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9.6: Process Analysis

  • Page ID
    20649
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    Figure: Image by Pixabay

    The Purpose of Process Analysis

    The purpose of a process analysis essay is to explain how to do something or how something works. Reading and writing about process appears in almost every aspect of our lives, including in college. We read a recipe and follow the steps to cook something or install an appliance. We write down directions to do a task. Many YouTube videos serve as visual process analyses. From procedural manuals to the methodology sections in lab reports, process analyses range from the simple to the complicated. In all cases, however, the formula for a process analysis remains the same: The process is articulated into clear, definitive steps.

    Almost everything we do involves following a step-by-step process. From riding a bike as children to learning various jobs as adults, we initially needed instructions to effectively execute the task. Likewise, we have likely had to instruct others, so we know how important good directions are—and how frustrating it is when they are poorly put together. The format of a process analysis varies depending on the context in which it is written, but they generally include many more lists than most writing does, and -- depending on the audience and purpose -- may use the imperative mood (commands), which is not generally used in regular college essays.

    Writing at Work

    The next time you have to explain a process to someone at work, be mindful of how clearly you articulate each step. Strong communication skills are critical for workplace satisfaction and advancement. Effective process analysis plays a critical role in developing that skill set.

    Exercise 1

    On a separate sheet of paper, make a bulleted list of all the steps that you feel would be required to clearly illustrate three of the following four processes:

    1. Tying a shoelace
    2. Parallel parking
    3. Planning a successful first date
    4. Giving directions to get from where you live to your school

    The Structure of a Process Analysis Essay

    The process analysis opens with a discussion of the process and a thesis statement that states the goal of the process.

    The organization of a process analysis essay typically follows chronological order. The steps of the process are conveyed in the order in which they usually occur. Body paragraphs will be constructed based on these steps. If a particular step is complicated and needs a lot of explaining, then it will likely take up a paragraph on its own. But if a series of simple steps is easier to understand, then the steps can be grouped into a single paragraph.

    The time transition phrases covered in Section 12.18 "Clause Joining and Punctuation" are also helpful in organizing process analysis essays (see “Transition Words and Phrases for Expressing Time”). Words such as first, second, third, next, and finally are helpful cues to orient reader and organize the content of essay. Sometimes, elements of cause and effect (see "Cause and Effect Essays") and definition (see "Definition Essays") are also included in process analyses.

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    Figure:

    If the process you are explaining has any place where someone could get hurt if the follower of the process doesn't do something in a certain way, be sure to point that out with the words "danger" or another symbol calling out the danger.

    Tip

    Always have someone else read your process analysis to make sure it makes sense. Once we get too close to a subject, it is difficult to determine how clearly an idea is coming across. Having a friend or coworker read it over will serve as a good way to troubleshoot any confusing spots.

    Example Process Analysis Essay

    How to Grow Tomatoes from a Seedling

    Growing tomatoes is a simple and rewarding task, and more people should be growing them, especially because home-grown tomatoes taste so much sweeter than store-bought tomatoes. This paper walks readers through the main steps for growing and maintaining patio tomatoes from a seedling.

    The first step in growing tomatoes is determining if you have the appropriate available space and sunlight to grow them. All tomato varieties require full sunlight, which means at least six hours of direct sun every day. If you have south-facing windows or a patio or backyard that receives direct sunlight, you should be able to grow tomatoes. Choose the location that receives the most sun.

    Next, you need to find the right seedling. Growing tomatoes and other vegetables from seeds can be more complicated (though it is not difficult), so I am only discussing how to grow tomatoes from a seedling. A seedling, for those who do not know, is typically understood as a young plant that has only recently started growing from the seed. It can be anything from a newly germinated plant to a fully flowering plant. You can usually find tomato seedlings at your local nursery for an affordable price. Less than five dollars per plant is a common price. When choosing the best seedling, look for a plant that is short with healthy, full leaves and no flowers. This last point tends to be counterintuitive, but it is extremely important. You do not want a vegetable plant that has already started flowering in the nursery because it will have a more difficult time adapting to its new environment when you replant it. Additionally, choose a plant with one strong main stem. This is important because the fewer stems that a tomato plant has, the more easily it can transport nutrients to the fruit. Multiple stems tend to divide nutrients in less efficient ways, often resulting in either lower yields or smaller fruit.

    Once you have found the right seedlings to plant back home, you need to find the best way of planting them. I recommend that you plant your tomatoes in containers. If you have the space and sunlight, then you can certainly plant them in the ground, but a container has several advantages and is usually most manageable for the majority of gardeners. The containers can be used in the house, on a patio, or anywhere in the backyard, and they are portable. Containers also tend to better regulate moisture and drain excess water. Choose a container that is at least 10 inches in diameter and at least 1 foot deep. This will provide sufficient room for root development.

    In addition to the container, you also need the appropriate soil mixture and draining mechanisms. For the best drainage, fill the bottom of your container with 2 or 3 inches of gravel. On top of the gravel, fill ¾ of the container with soil. Choose a well-balanced organic soil. The three main ingredients you will find described on soil bags are N-P-K—that is, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Without going into too much detail about the role of each element in plant growth, I will tell you that an average vegetable will grow fine in a 10-5-5 mixture. This ratio, too, will be easy to find at your local nursery.

    Once you have the gravel in the bottom of the container and the soil on top, you are ready to transplant the tomato. Pick up the tomato in the plastic container it comes in from the nursery. Turn it upside down, and holding the stem gently between your fingers, pat the bottom lightly several times, and the plant should fall into your hand. Next, you should gently break up the root ball that formed in the nursery container with your hands. Be sure to rip the roots up a bit, but don't rip them off the plant; this helps generate new root growth in the new container. Be careful not to damage the roots too much, as this could stunt the growth or even destroy the plant altogether.

    Next, carve out a hole in the soil to make space for the plant. Make it deep enough to go about an inch higher than it was previously buried and wide enough so all the roots can comfortably fit within and beneath it. Place the seedling in the hole and push the removed soil back on top to cover the base of the plant. After that, the final step in planting your tomato is mulch. Mulch is not necessary for growing plants, but it can be very helpful in maintaining moisture, keeping out weeds, and regulating soil temperature. Place some mulch above the soil and spread it out evenly but make sure there is stem space between the bottom leaf and the top of the mulch.

    Once the mulch is laid, you are mostly done. The rest is all watering, waiting, and maintenance. After you lay the mulch, pour the plant a heavy amount of water. Water the plant at its base until you see water coming through the bottom of the container. Wait ten minutes, and repeat. This initial watering is very important for establishing new roots. You should continue to keep the soil moist, but never soaking wet. One healthy watering each morning should be sufficient for days without rain. You can often forego watering on days with moderate rainfall. Watering in the morning is preferable to the evening because it lessens mold and bacteria growth.

    Choosing to grow the patio variety of tomatoes is easiest because patio tomatoes do not require staking or training around cages. They grow in smaller spaces and have a determinate harvest time. As you continue to water and monitor your plant, prune unhealthy looking leaves to the main stem, and cut your tomatoes down at the stem when they ripen to your liking. As you can see, growing tomatoes can be very easy and manageable for even novice gardeners. The satisfaction of picking and eating fresh food, and doing it yourself, outweighs all the effort you put in over the growing season.

    Notice that even though the essay overall has a chronological order, other "rhetorical modes" are sprinkled throughout. For instance, this sentence contains definition: "All tomato varieties require full sunlight, which means at least six hours of direct sun every day." This sentence contains conditional (if-then) reasoning: "If you have south-facing windows or a patio or backyard that receives direct sunlight, you should be able to grow tomatoes." And this next sentence demonstrate cause-effect logic: "You do not want a vegetable plant that has already started flowering in the nursery because it will have a more difficult time adapting to its new environment when you replant it." Most of the time these other logical explanation occur within the explanation of a direction, such as "Next, carve out a hole in the soil to make space for the plant." So, while the "commands" occur in chronological order, the explanation of those directions tend to use other types of logical thinking that this chapter explains.

    Exercise 2

    Choose one of the topics from Exercise 1 or a topic of your own to organize and develop a process analysis.

    Contributors and Attributions

    This page most recently updated on June 6, 2020.


    This page titled 9.6: Process Analysis is shared under a CC BY-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Athena Kashyap & Erika Dyquisto (ASCCC Open Educational Resources Initiative) .