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Chapter 4: The Development of States - 800 BCE – 300 BCE

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    • 4.1: Regional Configurations of Historical Territories
      Throughout ancient history, there were three distinct periods: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age (which spanned from approximately 2300-700 BCE), and the Iron Age (which spanned from approximately 700-1 BCE). Different Asian cultures and civilizations entered these ages at different times and became experts in the technologies associated with each era.
    • 4.2: Development of Philosophies
      The development of the 'hundred schools of thought' started during the Eastern Zhou dynasty and was the basis for many well-known belief systems that developed in Asian societies. During the period, destructive wars were a continual pattern, and new ideas developed, changing social consciousness and the behavior of leaders.
    • 4.3: Eastern Zhou (771 BCE – 400 BCE)
      The Western Zhou dynasty was in turmoil by the end of Emperor Xuan's reign, about 803 BCE. People were starving, the king imposed impossible taxation, the lords were in rebellion, and natural disasters brought incredible destruction. Droughts had dried up the rivers and ponds and turned forests and farmland into wasteland.
    • 4.4: Đông Sơn, SaHuỳnh, and Óc Eo Cultures (1000 BCE – 100 BCE)
      During this period, the region we know as Vietnam was divided into three significant cultures: Đông Sơn, SaHuỳnh, and Óc Eo. Dong Son is located in the northern part, Sa Huynh in the central area, and Óc Eo in the southern section. The Van Lang State was the first state formed in the seventh century BCE from the Dong Son area.
    • 4.5: Mahajanapadas (600 BCE – 345 BCE)
      The Mahajanapadas were composed of sixteen different kingdoms or communities. In the last part of the Vedic period, people migrated from the failing Indus Valley area into the region we call India today. At the beginning of the migration, tribal groups formed permanent settlements called janapadas. Rivers were plentiful and flowed from the Himalayas, creating rich, fertile soil.