007) answered these criticisms with the following rebuttal: “…”


Admitted Contended Reasoned
Agreed Declared Refuted
Argued Denied Rejected
Asserted Emphasized Reported
Believed Insisted Responded
Claimed Noted Suggested
Compared Observed Thought
Confirmed Pointed out Wrote
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