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5.9: Reference Material

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    This chapter was edited by Mary Anne Henderson, with content contributions by Andrew C. Baker, Peter Catapano, Blaine Hamilton, Mary Anne Henderson, Amanda Hughett, Amy Kohout, Maria Montalvo, Brent Ruswick, Philip Luke Sinitiere, Nora Slonimsky, Whitney Stewart, and Brandy Thomas Wells.

    Recommended citation: Andrew C. Baker et al., “The Progressive Era,” Mary Anne Henderson, ed., in The American Yawp, eds. Joseph Locke and Ben Wright (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2018).

    • Ayers, Edward. The Promise of the New South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
    • Bay, Mia. To Tell the Truth Freely: The Life of Ida B. Wells. New York: Hill and Wang, 2010.
    • Cott, Nancy. The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987.
    • Dawley, Alan. Struggles for Justice: Social Responsibility and the Liberal State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.
    • Dubois, Ellen Carol. Women’s Suffrage and Women’s Rights. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
    • Filene, Peter. “An Obituary for ‘The Progressive Movement,’” American Quarterly 22 (Spring 1970): 20–34.
    • Flanagan, Maureen. America Reformed: Progressives and Progressivisms, 1890s–1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
    • Foley, Neil. The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
    • Gilmore, Glenda E. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
    • Hale, Grace Elizabeth. Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890–1940. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
    • Hicks, Cheryl. Talk with You Like a Woman: African American Women, Justice, and Reform in New York, 1890–1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.
    • Hofstadter, Richard. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. New York: Knopf, 1955.
    • Johnson, Kimberley. Governing the American State: Congress and the New Federalism, 1877–1929. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.
    • Kessler-Harris, Alice. In Pursuit of Equity: Women, Men, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20th-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
    • Kloppenberg, James T. Uncertain Victory: Social Democracy and Progressivism in European and American Thought, 1870–1920. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
    • Kolko, Gabriel. The Triumph of Conservatism. New York: Free Press, 1963.
    • Kousser, J. Morgan. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, 1880–1910. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1974.
    • McGerr, Michael. A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, 1870–1920. New York: Free Press, 2003.
    • Molina, Natalia. Fit to Be Citizens?: Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879–1939. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
    • Muncy, Robyn. Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890–1935. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
    • Rodgers, Daniel T. Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.
    • Sanders, Elizabeth. The Roots of Reform: Farmers, Workers, and the American State, 1877–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
    • Stromquist, Shelton. Re-Inventing “The People”: The Progressive Movement, the Class Problem, and the Origins of Modern Liberalism. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2006.
    • White, Deborah. Too Heavy a Load: In Defense of Themselves. New York: Norton, 1999.
    • Wiebe, Robert. The Search for Order, 1877–1920. New York: Hill and Wang, 1967.


    1. Jack London, The Iron Heel (New York: Macmillan, 1908), 104.
    2. Philip Foner, Women and the American Labor Movement: From Colonial Times to the Eve of World War I (New York: Free Press, 1979.).
    3. Leon Stein, The Triangle Fire (Ithaca, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1962), 20.
    4. Ibid., 144
    5. Ray Stannard Baker, American Chronicle: The Autobiography of Ray Stannard Baker (New York: Scribner, 1945), 183.
    6. Jacob A. Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (New York: Scribner, 1890)
    7. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (New York: Doubleday, 1906), 40.
    8. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward: 2000–1887 (Boston: Ticknor, 1888).
    9. Ibid., 368.
    10. Charles M. Sheldon, In His Steps: “What Would Jesus Do?” (Chicago: Advance, 1896), 273.
    11. Walter Rauschenbusch, A Theology for the Social Gospel (New York: Macmillan, 1917).
    12. Ibid., 5.
    13. John Kobler, Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition (Boston: Da Capo Press, 1993), 147.
    14. Toynbee Hall was the first settlement house. It was built in 1884 by Samuel Barnett as a place for Oxford students to live while at the same time working in the house’s poor neighborhood. Daniel Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1998), 64–65; Victoria Bissell Brown, The Education of Jane Addams (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004).
    15. Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House (New York: Macmillan, 1911), 125–126.
    16. Allen Davis, American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 77.
    17. Jane Addams, “The Settlement as a Factor in the Labor Movement,” reprinted in Hull-House Maps and Papers: A Presentation of Nationalities and Wages in a Congested District of Chicago Together with Comments and Essays on Problems Growing out of the Social Conditions (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2007), 145, 149.
    18. Kathryn Kish Sklar, “‘Some of Us Who Deal with the Social Fabric’: Jane Addams Blends Peace and Social Justice, 1907–1919,” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2, no. 1 (January 2003).
    19. Karen Manners Smith, “New Paths to Power: 1890–1920,” in No Small Courage: A History of Women in the United States, ed. Nancy Cott (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 392.
    20. Sarah Eisenstein, Give Us Bread but Give Us Roses: Working Women’s Consciousness in the United States, 1890 to the First World War (New York: Routledge, 1983), 32.
    21. Ellen Carol Dubois, Women’s Suffrage and Women’s Rights (New York: New York University Press, 1998).
    22. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life (New York: Macmillan, 1911), 145.
    23. Kevin P. Phillips, Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich (New York: Broadway Books, 2003), 307.
    24. Munn v. Illinois, 94 U.S. 113 (1877).
    25. Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
    26. The writer Henry Adams said that he “showed the singular primitive quality that belongs to ultimate matter—the quality that medieval theology assigned to God—he was pure act.” Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1918), 413.
    27. Theodore Roosevelt, Addresses and Presidential Messages of Theodore Roosevelt, 1902–1904, 15.
    28. The historiography on American progressive politics is vast. See, for instance, Michael McGerr, A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, 1870–1920 (New York: Free Press, 2003).
    29. Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, 4th ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 167–168, 171, 165.
    30. John Muir, Our National Parks (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1901)
    31. Gifford Pinchot, The Fight for Conservation (New York: Doubleday Page, 1910), 44.
    32. Michael Perman, Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888–1908 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001).
    33. Edward Ayers, The Promise of the New South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 147
    34. Ibid.
    35. Ibid.
    36. Neil R. McMillen, Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1990), 43.
    37. Perman, Struggle for Mastery, 147.
    38. Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).
    39. Booker T. Washington, Up from Slavery: An Autobiography (New York: Doubleday, 1901), 221–222.
    40. Kate A. Baldwin, Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters Between Black and Red (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002), 297 n. 28.
    41. W. E. B. DuBois, “Niagara’s Declaration of Principles, 1905,” Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition,, accessed June 15, 2018.

    5.9: Reference Material is shared under a CC BY-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by American YAWP.

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