# 4.1.3: Cláusulas con si / If-Clauses

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 La conjunción si (sin tilde, para diferenciarla del afirmativo sí) se usa para introducir una condición: Si me amas, seré feliz. = Seré feliz si me amas. Si me amaras, sería feliz. = Sería feliz si me amaras. No saben si llegarán a tiempo. Según su probabilidad, la cláusula que contiene la conjunción si puede estar en varios tiempos del indicativo, o en el pretérito imperfecto del subjuntivo, pero nunca en presente del subjuntivo. The word si (no accent, unlike the affirmative sí) is used like English if, to introduce conditions: If you love me, I'll be happy. = I'll be happy if you love me. If you loved me, I'd be happy. = I'd be happy if you loved me. They don't know if they'll make it on time. Depending on how likely to happen the condition is, the clause containing si can be in several indicative tenses or in the past subjunctive, but never in the present subjunctive.

## Con el indicativo

 • Cuando la condición es bastante posible, la cláusula con si emplea el presente del indicativo: Si me amas, seré feliz. = Seré feliz si me amas. Si mi jefe llama, dile que no estoy. Si hay nubes, es porque va a llover. No sé si me amas o no. • When the condition is likely to take place, the if-clause uses the present indicative: If you love me, I'll be happy. = I'll be happy if you love me. If my boss calls, tell her I'm not here. If there are clouds, it's because it's going to rain. I don't know if (whether) you love me or not. • También se emplea el indicativo (presente o imperfecto) con la frase por si (acaso) para expresar una contingencia: Trae el paraguas por si acaso (llueve). Llevó el celular por si (acaso) se perdía. Aquí tienes la dirección, por si deseas visitarnos. • The indicative (present or imperfect) is also used, somewhat surprisingly, after the phrase por si (acaso), which means (just) in case: Bring the umbrella just in case (it rains). He took his cell phone in case he might get lost. Here's our address, in case you want to visit us.

## Con el imperfecto del subjuntivo

 • Cuando la condición es improbable o imaginaria, la cláusula con si emplea el pretérito imperfecto del subjuntivo, y el resultado se expresa en el condicional: Si me amaras, sería feliz. = Sería feliz si me amaras. Si tuviera un millón de euros, viajaría por todo el mundo. No haría eso si fuera tú. Si comprendieras mi situación, no me juzgarías tan duramente. • When the condition is unlikely or contrary to facts, the if-clause uses the past subjunctive, and the result uses the conditional: If you loved me, I'd be happy. = I'd be happy if you loved me. If I had a million dollars, I would travel around the world. I wouldn't do that if I were you. If you understood my situation, you wouldn't judge me so harshly. • También se emplea el imperfecto del subjuntivo con la frase como si para hacer comparaciones contrarias a lo que se considera real: Me trataban como si fuera una niña. Y sigue actuando como si no pasara nada. • The imperfect subjunctive is also used after the phrase como si, which means as if (comparing with something contrary to fact) They treated me as if I were a child. And he continues to act as if nothing were happening.
 ♦ When whether...or (not) conveys hypotheses, Spanish uses subjunctive constructions (not if-clauses): We'll get married whether they like it or not. Nos casaremos (sea que) les guste o no. ♦ Contrary-to-fact conditions (if only... even if...) are often expressed with ojalá and aunque, followed by the past subjunctive: If only there were peace on this planet. → Ojalá hubiera paz en este planeta. I'd go to the beach even if it snowed in summer. → Iría a la playa aunque nevara en verano.

## ¡A practicar!

Práctica 61

Termine las oraciones de manera lógica. (Diccionario)

1. Me pondría contenta/o si...
2. Si el gobierno sube los impuestos...
3. Obtendré un buen trabajo si...
4. Si la sociedad fuera perfecta...
5. Ojalá todo...
6. Viviría aquí aunque (even if)...
7. Se puso ropa de invierno por si...
8. Algunos gobiernos nos tratan como si...

## Práctica interactiva

This page titled 4.1.3: Cláusulas con si / If-Clauses is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Enrique Yepes.