Skip to main content
Humanities Libertexts

6.3: Logos, Ethos, Pathos

  • Page ID
    5606
  • [ "article:topic" ]

    What kinds of support do authors use? 

    Writers are generally most successful with their audiences when they can skillfully and appropriately balance the three core types of appeals. These appeals are referred to by their Greek names: logos (the appeal to logic), pathos (the appeal to emotion), and ethos(the appeal to authority). 

    Ethos-Pathos-Logos-768x611.jpg

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Logical Appeals

    Authors using logic to support their claims will include a combination of different types of evidence. These include the following:

    • established facts
    • case studies
    • statistics
    • experiments
    • analogies and logical reasoning
    • citation of recognized experts on the issue

    Authoritative Appeals

    Authors using authority to support their claims can also draw from a variety of techniques. These include the following:

    • personal anecdotes
    • illustration of deep knowledge on the issue
    • citation of recognized experts on the issue
    • testimony of those involved first-hand on the issue

    Emotional Appeals

    Authors using emotion to support their claims again have a deep well of options to do so. These include the following:

    • personal anecdotes
    • narratives
    • impact studies
    • testimony of those involved first-hand on the issue

    As you can see, there is some overlap on these lists. One technique might work simultaneously on multiple levels.

    Most texts rely on one of the three as the primary method of support, but may also draw upon one or two others at the same time.

    • Was this article helpful?