dicta fides sequitur, responsaque vatis aguntur.
Liber adest, festisque fremunt ululatibus agri:
turba ruit, mixtaeque viris matresque nurusque
vulgusque proceresque ignota ad sacra feruntur. 530
‘Quis furor, anguigenae, proles Mavortia, vestras
attonuit mentes?’ Pentheus ait; ‘aerane tantum
aere repulsa valent et adunco tibia cornu
et magicae fraudes, ut, quos non bellicus ensis,
non tuba terruerit, non strictis agmina telis, 535
femineae voces et mota insania vino
obscenique greges et inania tympana vincant?
- Parse dicta.
- Who is Liber?
- What is the subject of fremunt (528)? What is the effect of its placement in the sentence?
- Sort out what each of the five -que in 529–30 (festisque, mixtaeque, matresque, nurusque, vulgusque, proceresque) links. Which one is technically speaking superfluous? Why does Ovid use it nevertheless?
- What is the case of anguigenae and proles Mavortia (531)?
- Identify the three subjects of valent (the main verb of the sentence) (533).
- What type of clause does ut (534) introduce?
- What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quos?
- Identify the three subjects of terruerit (the verb of the relative clause introduced by quos) (535).
- Identify the four subjects of vincant (the verb of the ut-clause) (537).
- How does Ovid bring out stylistically the Dionysiac spirit that has gripped the inhabitants of Thebes in 527–30? (Include consideration of the use of the connective -que.)
- Analyze the overall design of Pentheus’ rhetorical question aerane … vincant? (532–37).
- Why is Pentheus so upset about the behaviour of his subjects? To what does he object specifically?
- Discuss the role of gender in Pentheus’ rhetoric.
- What ‘character type’ does Pentheus conform to? Can you think of contemporary public figures who exhibit similar traits?
|Liber, -eri, m.||Bacchus|
|festus, -a, -um||festive, merry|
|(cf. dies festus||a holiday observed in honour of a god)|
|fremo, -ere, -ui, -itum||to rumble, roar, hum, buzz|
|ululatus, -us, m.||drawn-out cries, howling, yelling|
|ruo, -ere, -i||to rush|
|misceo, -ere, -ui, mixtum||to mix, blend, mingle, confound|
|nurus, -us, f.||daughter-in-law|
|(here: in poetry, usually in plural)||young (married) woman|
|proceres, -um, m. pl.||the leading men of a country|
|anguigena, -ae, m. [anguis + genus]||offspring of a serpent or dragon|
|Mavortius, -a, -um||of or belonging to Mars, warlike|
|attono, -are, -ui, -itum||to strike with lightening, drive crazy|
|aes, aeris, n||copper, bronze, brass
(musical) instrument made thereof
|tantum (adverbial use of the acc. of tantus)||to such an extent/ degree|
|repello, -ere, reppuli, repulsum||to drive back, repel, repulse|
|aduncus, -a, -um||hooked, curved|
|tibia, -ae, f.||pipe|
|(cf. tibia curva||a pipe with a curved end, associated with Eastern religious rites)|
|cornu, -us, n||horn|
|fraus, -dis, f.||mischief, crime, deceit, trickery|
|ensis, -is, m.||sword|
|stringo, -ngere, -nxi, -ctum||to bind fast, secure; draw tight; scratch (here) to bare, unsheathe|
|insania, -ae, f||madness, frenzy, folly|
|obscenus, -a, -um||disgusting, filthy, loathsome, lewd|
|grex, -egis m.||flock, herd, band, troop|
|inanis, -is, -e||empty, hollow|
|tympanum, -i, n.||percussive instrument, drum|