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Review Questions

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    1. Which function of the skeletal system would be especially important if you were in a car accident?

      1. storage of minerals
      2. protection of internal organs
      3. facilitation of movement
      4. fat storage
    2. Bone tissue can be described as ________.

      1. dead calcified tissue
      2. cartilage
      3. the skeletal system
      4. dense, hard connective tissue
    3. Without red marrow, bones would not be able to ________.

      1. store phosphate
      2. store calcium
      3. make blood cells
      4. move like levers
    4. Yellow marrow has been identified as ________.

      1. an area of fat storage
      2. a point of attachment for muscles
      3. the hard portion of bone
      4. the cause of kyphosis
    5. Which of the following can be found in areas of movement?

      1. hematopoiesis
      2. cartilage
      3. yellow marrow
      4. red marrow
    6. The skeletal system is made of ________.

      1. muscles and tendons
      2. bones and cartilage
      3. vitreous humor
      4. minerals and fat
    7.  Most of the bones of the arms and hands are long bones; however, the bones in the wrist are categorized as ________.
      1. flat bones
      2. short bones
      3. sesamoid bones
      4. irregular bones
    8. Sesamoid bones are found embedded in ________.

      1. joints
      2. muscles
      3. ligaments
      4. tendons
    9. Bones that surround the spinal cord are classified as ________ bones.

      1. irregular
      2. sesamoid
      3. flat
      4. short
    10. Which category of bone is among the most numerous in the skeleton?

      1. long bone
      2. sesamoid bone
      3. short bone
      4. flat bone
    11. Long bones enable body movement by acting as a ________.

      1. counterweight
      2. resistive force
      3. lever
      4. fulcrum
    12. Which of the following occurs in the spongy bone of the epiphysis?

      1. bone growth
      2. bone remodeling
      3. hematopoiesis
      4. shock absorption
    13.  The diaphysis contains ________.
      1. the metaphysis
      2. fat stores
      3. spongy bone
      4. compact bone
    14. The fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of the bone is the ________.

      1. periosteum
      2. epiphysis
      3. endosteum
      4. diaphysis
    15. Which of the following are incapable of undergoing mitosis?

      1. osteoblasts and osteoclasts
      2. osteocytes and osteoclasts
      3. osteoblasts and osteocytes
      4. osteogenic cells and osteoclasts
    16. Which cells do not originate from osteogenic cells?

      1. osteoblasts
      2. osteoclasts
      3. osteocytes
      4. osteoprogenitor cells
    17. Which of the following are found in compact bone and cancellous bone?

      1. Haversian systems
      2. Haversian canals
      3. lamellae
      4. lacunae
    18. Which of the following are only found in cancellous bone?

      1. canaliculi
      2. Volkmann’s canals
      3. trabeculae
      4. calcium salts
    19. The area of a bone where the nutrient foramen passes forms what kind of bone marking?

      1. a hole
      2. a facet
      3. a canal
      4. a fissure
    20.  Why is cartilage slow to heal?
      1. because it eventually develops into bone
      2. because it is semi-solid and flexible
      3. because it does not have a blood supply
      4. because endochondral ossification replaces all cartilage with bone
    21. Why are osteocytes spread out in bone tissue?

      1. They develop from mesenchymal cells.
      2. They are surrounded by osteoid.
      3. They travel through the capillaries.
      4. Formation of osteoid spreads out the osteoblasts that formed the ossification centers.
    22. In endochondral ossification, what happens to the chondrocytes?

      1. They develop into osteocytes.
      2. They die in the calcified matrix that surrounds them and form the medullary cavity.
      3. They grow and form the periosteum.
      4. They group together to form the primary ossification center.
    23. Which of the following bones is (are) formed by intramembranous ossification?

      1. the metatarsals
      2. the femur
      3. the ribs
      4. the flat bones of the cranium
    24. Bones grow in length due to activity in the ________.

      1. epiphyseal plate
      2. perichondrium
      3. periosteum
      4. medullary cavity
    25. Bones grow in diameter due to bone formation ________.

      1. in the medullary cavity
      2. beneath the periosteum
      3. in the epiphyseal plate
      4. within the metaphysis
    26. Which of the following represents the correct sequence of zones in the epiphyseal plate?

      1. proliferation, reserved, maturation, calcification
      2. maturation, proliferation, reserved, calcification
      3. calcification, maturation, proliferation, reserved
      4. calcification, reserved, proliferation, maturation
    27. A fracture can be both ________.

      1. open and closed
      2. open and transverse
      3. transverse and greenstick
      4. greenstick and comminuted
    28. How can a fractured diaphysis release fat globules into the bloodstream?

      1. The bone pierces fat stores in the skin.
      2. The yellow marrow in the diaphysis is exposed and damaged.
      3. The injury triggers the body to release fat from healthy bones.
      4. The red marrow in the fractured bone releases fat to heal the fracture.
    29. In a compound fracture, ________.

      1. the break occurs at an angle to the bone
      2. the broken bone does not tear the skin
      3. one fragment of broken bone is compressed into the other
      4. broken bone pierces the skin
    30.  The internal and external calli are replaced by ________.
      1. hyaline cartilage
      2. trabecular bone
      3. osteogenic cells
      4. osteoclasts
    31. The first type of bone to form during fracture repair is ________ bone.

      1. compact
      2. lamellar
      3. spongy
      4. dense
    32. Wolff’s law, which describes the effect of mechanical forces in bone modeling/remodeling, would predict that ________

      1. a right-handed pitcher will have thicker bones in his right arm compared to his left.
      2. a right-handed cyclist will have thicker bones in her right leg compared to her left.
      3. a broken bone will heal thicker than it was before the fracture.
      4. a bed-ridden patient will have thicker bones than an athlete.
    33. Calcium cannot be absorbed from the small intestine if ________ is lacking.

      1. vitamin D
      2. vitamin K
      3. calcitonin
      4. fluoride
    34. Which one of the following foods is best for bone health?

      1. carrots
      2. liver
      3. leafy green vegetables
      4. oranges
    35. Which of the following hormones are responsible for the adolescent growth spurt?

      1. estrogen and testosterone
      2. calcitonin and calcitriol
      3. growth hormone and parathyroid hormone
      4. thyroxine and progesterone
    36. With respect to their direct effects on osseous tissue, which pair of hormones has actions that oppose each other?

      1. estrogen and testosterone
      2. calcitonin and calcitriol
      3. estrogen and progesterone
      4. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
    37. When calcium levels are too high or too low, which body system is primarily affected?

      1. skeletal system
      2. endocrine system
      3. digestive system
      4. nervous system
    38. All of the following play a role in calcium homeostasis except

      1. thyroxine
      2. calcitonin
      3. parathyroid hormone
      4. vitamin D
    39. Which of the following is most likely to be released when blood calcium levels are elevated?

      1. thyroxine
      2. calcitonin
      3. parathyroid hormone
      4. vitamin D
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