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3.4: Effective Means for Writing a Paragraph (Part 2)

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    4528
  • Implied Topic Sentences

    Some well-organized paragraphs do not contain a topic sentence at all. Instead of being directly stated, the main idea is implied in the content of the paragraph. Read the following example:

    Heaving herself up the stairs, Luella had to pause for breath several times. She let out a wheeze as she sat down heavily in the wooden rocking chair. Tao approached her cautiously, as if she might crumble at the slightest touch. He studied her face, like parchment; stretched across the bones so finely he could almost see right through the skin to the decaying muscle underneath. Luella smiled a toothless grin.

    Although no single sentence in this paragraph states the main idea, the entire paragraph focuses on one concept—that Luella is extremely old. The topic sentence is thus implied rather than stated. This technique is often used in descriptive or narrative writing. Implied topic sentences work well if the writer has a firm idea of what he or she intends to say in the paragraph and sticks to it. However, a paragraph loses its effectiveness if an implied topic sentence is too subtle or the writer loses focus.

    Tip

    Avoid using implied topic sentences in an informational document. Readers often lose patience if they are unable to quickly grasp what the writer is trying to say. The clearest and most efficient way to communicate in an informational document is to position the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph.

    Exercise 3.12

    Identify the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and concluding sentence in the following paragraph.

    The desert provides a harsh environment in which few mammals are able to adapt. Of these hardy creatures, the kangaroo rat is possibly the most fascinating. Able to live in some of the most arid parts of the southwest, the kangaroo rat neither sweats nor pants to keep cool. Its specialized kidneys enable it to survive on a minuscule amount of water. Unlike other desert creatures, the kangaroo rat does not store water in its body but instead is able to convert the dry seeds it eats into moisture. Its ability to adapt to such a hostile environment makes the kangaroo rat a truly amazing creature.

    Collaboration: Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.

    Supporting Sentences

    If you think of a paragraph as a hamburger, the supporting sentences are the meat inside the bun. They make up the body of the paragraph by explaining, proving, or enhancing the controlling idea in the topic sentence. Most paragraphs contain three to six supporting sentences depending on the audience and purpose for writing. A supporting sentence usually offers one of the following:

    Reason

    Sentence: The refusal of the baby boom generation to retire is contributing to the current lack of available jobs.

    Fact

    Sentence: Many families now rely on older relatives to support them financially.

    Statistic

    Sentence: Nearly 10 percent of adults are currently unemployed in the United States.

    Quotation

    Sentence: “We will not allow this situation to continue,” stated Senator Johns.

    Example

    Sentence: Last year, Bill was asked to retire at the age of 55.

    The type of supporting sentence you choose will depend on what you are writing and why you are writing. For example, if you are attempting to persuade your audience to take a particular position, you should rely on facts, statistics, and concrete examples, rather than personal opinions. Read the following example:

    There are numerous advantages to owning a hybrid car. (Topic sentence)

    First, they get 20 percent to 35 percent more kilometres to the litre than a fuel-efficient gas-powered vehicle. (Supporting sentence 1: statistic)

    Second, they produce very few emissions during low-speed city driving. (Supporting sentence 2: fact)

    Because they do not require as much gas, hybrid cars reduce dependency on fossil fuels, which helps lower prices at the pump. (Supporting sentence 3: reason)

    Alex bought a hybrid car two years ago and has been extremely impressed with its performance. (Supporting sentence 4: example)

    “It’s the cheapest car I’ve ever had,” she said. “The running costs are far lower than previous gas-powered vehicles I’ve owned.” (Supporting sentence 5: quotation)

    Given the low running costs and environmental benefits of owning a hybrid car, it is likely that many more people will follow Alex’s example in the near future. (Concluding sentence)

    To find information for your supporting sentences, you might consider using one of the following sources:

    • Reference book
    • Academic journal/article
    • Newspaper/magazine
    • Textbook
    • Encyclopedia
    • Biography/autobiography
    • Dictionary
    • Interview
    • Map
    • Website
    • Previous experience
    • Personal research

    Tip

    When searching for information on the Internet, remember that some websites are more reliable than others. Websites ending in .gov or .edu are generally more reliable than websites ending in .com or .org. Wikis and blogs are not reliable sources of information because they are subject to inaccuracies and are usually very subjective and biased.

    Concluding Sentences

    An effective concluding sentence draws together all the ideas you have raised in your paragraph. It reminds readers of the main point—the topic sentence—without restating it in exactly the same words. Using the hamburger example, the top bun (the topic sentence) and the bottom bun (the concluding sentence) are very similar. They frame the “meat” or body of the paragraph. Compare the topic sentence and concluding sentence from the previous example:

    Topic sentence: There are numerous advantages to owning a hybrid car.

    Concluding sentence: Given the low running costs and environmental benefits of owning a hybrid car, it is likely that many more people will follow Alex’s example in the near future.

    Notice the use of the synonyms advantages and benefits. The concluding sentence reiterates the idea that owning a hybrid is advantageous without using the exact same words. It also summarizes two examples of the advantages covered in the supporting sentences: low running costs and environmental benefits.

    You should avoid introducing any new ideas into your concluding sentence. A conclusion is intended to provide the reader with a sense of completion. Introducing a subject that is not covered in the paragraph will confuse the reader and weaken your writing.

    A concluding sentence may do any of the following:

    Restate the main idea.

    Example: Childhood obesity is a growing problem in North America.

    Summarize the key points in the paragraph.

    Example: A lack of healthy choices, poor parenting, and an addiction to video games are among the many factors contributing to childhood obesity.

    Draw a conclusion based on the information in the paragraph.

    Example: These statistics indicate that unless we take action, childhood obesity rates will continue to rise.

    Make a prediction, suggestion, or recommendation about the information in the paragraph.

    Example: Based on this research, more than 60 percent of children in North American will be morbidly obese by the year 2030 unless we take evasive action.

    Offer an additional observation about the controlling idea.

    Example: Childhood obesity is an entirely preventable tragedy.

    Exercise 3.13

    On your own paper, write one example of each type of concluding sentence based on a topic of your choice.

    Transitions

    A strong paragraph moves seamlessly from the topic sentence into the supporting sentences and on to the concluding sentence. To help organize a paragraph and ensure that ideas logically connect to one another, writers use transitional words and phrases. A transition is a connecting word that describes a relationship between ideas. Take another look at the earlier example:

    There are numerous advantages to owning a hybrid car. First, they get 20 percent to 35 percent more kilometres to the litre than a fuel-efficient gas-powered vehicle. Second, they produce very few emissions during low speed city driving. Because they require less gas, hybrid cars reduce dependency on fossil fuels, which helps lower prices at the pump. Alex bought a hybrid car two years ago and has been extremely impressed with its performance. “It’s the cheapest car I’ve ever had,” she said. “The running costs are far lower than previous gas-powered vehicles I’ve owned.” Given the low running costs and environmental benefits of owning a hybrid car, it is likely that many more people will follow Alex’s example in the near future.

    Each of the underlined words is a transition word. Words such as first and second are transition words that show sequence or clarify order. They help organize the writer’s ideas by showing that he or she has another point to make in support of the topic sentence. Other transition words that show order include third, also, and furthermore.

    The transition word because is a transition word of consequence that continues a line of thought. It indicates that the writer will provide an explanation of a result. In this sentence, the writer explains why hybrid cars will reduce dependency on fossil fuels (because they require less gas). Other transition words of consequence include as a result, so that, since, or for this reason.

    To include a summarizing transition in her concluding sentence, the writer could rewrite the final sentence as follows:

    In conclusion, given the low running costs and environmental benefits of owning a hybrid car, it is likely that many more people will follow Alex’s example in the near future.

    Table 3.1: Transitional Words and Phrases to Connect Sentences provides some useful transition words to connect supporting sentences and concluding sentences. (In other chapters of this book, you will be exposed to more transitional words and phrases for other purposes.)

    Table 3.1 - Transitional Words and Phrases to Connect Sentences
    For Supporting Sentences
    above all but for instance in particular moreover subsequently
    also conversely furthermore later on nevertheless therefore
    aside from correspondingly however likewise on one hand to begin with
    at the same time for example in addition meanwhile on the contrary
    For Concluding Sentences
    after all all things considered in brief in summary on the whole to sum up
    all in all finally in conclusion on balance thus

    Exercise 3.14

    On a sheet of paper, write a paragraph on a topic of your choice. Be sure to include a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence and to use transitional words and phrases to link your ideas together.

    Collaboration: Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.

    Writing at Work

    Transitional words and phrases are useful tools to incorporate into workplace documents. They guide the reader through the document, clarifying relationships between sentences and paragraphs so that the reader understands why they have been written in that particular order.

    For example, when writing an instructional memo, it may be helpful to consider the following transitional words and phrases: before you begin, first, next, then, finally, after you have completed. Using these transitions as a template to write your memo will provide readers with clear, logical instructions about a particular process and the order in which steps are supposed to be completed.

    key takeaways

    • A good paragraph contains three distinct components: a topic sentence, body, and concluding sentence.
    • The topic sentence expresses the main idea of the paragraph combined with the writer’s attitude or opinion about the topic.
    • Good topic sentences contain both a main idea and a controlling idea, are clear and easy to follow, use engaging vocabulary, and provide an accurate indication of what will follow in the rest of the paragraph.
    • Topic sentences may be placed at the beginning, middle, or end of a paragraph. In most academic essays, the topic sentence is placed at the beginning of a paragraph.
    • Supporting sentences help explain, prove, or enhance the topic sentence by offering facts, reasons, statistics, quotations, or examples.
    • Concluding sentences summarize the key points in a paragraph and reiterate the main idea without repeating it word for word.
    • Transitional words and phrases help organize ideas in a paragraph and show how these ideas relate to one another.

    Supplemental Exercises

    Select one of the following topics or choose a topic of your choice:

    Drilling for oil in Alberta
    Health care reform
    Introducing a four day work week
    Bringing pets to work
    Create a topic sentence based on the topic you chose, remembering to include both a main idea and a controlling idea. Next, write an alternative topic sentence using the same main idea but a different controlling idea.

    Collaboration: Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.

    Group activity. Working in a group of four or five, assign each group member the task of collecting one document each. These documents might include magazine or newspaper articles, workplace documents, academic essays, chapters from a reference book, film or book reviews, or any other type of writing. As a group, read through each document and discuss the author’s purpose for writing. Use the information you have learned in this chapter to decide whether the main purpose is to summarize, analyze, synthesize, or evaluate. Write a brief report on the purpose of each document, using supporting evidence from the text.

    Group activity. Working in a small group, select a workplace document or academic essay that has a clear thesis. Examine each paragraph and identify the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and concluding sentence. Then, choose one particular paragraph and discuss the following questions:

    • Is the topic sentence clearly identifiable or is it implied?
    • Do all the supporting sentences relate to the topic sentence?
    • Does the writer use effective transitions to link his or her ideas?
    • Does the concluding sentence accurately summarize the main point of the paragraph?

    As a group, identify the weakest areas of the paragraph and rewrite them. Focus on the relationship between the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and concluding sentence. Use transitions to illustrate the connection between each sentence in the paragraph.

    Peer activity. Using the information you have learned in this chapter, write a paragraph about a current event. Underline the topic sentence in your paragraph. Now, rewrite the paragraph, placing the topic sentence in a different part of the paragraph. Read the two paragraphs aloud to a peer and have him or her identify the topic sentence. Discuss which paragraph is more effective and why.

    Collaboration: Please share with a classmate, compare your answers, and discuss the contrasting results.

    Journal entry #3

    Write a paragraph or two responding to the following.

    Reflecting on what you read about sentence structure in this chapter, think about your writing tendencies. Which of the common sentences errors apply to your writing? How do you plan to address these?

    What challenges did you face when summarizing and paraphrasing? What will you try to focus on doing or not doing in the future when writing summaries?

    Reflect on the goals you set previously. Is there anything you would like to add or already feel more confident with doing?

    Remember as mentioned in the Assessment Descriptions in your syllabus:

    You will be expected to respond to the questions by reflecting on and discussing your experiences with the week’s material.

    When writing your journals, you should focus on freewriting—writing without (overly) considering formal writing structures—but you want to remember that it will be read by the instructor, who needs to be able to understand your ideas.

    Your instructor will be able to see if you have completed this entry by the end of the week but will not read all of the journals until week 6.

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