Audio Version: Click to stream recording of page (June 2020):
Once we know what the main point of the reading is, we can ask ourselves what reasons the author gives. We can go through our annotations to look at the other claims and see how some may be used as reasons for the main claim or as reasons for one of the reasons.
We can write the claims in a map and use the arrows to show which claim works as a reason supporting which other claim. Each claim moves our mind from one idea to the next in the direction the writer wants it to go. The claim farthest to the right, the one that the others point toward, is the main point. Such maps might take a few different forms, such as these:
Reason → Claim
Reason A → Reason B → Claim
Reason A → Claim
Reason B ↗
How can we tell where to put each claim on the map and where to point the arrows? It can help to remember that particular words and phrases in academic and professional writing basically act as arrows. They signal that one idea is supposed to lead to another. Here are some such phrases:
- Because_____________, _____________.
- Because of this, _____________.
- If_____________, then _____________.
- Since_____________, _____________.
- For this reason,_____________.
- We can conclude_____________.
- Therefore, _____________.
- Consequently, _____________.
- As a result, _____________.
- It follows that _____________.
For example, in the above argument, “If_____________, then _____________.” connects two claims in the following sentence:
“If most of us, under desperate circumstances, would cross the border without permission and feel no moral qualms about doing so, then we must recognize this crossing as an ethical, reasonable act.”
We could write a short version of the first half of the sentence, put it in a box, and point it toward a short version of the second half:
The following sentence sets up another If_____________, then _____________ statement: “ If it is ethical and reasonable, then how can either a wall or a detention center be on the side of justice?”
We could add this on thus:
If border walls and detention centers are unjust, there must be a need for an alternate approach. The next sentence claims, "We must find a policy that treats migrants as we would want to be treated--with empathy, respect, and offers of help." We can offer a short version of this sentence as the final implication.