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4.3: Los verbos con cambios radicales

  • Page ID
    95733
  • Stem-changing verbs

    Stem-changing verbs are those verbs with changes only in the stem (root).

    Observations

    The conjugation endings remain the same as those of regular verbs:

    • Verbs that end in "-ar" have the following endings when conjugated: -o, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an
    • Verbs that end in "-er" have the following endings when conjugated: -o, -es,-e, -emos, -éis, -en
    • Verbs that end in "-ir" have the following endings when conjugated: -o, -es,-e, -imos, -ís, -en

    There are 3 types of stem-changing verbs

    • Verbs that stem change from "e → ie"
    • Verbs that stem change from "o → ue"
    • Verbs that stem change from "e → i"

    Observations

    • The change is on the last vowel of the stem. This will help you avoid confusion with stem-changing verbs like "comenzar" and "encontrar" as the last vowel of the stem for each verb is "e" and "o" respectively. Note that the vowel in bold is the one that must change. Moreover, the endings that need to change in conjugated versions are in blue.
    • They are also known as "boot verbs" because this change is only for the subject pronouns "yo, tú, Ud., él, ella, Uds., ellos, ellas". The subject pronouns "nosotros, vosotros" do not have this stem-change. The conjugations that are shaded in the following chart show the stem-change. Note that the shaded area looks like a boot.
      e → ie, verb "cerrar"
    Singular Conjugations Plural Conjugations
    yo cierro nosotros cerramos
    cierras  vosotros cerráis
    Ud., él, ella cierra  Uds., ellos, ellas, cierran
    o → ue, verb "volver"
    Singular Conjugations Plural Conjugations
    yo vuelvo  nosotros, nosotras volvemos
    tú vuelves vosotros, vosotras volvéis
    Ud., él, ella vuelve Uds., ellos, ellas vuelven
    e → i, verb "pedir"
    Singular Conjugations Plural Conjugations
    yo pido nosotros, nosotras pedimos
    pides vosotros, vosotras pedís
    Ud., él, ella pide Uds., ellos, ellas piden

      List of common stem-changing verbs

    List of stem-changing verbs: E→IE List of stem-changing verbs: O→UE List of stem-changing verbs: E→I
    cerrar - to close almorzar  - to eat lunch; to have lunch pedir  - to ask for something; to request
    comenzar  - to start; to begin costar  - to cost repetir  - to repeat
    empezar - to start; to begin devolver  - to return (something taken) servir  - to serve
    entender  - to understand dormir  - to sleep *conseguir  - to get; to obtain
    mentir - to lie encontrar  - to find; to meet up with someone *seguir  - to follow; to continue
    pensar - to think poder  - to be able to; can ^decir  - to say; to tell
    perder  - to lose; to miss recordar  - to remember  
    preferir - to prefer volar  - to fly *The "yo" form has an additional stem change: drop the "u": consigo, sigo.
    querer  - to want; to love volver  - to return (to a location) ^The "yo" form has an additional stem change: "c""g": digo.
     

    jugar [u→ue] - to play (a sport; a game; a match)

    This is the only verb that stem-changes from "u → ue".

     

    Note that the verbs above, indicate the vowel that must change in bold. Moreover, the endings that need to change in conjugated versions are in blue.                                                                             

    Decorative


    "Boots" by OpenClipartVectors, Pixabay is licensed under CC0 1.0

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     "Snow boots" by Conmongt, Pixabay is licensed under CC0 1.0