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12.1: Revision (Part 2)

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    4588
  • Revise to Improve Cohesion

    When you revise to improve cohesion, you analyze how the parts of your paper work together. You look for anything that seems awkward or out of place. Revision may involve deleting unnecessary material or rewriting parts of the paper so that the out of place material fits in smoothly.

    In a research paper, problems with cohesion usually occur when a writer has trouble integrating source material. If facts or quotations have been awkwardly dropped into a paragraph, they distract or confuse the reader instead of working to support the writer’s point. Overusing paraphrased and quoted material has the same effect. Use Checklist 12.2: Revise for Cohesion to review your essay for cohesion.

    Checklist 12.2: Revise for Cohesion

    Does the opening of the paper clearly connect to the broader topic and thesis? Make sure entertaining quotes or anecdotes serve a purpose.

    Have I included support from research for each main point in the body of my paper?

    Have I included introductory material before any quotations? Quotations should never stand alone in a paragraph.

    Does paraphrased and quoted material clearly serve to develop my own points?

    Do I need to add to or revise parts of the paper to help the reader understand how certain information from a source is relevant?

    Are there any places where I have overused material from sources?

    Does my conclusion make sense based on the rest of the paper? Make sure any new questions or suggestions in the conclusion are clearly linked to earlier material.

    As Jorge reread his draft, he looked to see how the different pieces fit together to prove his thesis. He realized that some of his supporting information needed to be integrated more carefully and decided to omit some details entirely. Read the following paragraph, first without Jorge’s revisions and then with them.

     chap12_3-e1439239791318.png

    Jorge decided that his comment about pizza and birthday cake came across as subjective and was not necessary to make his point, so he deleted it. He also realized that the quotation at the end of the paragraph was awkward and ineffective. How would his readers know who Kwon was or why her opinion should be taken seriously? Adding an introductory phrase helped Jorge integrate this quotation smoothly and establish the credibility of his source.

    Exercise 12.3

    Follow these steps to begin revising your paper to improve cohesion.

    Print out a hard copy of your paper, or work with your printout from Exercise 12.1.

    Read the body paragraphs of your paper first. Each time you come to a place that cites information from sources, ask yourself what purpose this information serves. Check that it helps support a point and that it is clearly related to the other sentences in the paragraph.

    Identify unnecessary information from sources that you can delete.

    Identify places where you need to revise your writing so that readers understand the significance of the details cited from sources.

    Skim the body paragraphs once more, looking for any paragraphs that seem packed with citations. Review these paragraphs carefully for cohesion.

    Review your introduction and conclusion. Make sure the information presented works with ideas in the body of the paper.

    Revise the places you identified in your paper to improve cohesion.

    Optional collaboration: Please exchange papers with a classmate. Complete step 4. On a separate piece of paper, note any areas that would benefit from clarification. Return and compare notes.

    Writing at Work

    Understanding cohesion can also benefit you in the workplace, especially when you have to write and deliver a presentation. Speakers sometimes rely on cute graphics or funny quotations to hold their audience’s attention. If you choose to use these elements, make sure they work well with the substantive content of your presentation. For example, if you are asked to give a financial presentation, and the financial report shows that the company lost money, funny illustrations would not be relevant or appropriate for the presentation.

    Tip

    Reading your writing aloud will often help you find problems with unity and coherence. Listen for the clarity and flow of your ideas. Identify places where you find yourself confused, and write a note to yourself about possible fixes.

    Creating Unity

    Sometimes writers get caught up in the moment and cannot resist a good digression. Even though you might enjoy such detours when you chat with friends, unplanned digressions usually harm a piece of writing.

    Following your outline closely offers you a reasonable guarantee that your writing will stay on purpose and not drift away from the controlling idea. However, when writers are rushed, are tired, or cannot find the right words, their writing may become less than they want it to be. Their writing may no longer be clear and concise, and they may add information that is not needed to develop the main idea.

    When a piece of writing has unity, all the ideas in each paragraph and in the entire essay clearly belong and are arranged in an order that makes logical sense. When the writing has coherence, the ideas flow smoothly. The wording clearly indicates how one idea leads to another within a paragraph and from paragraph to paragraph.

    Mariah stayed close to her outline when she drafted the three body paragraphs of her essay she tentatively titled “Digital Technology: The Newest and the Best at What Price?” But a recent shopping trip for an HDTV upset her enough that she digressed from the main topic of her third paragraph and included comments about the sales staff at the electronics store she visited. When she revised her essay, she deleted the off-topic sentences that affected the unity of the paragraph.

    Read the following paragraph twice, the first time without Mariah’s changes and the second time with them.

     chap12_4-e1439239808630.png

    Exercise 12.4

    Answer the following two questions about Mariah’s paragraph:

    Do you agree with Mariah’s decision to make the deletions she made? Did she cut too much, too little, or just enough? Explain.

    Is the explanation of what screen resolution means a digression? Or is it audience friendly and essential to understanding the paragraph? Explain.

    Collaboration: Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.

    Now, print out another copy of your essay or use the printed version(s) you used in Exercises 12.1 and 12.3. Reread it to find any statements that affect the unity of your writing. Decide how best to revise.

    Tip

    When you reread your writing to find revisions to make, look for each type of problem in a separate sweep. Read it straight through once to locate any problems with unity. Read it straight through a second time to find problems with coherence. You may follow this same practice during many stages of the writing process.

    Writing at Work

    Many companies hire copy editors and proofreaders to help them produce the cleanest possible final drafts of large writing projects. Copy editors are responsible for suggesting revisions and style changes; proofreaders check documents for any errors in capitalization, spelling, and punctuation that have crept in. Many times, these tasks are done on a freelance basis, with one freelancer working for a variety of clients.

    Using a Consistent Style and Tone

    Once you are certain that the content of your paper fulfills your purpose, you can begin revising to improve style and tone. Together, your style and tone create the voice of your paper, or how you come across to readers. Style refers to the way you use language as a writer—the sentence structures you use and the word choices you make. Tone is the attitude toward your subject and audience that you convey through your word choice.

    Determining an Appropriate Style and Tone

    Although accepted writing styles will vary within different disciplines, the underlying goal is the same—to come across to your readers as a knowledgeable, authoritative guide. Writing about research is like being a tour guide who walks readers through a topic. A stuffy, overly formal tour guide can make readers feel put off or intimidated. Too much informality or humour can make readers wonder whether the tour guide really knows what he or she is talking about. Extreme or emotionally charged language comes across as unbalanced.

    To help prevent being overly formal or informal, determine an appropriate style and tone at the beginning of the research process. Consider your topic and audience because these can help dictate style and tone. For example, a paper on new breakthroughs in cancer research should be more formal than a paper on ways to get a good night’s sleep.

    A strong research paper comes across as straightforward, appropriately academic, and serious. It is generally best to avoid writing in the first person, as this can make your paper seem overly subjective and opinion based. Use Checklist 12.3: Revise for Style to review your paper for other issues that affect style and tone. You can check for consistency at the end of the writing process. Checking for consistency is discussed later in this section.

    Checklist 12.3: Revise for Style

    My paper avoids excessive wordiness.

    My sentences are varied in length and structure.

    I have avoided using first person pronouns such as I and we.

    I have used the active voice whenever possible.

    I have defined specialized terms that might be unfamiliar to readers.

    I have used clear, straightforward language whenever possible and avoided unnecessary jargon.

    My paper states my point of view using a balanced tone—neither too indecisive nor too forceful.

    Word Choice

    Note that word choice is an especially important aspect of style. In addition to checking the points noted on Checklist 12.3, review your paper to make sure your language is precise, conveys no unintended connotations, and is free of bias. Here are some of the points to check for:

    Vague or imprecise terms

    Slang

    Repetition of the same phrases (“Smith states…, Jones states…”) to introduce quoted and paraphrased material (For a full list of strong verbs to use with in text citations, see Chapter 9.)

    Exclusive use of masculine pronouns or awkward use of  heorshe

    Use of language with negative connotations, such as haughty or ridiculous

    Use of outdated or offensive terms to refer to specific ethnic, racial, or religious groups

    Tip

    Using plural nouns and pronouns or recasting a sentence can help you keep your language gender neutral while avoiding awkwardness. Consider the following examples.

    • Gender biased: When a writer cites a source in the body of his paper, he must list it on his references page.
    • Awkward: When a writer cites a source in the body of his or her paper, he or she must list it on his or her references page.
    • Improved: Writers must list any sources cited in the body of a paper on the references page.

    Keeping Your Style Consistent

    As you revise your paper, make sure your style is consistent throughout. Look for instances where a word, phrase, or sentence does not seem to fit with the rest of the writing. It is best to reread for style after you have completed the other revisions so that you are not distracted by any larger content issues. Revising strategies you can use include the following:

    Read your paper aloud. Sometimes your ears catch inconsistencies that your eyes miss.

    Share your paper with another reader whom you trust to give you honest feedback. It is often difficult to evaluate one’s own style objectively—especially in the final phase of a challenging writing project. Another reader may be more likely to notice instances of wordiness, confusing language, or other issues that affect style and tone.

    Edit your paper slowly, sentence by sentence. You may even wish to use a sheet of paper to cover up everything on the page except the paragraph you are editing. This practice forces you to read slowly and carefully. Mark any areas where you notice problems in style or tone, and then take time to rework those sections.

    On reviewing his paper, Jorge found that he had generally used an appropriately academic style and tone. However, he noticed one glaring exception—his first paragraph. He realized there were places where his overly informal writing could come across as unserious or, worse, disparaging. Revising his word choice and omitting a humorous aside helped Jorge maintain a consistent tone. Read his revisions.

     chap12_5-e1439239832411.png

    Exercise 12.5

    Using Checklist 12.3: Revise for Style, revise your paper line by line. You may use either of these techniques:

    Print out a hard copy of your paper or work with your printout from Exercise 12.1. Read it line by line. Check for the issues noted on Checklist 12.3, as well as any other aspects of your writing style you have previously identified as areas for improvement. Mark any areas where you notice problems in style or tone, and then take time to rework those sections.

    If you prefer to work with an electronic document, use the menu options in your word processing program to enlarge the text to 150 or 200 percent of the original size. Make sure the type is large enough that you can focus on one paragraph at a time. Read the paper line by line as described in step 1. Highlight any areas where you notice problems in style or tone, and then take time to rework those sections.

    Optional collaboration: Please exchange papers with a classmate. On a separate piece of paper, note places where the essay does not seem to flow or you have questions about what was written. Return the essay and compare notes.

    Completing a Peer Review

    After working so closely with a piece of writing, writers often need to step back and ask for a more objective reader. What writers need most is feedback from readers who can respond only to the words on the page. When they are ready, writers show their drafts to someone they respect and who can give an honest response about its strengths and weaknesses.

    You, too, can ask a peer to read your draft when it is ready. After evaluating the feedback and assessing what is most helpful, the reader’s feedback will help you when you revise your draft. This process is called peer review.

    You can work with a partner in your class and identify specific ways to strengthen each other’s essays. Although you may be uncomfortable sharing your writing at first, remember that each writer is working toward the same goal: a final draft that fits the audience and the purpose. Maintaining a positive attitude when providing feedback will put you and your partner at ease. The box that follows provides a useful framework for the peer review session.

    Questions for Peer Review: Organization, Unity, and Coherence

    Title of essay: ____________________________________________

    Date: ____________________________________________

    Writer’s name: ____________________________________________

    Peer reviewer’s name: _________________________________________

    This essay is about____________________________________________.

    Your main points in this essay are____________________________________________.

    What I most liked about this essay is____________________________________________.

    These three points struck me as your strongest:

    Point: ____________________________________________
    Why: ____________________________________________

    Point: ____________________________________________
    Why: ____________________________________________

    Point: ____________________________________________
    Why: ____________________________________________

    These places in your essay are not clear to me:

    Where: ____________________________________________
    Needs improvement because__________________________________________

    Where: ____________________________________________
    Needs improvement because ____________________________________________

    Where: ____________________________________________

    Needs improvement because ____________________________________________

    The one additional change you could make that would improve this essay significantly is ____________________________________________.

    Writing at Work

    One of the reasons why word processing programs build in a reviewing feature is that work groups have become a common feature in many businesses. Writing is often collaborative, and the members of a work group and their supervisors often critique group members’ work and offer feedback that will lead to a better final product.

    Exercise 12.6

    Exchange essays with a classmate and complete a peer review of each other’s draft in progress. Remember to give positive feedback and to be courteous and polite in your responses. Focus on providing one positive comment and one question for more information to the author.

    Using Feedback Objectively

    The purpose of peer feedback is to receive constructive criticism of your essay. Your peer reviewer is your first real audience, and you have the opportunity to learn what confuses and delights a reader so that you can improve your work before sharing the final draft with a wider audience (or your intended audience).

    It may not be necessary to incorporate every recommendation your peer reviewer makes. However, if you start to observe a pattern in the responses you receive from peer reviewers, you might want to consider that feedback in future assignments. For example, if you read consistent comments about a need for more research, then you may want to consider including more research in future assignments.

    Using Feedback from Multiple Sources

    You might get feedback from more than one reader as you share different stages of your revised draft. In this situation, you may receive feedback from readers who do not understand the assignment or who lack your involvement with and enthusiasm for it.

    You need to evaluate the responses you receive according to two important criteria:

    Determine if the feedback supports the purpose of the assignment.

    Determine if the suggested revisions are appropriate to the audience.

    Then, using these standards, accept or reject revision feedback.

    Exercise 12.7

    Consider the feedback you received from the peer review and all of the revision exercises throughout this section. Compile a final draft of your revisions that you can use in the next section to complete your final edits.

    key takeaways

    • Revising and editing are the stages of the writing process in which you improve your work before producing a final draft.
    • Unity in writing means that all the ideas in each paragraph and in the entire essay clearly belong together and are arranged in an order that makes logical sense.
    • Coherence in writing means that the writer’s wording clearly indicates how one idea leads to another within a paragraph and between paragraphs.
    • Transitional words and phrases effectively make writing more coherent.
    • Writing should be clear and concise, with no unnecessary words.
    • Effective formal writing uses specific, appropriate words and avoids slang, contractions, clichés, and overly general words.
    • Peer reviews, done properly, can give writers objective feedback about their writing. It is the writer’s responsibility to evaluate the results of peer reviews and incorporate only useful feedback.
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