Audio Version: Click to stream recording of page (June 2020):
In previous chapters, we considered argument in terms of logic. We have asked ourselves if claims, reasons, and assumptions are correct in what they assert. Now we will look at how writers choose words not only to convey ideas but to shape readers’ emotional experience and subconscious reactions.
Connotation refers to the emotions, social and cultural implications, and related concepts that most people associate with a word. Some connotations are obvious: anyone would prefer be called “assertive” rather than “pushy” for demanding something they consider to be their right. Other connotations are more subtle. Consider the difference between the feelings associated with the words “change” and “transform.” “Transform” has connotations of visionary change for the better. If we hear that “the new college president has transformed the admissions process” we are more likely to feel hopeful, perhaps impressed, without knowing anything at all about the nature of the changes. If we hear simply that “the new college president has changed the admissions process,” we will probably feel more skeptical about these changes and what their positive and negative impacts may be.
Consider what different feelings about journalists come across in the following two sentences:
- The media were swarming around the pileup on the expressway to capture every conceivable injury for the evening news.
- The journalists were on the scene at the expressway crash to document the incident for the evening news.
The first sentence gives us a sense of media reporting that is inappropriately aggressive through the words “swarm” and “capture.” In the second sentence, on the other hand, “were on the scene” and “document” imply that the journalists are neutral, diligent, and professional.
If something in an argument is likely to set the reader against the argument, the writer can try to soften that reaction by choosing the most positive words available to fit the meaning. If the writer wants to intensify feelings of outrage, tragedy, or absurdity around a phenomenon that readers might otherwise dismiss as ordinary, the writer will need to think of an unfamiliar and dramatic way to describe that phenomenon.
The aforementioned border argument offers many examples of emotional word choice. In the opening paragraph, the author starts out by referring to “illegal immigration,” acknowledging the familiar, commonly used phrase in the question “Is illegal immigration actually wrong?” However, she quickly shifts to words with gentler connotations when she reframes the question as, “Is it unethical to cross a border without permission?” This is the emotional shift she is encouraging readers to make--away from harsh judgment and toward a clear-eyed understanding. As she expands her exploration of the position of the undocumented in the next paragraph, she describes them in sympathetic terms with the following phrases: “people who are driven by need and good intentions,” “raising children in an impoverished third-world community plagued by violence,” “under desperate circumstances.” The connotations and emotional appeal are very much the same as those in the poem inscribed on the Statue of Liberty, “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, 1883. Lady Liberty talks about immigrants in words full of pathos and hope:
"Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
Write down the connotations of each of the following words used to refer to immigrants:
Decide when or if you would use each term in discussions of current U.S. policy.
The definition of “connotation” and some examples are adapted from articles on the topic in Reading and Writing for Learning from the Community College of Allegheny County, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. All other content is by Anna Mills.