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Humanities Libertexts

Key Terms

  • Page ID
    19324
  • adipocytes
    lipid storage cells
    adipose tissue
    specialized areolar tissue rich in stored fat
    anchoring junction
    mechanically attaches adjacent cells to each other or to the basement membrane
    apical
    that part of a cell or tissue which, in general, faces an open space
    apocrine secretion
    release of a substance along with the apical portion of the cell
    apoptosis
    programmed cell death
    areolar tissue
    (also, loose connective tissue) a type of connective tissue proper that shows little specialization with cells dispersed in the matrix
    astrocyte
    star-shaped cell in the central nervous system that regulates ions and uptake and/or breakdown of some neurotransmitters and contributes to the formation of the blood-brain barrier
    atrophy
    loss of mass and function
    basal lamina
    thin extracellular layer that lies underneath epithelial cells and separates them from other tissues
    basement membrane
    in epithelial tissue, a thin layer of fibrous material that anchors the epithelial tissue to the underlying connective tissue; made up of the basal lamina and reticular lamina
    cardiac muscle
    heart muscle, under involuntary control, composed of striated cells that attach to form fibers, each cell contains a single nucleus, contracts autonomously
    cell junction
    point of cell-to-cell contact that connects one cell to another in a tissue
    chondrocytes
    cells of the cartilage
    clotting
    also called coagulation; complex process by which blood components form a plug to stop bleeding
    collagen fiber
    flexible fibrous proteins that give connective tissue tensile strength
    connective tissue
    type of tissue that serves to hold in place, connect, and integrate the body’s organs and systems
    connective tissue membrane
    connective tissue that encapsulates organs and lines movable joints
    connective tissue proper
    connective tissue containing a viscous matrix, fibers, and cells.
    cutaneous membrane
    skin; epithelial tissue made up of a stratified squamous epithelial cells that cover the outside of the body
    dense connective tissue
    connective tissue proper that contains many fibers that provide both elasticity and protection
    ectoderm
    outermost embryonic germ layer from which the epidermis and the nervous tissue derive
    elastic cartilage
    type of cartilage, with elastin as the major protein, characterized by rigid support as well as elasticity
    elastic fiber
    fibrous protein within connective tissue that contains a high percentage of the protein elastin that allows the fibers to stretch and return to original size
    endocrine gland
    groups of cells that release chemical signals into the intercellular fluid to be picked up and transported to their target organs by blood
    endoderm
    innermost embryonic germ layer from which most of the digestive system and lower respiratory system derive
    endothelium
    tissue that lines vessels of the lymphatic and cardiovascular system, made up of a simple squamous epithelium
    epithelial membrane
    epithelium attached to a layer of connective tissue
    epithelial tissue
    type of tissue that serves primarily as a covering or lining of body parts, protecting the body; it also functions in absorption, transport, and secretion
    exocrine gland
    group of epithelial cells that secrete substances through ducts that open to the skin or to internal body surfaces that lead to the exterior of the body
    fibroblast
    most abundant cell type in connective tissue, secretes protein fibers and matrix into the extracellular space
    fibrocartilage
    tough form of cartilage, made of thick bundles of collagen fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate ground substance
    fibrocyte
    less active form of fibroblast
    fluid connective tissue
    specialized cells that circulate in a watery fluid containing salts, nutrients, and dissolved proteins
    gap junction
    allows cytoplasmic communications to occur between cells
    goblet cell
    unicellular gland found in columnar epithelium that secretes mucous
    ground substance
    fluid or semi-fluid portion of the matrix
    histamine
    chemical compound released by mast cells in response to injury that causes vasodilation and endothelium permeability
    histology
    microscopic study of tissue architecture, organization, and function
    holocrine secretion
    release of a substance caused by the rupture of a gland cell, which becomes part of the secretion
    hyaline cartilage
    most common type of cartilage, smooth and made of short collagen fibers embedded in a chondroitin sulfate ground substance
    inflammation
    response of tissue to injury
    lacunae
    (singular = lacuna) small spaces in bone or cartilage tissue that cells occupy
    lamina propria
    areolar connective tissue underlying a mucous membrane
    loose connective tissue
    (also, areolar tissue) type of connective tissue proper that shows little specialization with cells dispersed in the matrix
    matrix
    extracellular material which is produced by the cells embedded in it, containing ground substance and fibers
    merocrine secretion
    release of a substance from a gland via exocytosis
    mesenchymal cell
    adult stem cell from which most connective tissue cells are derived
    mesenchyme
    embryonic tissue from which connective tissue cells derive
    mesoderm
    middle embryonic germ layer from which connective tissue, muscle tissue, and some epithelial tissue derive
    mesothelium
    simple squamous epithelial tissue which covers the major body cavities and is the epithelial portion of serous membranes
    mucous connective tissue
    specialized loose connective tissue present in the umbilical cord
    mucous gland
    group of cells that secrete mucous, a thick, slippery substance that keeps tissues moist and acts as a lubricant
    mucous membrane
    tissue membrane that is covered by protective mucous and lines tissue exposed to the outside environment
    muscle tissue
    type of tissue that is capable of contracting and generating tension in response to stimulation; produces movement.
    myelin
    layer of lipid inside some neuroglial cells that wraps around the axons of some neurons
    myocyte
    muscle cells
    necrosis
    accidental death of cells and tissues
    nervous tissue
    type of tissue that is capable of sending and receiving impulses through electrochemical signals.
    neuroglia
    supportive neural cells
    neuron
    excitable neural cell that transfer nerve impulses
    oligodendrocyte
    neuroglial cell that produces myelin in the brain
    parenchyma
    functional cells of a gland or organ, in contrast with the supportive or connective tissue of a gland or organ
    primary union
    condition of a wound where the wound edges are close enough to be brought together and fastened if necessary, allowing quicker and more thorough healing
    pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    tissue that consists of a single layer of irregularly shaped and sized cells that give the appearance of multiple layers; found in ducts of certain glands and the upper respiratory tract
    reticular fiber
    fine fibrous protein, made of collagen subunits, which cross-link to form supporting “nets” within connective tissue
    reticular lamina
    matrix containing collagen and elastin secreted by connective tissue; a component of the basement membrane
    reticular tissue
    type of loose connective tissue that provides a supportive framework to soft organs, such as lymphatic tissue, spleen, and the liver
    Schwann cell
    neuroglial cell that produces myelin in the peripheral nervous system
    secondary union
    wound healing facilitated by wound contraction
    serous gland
    group of cells within the serous membrane that secrete a lubricating substance onto the surface
    serous membrane
    type of tissue membrane that lines body cavities and lubricates them with serous fluid
    simple columnar epithelium
    tissue that consists of a single layer of column-like cells; promotes secretion and absorption in tissues and organs
    simple cuboidal epithelium
    tissue that consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells; promotes secretion and absorption in ducts and tubules
    simple squamous epithelium
    tissue that consists of a single layer of flat scale-like cells; promotes diffusion and filtration across surface
    skeletal muscle
    usually attached to bone, under voluntary control, each cell is a fiber that is multinucleated and striated
    smooth muscle
    under involuntary control, moves internal organs, cells contain a single nucleus, are spindle-shaped, and do not appear striated; each cell is a fiber
    stratified columnar epithelium
    tissue that consists of two or more layers of column-like cells, contains glands and is found in some ducts
    stratified cuboidal epithelium
    tissue that consists of two or more layers of cube-shaped cells, found in some ducts
    stratified squamous epithelium
    tissue that consists of multiple layers of cells with the most apical being flat scale-like cells; protects surfaces from abrasion
    striation
    alignment of parallel actin and myosin filaments which form a banded pattern
    supportive connective tissue
    type of connective tissue that provides strength to the body and protects soft tissue
    synovial membrane
    connective tissue membrane that lines the cavities of freely movable joints, producing synovial fluid for lubrication
    tight junction
    forms an impermeable barrier between cells
    tissue
    group of cells that are similar in form and perform related functions
    tissue membrane
    thin layer or sheet of cells that covers the outside of the body, organs, and internal cavities
    totipotent
    embryonic cells that have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell and organ in the body
    transitional epithelium
    form of stratified epithelium found in the urinary tract, characterized by an apical layer of cells that change shape in response to the presence of urine
    vasodilation
    widening of blood vessels
    wound contraction
    process whereby the borders of a wound are physically drawn together
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