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24.3: Common Sentence Patterns

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    5748
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    Basic Sentence Patterns

    Subject + verb

    The simplest of sentence patterns is composed of a subject and verb without a direct object or subject complement. It uses an intransitive verb, that is, a verb requiring no direct object:

    • Control rods remain inside the fuel assembly of the reactor.
    • The development of wind power practically ceased until the early 1970s.
    • The cross-member exposed to abnormal stress eventually broke.
    • Only two types of charge exist in nature.

    Subject + verb direct object

    Another common sentence pattern uses the direct object:

    • Silicon conducts electricity in an unusual way.
    • The anti-reflective coating on the the silicon cell reduces reflection from 32 to 22 percent.

    Subject + verb indirect object + direct object

    The sentence pattern with the indirect object and direct object is similar to the preceding pattern:

    • I am writing her about a number of problems that I have had with my computer.
    • Austin, Texashas recently built its citizens system of bike lanes.

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Identify the basic sentence pattern of the sentences below. What are the different parts of each sentence?

    1. All amplitude-modulation (AM) receivers work in the same way.
    2. The supervisor mailed the applicant a description of the job.
    3. We have mailed the balance of the payment in this letter.
    Answer
    1. This is a subject + verb sentence:
    • All amplitude-modulation (AM) receivers work in the same way.
    1. This is a subject + verb + indirect object + direct object sentence:
    • The supervisor mailed the applicant description of the job.
    1. This is a subject + verb + direct object sentence:
    • We have mailed the balance of the payment in this letter.

    Sentence Types

    Simple Sentences

    A simple sentence is one that contains a subject and a verb and no other independent or dependent clause.

    • One of the tubes is attached to the manometer part of the instrument indicating the pressure of the air within the cuff.
    • There are basically two types of stethoscopes.
      • In this sentence, the subject and verb are inverted; that is, the verb comes before the subject. However, it is still classified as a simple sentence.
    • To measure blood pressure, a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope are needed.
      • This sentence has a compound subject—that is, there are two subjects—but it is still classified as a simple sentence.

    Command sentences are a subtype of simple sentences. These sentences are unique because they don’t actually have a subject:

    • Clean the dishes.
    • Make sure to take good notes today.
    • After completing the reading, answer the following questions.

    In each of these sentences, there is an implied subject: you. These sentences are instructing the reader to complete a task. Command sentences are the only sentences in English that are complete without a subject.

    PUNCTUATION PATTERNS

    Simple sentences have these punctuation patterns:

    • ________________________________.
    • ________, ________________________.

    Compound Predicates

    predicate is everything in the verb part of the sentence after the subject (unless the sentence uses inverted word order). A compound predicate is two or more predicates joined by a coordinating conjunction. Traditionally, the conjunction in a sentence consisting of just two compound predicates is not punctuated.

    • Another library media specialist has been using Accelerated Reader for ten years and has seen great results.
    • This cell phone app lets users share pictures instantly with followers and categorize photos with hashtags.

    PUNCTUATION PATTERNS

    Compound predicate sentences have this punctuation pattern: ________ ________ and ________.

    Compound Sentences

    A compound sentence is made up of two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, or, nor, but, yet, for) and a comma, an adverbial conjunction and a semicolon, or just a semicolon.

    • In sphygmomanometers, too narrow a cuff can result in erroneously high readings, and too wide a cuff can result in erroneously low readings.
    • Some cuff hook together; others wrap or snap into place.

    PUNCTUATION PATTERNS

    Compound Sentences have this punctuation pattern:

    • ________________, and ________________.
    • ________________; ________________.

    Command sentences can be compound sentences as well:

    • Never give up; never surrender.
    • Turn the handle 90 degrees and push the button four times.

    When you have a compound command sentence with a coordinating conjunction, you do not need to include a comma, because the two have the same subject.

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Identify the type of each sentence below. How can you tell?

    1. The sphygmomanometer is usually covered with cloth and has two rubber tubes attached to it.
    2. There are several types of sentences; using different types can keep your writing lively.
    3. Words, sentences, and paragraphs are all combined to create a book.
    4. Before giving up, take a deep breath and look at things from a different perspective.
    Answer
    1. This sentence has a compound predicate—that is, there are two predicates, joined with the conjunction and:
    • is usually covered with cloth
    • has two rubber tubes attached to it
    1. This is a compound sentence. There are two independent clauses joined together by a semicolon.
    2. This is a simple sentence with a compound subject.
    • Subject: Words, sentences, and paragraphs
    • Predicate: are all combined to create a book
    1. This is a command sentence with a compound predicate—that is, there are two predicates, joined with the conjunction and:
    • take a deep breath
    • look at things from a different perspective.
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