18.6: Using Context Clues
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Context clues are bits of information within a text that will assist you in deciphering the meaning of unknown words. Since most of your knowledge of vocabulary comes from reading, it is important that you recognize context clues. By becoming more aware of particular words and phrases surrounding a difficult word, you can make logical guesses about its meaning. The following are the different types of context clues:
- Brief definition or restatement
- Synonyms and antonyms
- General sense of the passage
Brief Definition or Restatement
Sometimes a text directly states the definition or a restatement of the unknown word. The brief definition or restatement is signaled by a word or a punctuation mark.
Consider the following example:
If you visit Alaska, you will likely see many glaciers, or slow-moving masses of ice.
In this sentence, the word glaciers is defined by the phrase that follows the signal word or, which is slow moving masses of ice.
In other instances, the text may restate the meaning of the word in a different way, by using punctuation as a signal.
Look at the following example:
Marina was indignant—fuming mad—when she discovered her brother had left for the party without her.
Although fuming mad is not a formal definition of the word indignant, it does serve to define it. These two examples use signals—the word or and the punctuation dashes—to indicate the meaning of the unfamiliar word. Other signals to look for are the words is, as, means, known as, and refers to.
Synonyms and Antonyms
Sometimes a text gives a synonym of the unknown word to signal the meaning of the unfamiliar word:
When you interpret an image, you actively question and examine what the image connotes and suggests.
In this sentence the word suggests is a synonym of the word connotes. The word and sometimes signals synonyms.
Likewise, the word but may signal a contrast, which can help you define a word by its antonym.
I abhor clothes shopping, but I adore grocery shopping.
The word abhor is contrasted with its opposite: adore. From this context, the reader can guess that abhor means to dislike greatly.
Sometimes a text will give you an example of the word that sheds light on its meaning:
I knew Mark’s ailurophobia was in full force because he began trembling and stuttering when he saw my cat, Ludwig, slink out from under the bed.
Although ailurophobia is an unknown word, the sentence gives an example of its effects. Based on this example, a reader could confidently surmise that the word means a fear of cats.
Look for signal words like such as, for instance, and for example. These words signal that a word’s meaning may be revealed through an example.
General Sense of the Passage
Sometimes you will happen upon a new term in a passage that has no examples, synonyms or antonyms to help you decipher the word’s meaning. However, by looking at the words and sentences surrounding the word and using your common sense, oftentimes you may make a fairly accurate guess at the meaning of the term. For example if you read the sentence, “The newlyweds were trying to be frugal in their shopping because they wanted to save enough money to buy a home,” your common sense would tell you that the word frugal means saving money and being thrifty because they are trying to save to buy a house.
Identify the context clue that helps define the underlined words in each of the following sentences. Write the context clue on your own sheet of paper.
1. Lucinda is veryadroiton the balance beam, but Constance is rather clumsy.
2. I saw theentomologist, a scientist who studies insects, cradle the giant dung beetle in her palm.
3. Lance’s comments about politics wereirrelevantand meaningless to the botanist’s lecture on plant reproduction.
4. Before I left for my trip to the Czech Republic, I listened to my mother’ssageadvice and made a copy of my passport.
5. Hisrancor, or hatred, for socializing resulted in a life of loneliness and boredom.
6. Martin wasmortified, way beyond embarrassment, when his friends teamed up to shove him into the pool.
7. Thepetulantfour-year-old had a baby sister who was, on the contrary, not grouchy at all.
8. The philosophy teacher presented the students with severalconundrums, or riddles, to solve.
9. Most Americans areomnivores, people that eat both plants and animals.
10. Elena iseffervescent, as excited as a cheerleader, for example, when she meets someone for the first time.
On your own sheet of paper, write the name of the context clue that helps to define the underlined words.
Maggie was aprecociouschild to say the least. She produced brilliant watercolor paintings by the age of three. At first, her parents wereflabbergasted—utterly blown away—by their daughter’s ability, but soon they got used to their little painter. Her preschool teacher said that Maggie’sdexterity, or ease with which she used her hands, was something she had never before seen in such a young child. Little Maggie nevergloatedor took pride in her paintings; she just smiled contentedly when she finished one and requested her parents give it to someone as a gift. Whenever people met Maggie for the first time, they often watched her paint with their mouthsagape, but her parents always kept their mouths closed and simply smiled over their “little Monet.”
Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.
In addition to context clues to help you figure out the meaning of a word, examine the following word parts: prefixes, roots, and suffixes.
Writing at Work
Jargon is a type of shorthand communication often used in the workplace. It is the technical language of a special field. Imagine that it is your first time working as a server in a restaurant, and your manager tells you that he is going to “eighty-six” the roasted chicken. If you do not realize that “eighty-six” means to remove an item from the menu, you could be confused. When you first start a job, no matter where it may be, you will encounter jargon that will likely be foreign to you. Perhaps after working the job for a short time, you too will feel comfortable enough to use it. When you are first hired, however, jargon can be baffling and make you feel like an outsider. If you cannot decipher the jargon based on the context, it is always a good policy to ask.
- Context clues are words or phrases within a text that help clarify vocabulary that is unknown to you.
- There are several types of context clues including brief definition and restatement, synonyms and antonyms, and example.
Write a paragraph describing your first job. In the paragraph, use five words previously unknown to you. These words could be jargon words or you may consult a dictionary or thesaurus to find a new word. Make sure to provide a specific context clue for understanding each word. Exchange papers with a classmate and try to decipher the meaning of the words in each other’s paragraphs based on the context clues.