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8.6: Notes

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    1. See D. B. Barrett, ed., World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Study of Churches and Religions in the Modern World, A.D. 1900-2000 (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1982). For an introductory overview of the different traditions of Christianity today, see Ninian Smart, In Search of Christianity (New York: Harper and Row, 1979).
    2. See Stephen Reynolds, The Christian Religious Tradition (Encino, CA: Dickenson, 1977); James B. Wiggins and Robert S. Ellwood, Christianity: A Cultural Perspective (Englewood Cliffs, N]: Prentice-Hall, 1988); MaryJo Weaver, Introduction to Christianity, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1991); or Denise Lardner Carmody and John Tully Carmody, Christianity: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1989). For a much fuller treatment see W. 0. Chadwick, gen. ed., Pelican History of the Church, 6 vols. (Baltimore, MD: Pelican Books, 1960-71); and Jaroslav Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Christian Doctrine, 5 vols. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1971).
    3. See Chapter 4, note 1.
    4. See Robert McAfee Brown, Tbe Spirit of Protestantism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), Chapters 6, 14, and 17.
    5. See Lazarus Moore, Sacred Tradition in the Orthodox Church (Minneapolis, MN: Light and Life Publishing, 1984); and Timothy Ware, Tbe Orthodox Church, rev. ed. (New York: Pelican, 1980), Chapter 10.
    6. See Karl F. Morrison, Tradition and Authority in the Western Church 300-1400 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969); and Richard P. McBrien, Catholicism, rev. ed. (San Francisco, CA: HarperSan Francisco, 1994).
    7. See Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History (Bollingen Series 46; Princeton, N]: Princeton University Press, 1954), Chapters 3 and 4; and Charles D. Barrett, Understanding the Christian Faith (Englewood Cliffs, N]: Prentice-Hall, 1980), Ch. 3.
    8. See Robert Wilken, Tbe Myth ofChristian Beginnings: History's Impact on Belief(New York: Doubleday, 1972). For a more recent account, see Marcus]. Borg, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time: The Historical Jesus and the Heart of Contemporary Faith (San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 1994).
    9. See Andrew Walls, "Christianity," in A Handbook of Living Religions, ed. John R. Hinnells (New York: Viking Penguin, 1984), pp. 96-102. See also Robert M. Haddad, Syrian Christians in a Muslim Society (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1970); John Joseph, The Nestorians and Their Muslim Neighbors, Princeton Oriental Studies, Vol. 20 (Princeton, N]: Princeton University Press, 1961); Edward Wakin, A Lonely Minority: The Modern Story of Egypt's Copts (New York: Morrow, 1963); and Malachia Ormanian, The Church of Armenia, 2nd ed. (London: Mowbray, 1955).
    10. See John Meyendorf, The Orthodox Church: Its Past and Its Role in the World Today, 3rd ed. (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1981); Alexander Schmemann, The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodo.xy(Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1963); Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Church, op. cit.
    11. On these issues see G. Every, Misunderstandings Betwen East and West, Ecumenical Studies in History, 4 (Richmond, KY: John Knox, 1966).
    12. See Benjamin D. Williams and Harold B. Anstall, Orthodox Worship: A Living Continuity with the Synagogue, the Temple, and the Early Church (Minneapolis, MN: Light and Life, 1990); Archimandrite Vasilios, Hymn ofEntry, trans. Elizabeth Briere (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984); and Alexander Schmemann, Introduction to Liturgical Theology (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1966). A much revered, classic exposition of the meaning of the Divine Liturgy is Nicholas Cabasilas, Tbe Life in Christ, trans. Carmino]. de Catanzaro (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1974). An extended description of the Orthodox Divine Liturgy is given in Chapter 14, below.
    13. See John Meyendorf, St. Gregory Palamas and Orthodox Spirituality (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1974); Vladimir Lossky, Tbe Mystical Theology o fthe Eastern Church (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1976); and Georgios I. Mantzaridis, Tbe Deification ofMan: St. Gregory Palamas and the Orthodox Tradition, trans. Liadain Sherrard (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1964); and Archimandrite Cherubim, Contemporary Ascetics o fMt. Athas, 2 vols. (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1994). See also Sergius Bolshakoff and M. Basil Pennington, In Search of True Wisdom (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1979) [documented interviews with Orthodox masters of the spiritual life].
    14. The Philokalia: The Complete Text, 5 vols., compiled by St. Nikodimos of the Holy Mountain and St. Makarios of Corinth, trans. G. E. H. Palmer, Philip Sherrard, and Kallistos Ware (London: Faber and Faber, 1979-1984).
    15. See Elisabeth Behr-Sigel, The Place ofthe Heart: An Introduction to Orthodox Spirituality, trans. Stephen Bigham (Torrance, CA: Oakwood Publications, 1992). See also The Way of a Pilgrim, trans. R. M. French (New York: Seabury, 1965). An extended account of the Prayer of the Heart in pursuit of hesychia is given in Chapter 9, below
    16. See Demetrios Constantelos, Byzantine Philanthropy and Social Welfare (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1968); and Stanley S. Harakas, Living the Faith: The Praxis of Eastern Orthodox Ethics (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1994).
    17. See George Nicozisin, "Born Again Christians," "Charismatics," "Gifts ofthe Holy Spirit": An Orthodox Perspective (New York: Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America, Dept. of Communications, n.d.).
    18. Andrew Walls, "Christianity," op. cit., p. 105.
    19. See T. M. Parker, Christianity and the State in the Light ofHistory (London: A. and C. Black, 1955).
    20. See Lucien Deiss, Tbe Mass, trans. Lucien Deiss and Michael S. Driscoll (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1989); Mary Anthony Wagner, The Sacred World of the Christian, Sensed in Faith (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1993); Marion]. Hatchett, Sanctifying Life, Time and Space: An Introduction to Liturgial Study (NewYork: Seabury Press, 1982);and Raymond Vaillancourt, Toward a Renewal of Sacramental Theology, trans. Matthew ]. O'Connell (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1979).
    21. See Patricia Wittberg, The Rise and Fall of Catholic Religious Orders: ASocial Movement Perspective (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994).
    22. See John Mahoney, The Making of Mora! Theology: A Study of the Roman Catholic Tradition (Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1987); Charles E. Curran, The Living Tradition of Catholic Mora/Theology (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992); and James F. Childress and John Macquarrie, eds., The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Ethics (Philadelphia, PA: Westminster, 1986).
    23. See Alec Vidler, A Century of Social Catholicism (London: SPCK, 1964);Joseph H. Fichter, Sociology of Good Works: Research in Catholic America (Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press, 1993); David Hollenbach, Claims in Conflict (New York: Paulist Press, 1979); Deane William Ferm, ed., Third World Liberation Theologies: A Primer (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1986); Philip Berryman, Liberation Theology: Essential Facts about the Revolutionary Religious Movement in Latin America and Beyond (New York: Crossroad, 1987); and Sharon D. Welch, Communities of Resistance and Solidarity: A Feminist Theology of Liberation (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1985).
    24. See Malcolm Muggeridge, Something Beautiful for God (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1971); Dorothy Day, The Long Loneliness (New York: Image Books, 1968); Edwina Gately, I Hear a Seed Growing (Trabuco Canyon, CA: Source Books, 1992); and Ana Carrigan, "Roses in December" (film), and Ilan Ziv, "A Question of Conscience: The Murder of the Six Jesuit Priests in El Salvador" (film), both available from Virgina Beach, VA: Palisades Home Video, circa 1990. An account of Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker Movement is given in Chapter 11, below.
    25. See Pelikan, Tbe Christian Tradition, op. cit. For a major theological statement by a contemporary Roman Catholic theologian, see Karl Rahner, Foundations of Christian Faith (New York: Seabury, 1978). A different example by another important contemporary Roman Catholic theologian is Avery Dulles, The Craft of Theology: From Symbol to System (New York: Crossroad, 1993).
    26. See Peter Brown, Augustine ofHippo: A Biography (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1969); and Charles Norris Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture: A Study ofTbought and Action from Augustus to Augustine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1957). An extended account of a later medieval expression of the Augustinian model or paradigm of the way of reasoned inquiry-namely, Anselm's conception of "faith seeking understanding"-is given in Chapter 10, below.
    27. See Jean Leclerq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture, trans. Catherine Misrahi (New York: Fordham University Press, 1961), and Steven Ozment, The Age of Reform, 1250-1550: An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval and Reformation Europe (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1980).
    28. See Josef Pieper, Scholasticism (London: Faber and Faber, 1961); Maurice De Wulf, An Introduction to Scholastic Philosophy: Medieval and Modern (first published as Scholasticism Old and New, New York: Dover 1956); Simon Tugwell, Albert and Thomas: Selected Writings, The Classics of Western Spirituality Series (New York: Paulist Press, 1988); and Josef Pieper, Guide to Thomas Aquinas (New York: Mentor-Omega, 1962).
    29. See Louis Bouyer, Jean Leclercq, and Frans;ois Vandenbroucke, A History of Christian Spirituality, 3 vols. (New York: Seabury 1982); Don Saliers and Louis Dupre, eds., Christian Spirituality: Post-Reformation and Modern (New York: Crossroad, 1991); Harvey Egan, An Anthology of Christian Mysticism (Collegeville, MN: A Pueblo Book/Liturgical Press, 1991); and Louis Dupre and James A. Wiseman, eds., Light from Light: An Anthology of Christian Mysticism (New York: Paulist Press, 1988).
    30. See c. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages, 2nd ed. (New York: Longman, 1989). For a commentary on the Rule of St. Benedict that brings out the mystical quest at its heart, see Emmanuel Heufelder, The Way to God According to the Rule of St. Benedict, trans. Luke Eberle (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1983).
    31. See Kenneth Leech, Soul Friend: An Invitation to Spiritual Direction (San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 1977).
    32. See Harvey Egan, What Are They Saying About Mysticism? (New York: Paulist Press, 1982), pp. 117-119; and the summary in "Mysticism," Tbe New Dictionary of Catholic Spirituality, ed. Michael Downey (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1993), pp. 681-93.
    33. 33. A fine attempt to synthesize different accounts of the stages of the mystical quest in Western Christianity is given in Francis Kelly Nemeck and Marie Theresa Coombs, The Spiritual Journey: Critical Thresholds and Stages of Adult Spiritual Genesis (Collegeville, MN: Michael Glazier/Liturgical Press, 1987).
    34. On these matters, see Andrew Louth, Tbe Origins ofthe Christian Mystical Tradition: From Plato to Denys (Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1981).
    35. See Richard Kiekhefer, "Major Currents in Late Medieval Devotion," in Christian Spirituality II· High Middle Ages and Reformation, ed. Jill Raitt (New York: Crossroad, 1987), pp. 75-108; Elizabeth A. Johnson, "Marian Devotion in the Western Church," ibid., pp. 392--414; Keith P. Luria, "The Counter-Reformation and Popular Spirituality," in Christian Spirituality Ill· Post-Reformation and Modern, eds. Louis Dupre and Don Saliers (New York: Crossroad, 1989), pp. 93-120; and Carl Dehne, "Roman Catholic Popular Devotions," in Christians at Prayer, ed. John Gallen (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1977), pp. 83-99.
    36. See Ozment, Tbe Age ofReform, op. cit.; Otto Griindler, "Devotio Moderna," in Raitt, Christian Spirituality II, op. cit., pp. 176--193; and Regnerus R. Post, Tbe Modern Devotion (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1968).
    37. Peter Brown, Tbe Cult ofthe Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983).
    38. See Sandra L. Zimdars-Swartz, Encountering Mary: From La Salette to Medjugorje (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991); Ruth Cranston, The Miracle of Lourdes, rev. ed. (New York: Image Books, 1988); and Jonathan Sumption, Pilgrimage: An Image of Medieval Religion (London: Faber and Faber, 1975). For a fine overview of Christian visionary literature, see Carol Zaleski, Otherworld journeys: Accounts of Near-Death Experience in Medieval and Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987); also see her bibliography.
    39. See Patricia Treece, Nothing Short of a Miracle: The Healing Power ofthe Saints (New York: Image Books, 1988); Patricia Treece, The Sanctified Body (New York: Doubleday, 1989); Herbert Thurston and]. H. Crehan, eds., The Physical Phenomena of Mysticism (Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery, 1952); Morton Kelsey, The Christian and the Supernatural (Minneapolis, MI: Augsburg, 1976); Ronald A. N. Kydd, Charismatic Gifts in the Early Church: An Exploration Into the Gifts o f the Holy Spirit During the First Three Centuries o f the Christian Church (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1984); and Gabor Klaniczay, The Uses of Supernatural Power: The Transformation of Popular Religion in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, trans. Susan Singerman, ed., Karen Margolis (Princeton, N]: Princeton University Press, 1994).
    40. On the Roman Catholic Charismatic movement, see Killian McDonnell, Charismatic Renewal and the Churches (New York: Seabury Press, 1976); Richard Quebedaux, The New Charismatics (San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1983); and Francis MacNutt, Healing(Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1974). An example of Roman Catholic Charismatic Christianity is described in Chapter 13, below.
    41. Robert McAfee Brown, The Spirit of Protestantism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965); and John Dillenberger and Claude Welch, Protestant Christianity: Interpreted Through Its Development (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1954). The figure of 20,000plus denominations is from the World Christian Encyclopedia, op. cit.. pp. 792-793. It includes marginal Protestant and nonwhite indigenous Christian traditions as well as conventional Protestant traditions.
    42. This phrase and concept comes from Andew Walls, "Christianity," op. cit., p. 105ff.
    43. See Owen Chadwick, The Reformation (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1967); Ozment, The Age of Reform, 1250-1550, op. cit.; and Wilhelm Pauck, The Heritage of the Reformation (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1961). See also Karl Holl, The Cultural Significance of the Reformation (Cleveland, OH: World, 1959).
    44. See Pelikan, The Christian Tradition, op. cit.; Heinrich Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (Philadelphia, PA: Lutheran Publication Society, 1889); Heinrich Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics (London: Allen and Unwin, 1950); and William Hordern, A Layman's Guide to Protestant Theology, rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1968).
    45. See Charles Price and Louis Wei!, Liturgy for Living, The Church's Teaching Series 5 (New York: Seabury, 1979); Leone! L. Mitchell, Praying Shapes Believing: A Theological Commentary on The Book of Common Prayer (Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse, 1991); M. H. Shepherd, Jr., Worship of the Church, The Church's Teaching Series 4 (Greenwich, CT: Seabury Press, 1952); Eric W. Gritsch, Fortress Introduction to Lutheranism (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, 1993); and Luther Reed, The Lutheran Liturgy, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1954).
    46. See James F. White, Protestant Worship: Tradition in Transition (Louisville, TN: Westminster/John Knox, 1989); Richard Paquier, Dynamics of Worship, trans. Donald Macleod (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1967); and Frederick W. Schroeder, Worship in the Reformed Tradition (Boston, MA: United Church Press, 1966). See also Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, and Edward Yarnold, eds., The Study of Liturgy (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1935).
    47. See George Williams, The Radical Reformation (Philadelphia, PA: Westminster, 1962); Donald F. Durnbaugh, Tbe Believers' Church: The History and Character of Radical Protestantism (New York: Macmillan, 1968); ]. Howard Kaufmann and Leland Harder, Anabaptists Four Centuries Later: A Profile of Five Mennonite and Brethren Denominations (Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press, 1975); W. C. Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism, rev. ed. by Henry]. Cadbury (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1970); and Gerald Jonas, On Doing Good: The Quaker Experiment (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971).
    48. See Denise Lardner Carmodyand John Tully Carmody, The Republic of Many Mansions: Foundations of American Religious Thought (New York: Paragon House, 1990); and George C. Bedell, Leo Sandon, Jr., and Charles T. Wellborn, Religion in America, 2nd ed., (New York: Macmillan, 1982), Ch. 2.
    49. See Carter Lindberg, Beyond Charity: Reformation Initiativesfor the Poor(Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, 1992).
    50. See Shailer Matthews, The Faith of Modernism (New York: AMS Press, 1924); Bedell, Sandon, and Wellborn, Religion in America, op. cit., Ch. 6; Winthrop S. Hudson and John Corrigan, Religion in America, 5th ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1992), Chs. 11 and 12; Claude Welch, Protestant Thought in the Nineteenth Century, 2 vols. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972, 1985); and George F. Forell, ed., Christian Social Teachings: A Reader in Christian Social Ethics from the Bible to the Present (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 1966).
    51. See Walter A. Rauschenbusch, A Theology for the Social Gospel(Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1945); and Ernst Troeltsch, The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960).
    52. See F. Ernest Stoeffler, The Rise of Evangelical Pietism (Studies in the History of Religions-Supplements to Numen, 9; Leiden: Brill, 1965); Mark A. Noll, David Bebbington, and George A. Rawlyk, eds., Evangelicalism: The Popular Protestantism of North America and the British Isles, 1700-1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Leonard I. Sweet, The Evangelical Tradition in America (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1984); and David F. Wells and John D. Woodbridge, The Evangelicals: What They Believe, Who They Are, Where they are Changing (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1975). An extended account of the Evangelical Christian experience of being "born again" by Billy Graham is given in Chapter 12, below.
    53. See Stephen Neill, A History ofChristian Missions (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1964).
    54. See Henry Bett, The Spirit of Methodism (London: Epworth, 1945); and R. F. Wearmouth, Methodism and the Struggle of the Working Classes, 1850-1900 (Leicester, England: Backus, 1954). See also Donald W. Dayton, Discovering an Evangelical Heritage (New York: Harper and Row, 1976).
    55. See Sidney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History o f the American People (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972); and Catherine L. Albanese, America: Religions and Religion (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1981). See also Edward Di Andrews, The People Called Shakers: A Search for the Perfect Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1953); Thomas F. O'Dea, The Mormons (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1957); David Mitchell, Seventh-Day Adventists: Faith in Action (New York: Vantage, 1956); Barbara Grizzuti Harrison, Visions of Glory: A History and a Memory of Jehovah's Witnesses (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1978); and James A. Beckford, The Trumpet of Prophecy: A Sociological Study of Jehovah's Witnesses (Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell, 1975).
    56. See George F. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture, 187~1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980). See also Jerry Falwell, Listen America! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980) and Joe Edward Barnhart, The Southern Baptist Holy War (Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press, 1986).
    57. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Movement in the United States (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1972); Melvin E. Dieter, The Holiness Revival o f the Nineteenth Century (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1980); and John L. Peters, Christian Perfection and American Methodism (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1956).
    58. See Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Movement, op. cit.; Vinson Synan, The Twentieth Century Pentecostal Explosion (Plainfield, NJ: Logos 1975); ]. Rodman Williams, The Pentecostal Reality (Plainfeld, NJ: Logos, 1972); Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979); and Irwin Winehouse, The Assemblies ofGod (New York: Vantage, 1959).
    59. See W.]. Hollenweger, The Pentecostals: The Charismatic Movement in the Churches, trans. R. A. Wilson (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 1972); Michael P. Hamilton, ed., The Charismatic Movement (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974); Steven]. Land, "Pentecostal Spirituality: Living in the Spirit," in Dupre and Saliers, Christian Spirituality III, op. cit., pp. 479-499; Marcus Bach, The Inner Ecstasy: The Power and the Glory of Speaking in Tongues(Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1969).
    60. See Gerhardus C. Oosthuizen, Tbe Healer Prophet in African Churches, Studies in Christian Mission (New York: E.]. Brill, 1992); A. Hastings, A History of African Christianity, 1950-1975 (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1979); E. W. Fashole-Luke, A. Hastings, and G. Tasie, eds., Christianity in Independent Africa (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1978); and W. R. Read, V. M. Monterroso, and H. A. Johnson, Latin American Church Growth (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1969).
    61. See Raitt, Christian Spirituality II, op. cit.; Dupre and Saliers, Christian Spirituality III, op. cit.; Jones, Wainwright, and Yarnold, Tbe Study of Spirituality, op. cit., Chs. 8 and 10; Frank C. Senn, ed., Protestant Spiritual Traditions (New York: Paulist Press, 1986); Louis Bouyer, Jean Leclercq, and Fran-;:ois Vandenbroucke, A History of Christian Spirituality, Vol. 3: Orthodox Spirituality and Protestant and Anglican Spirituality (New York: Seabury 1982); Bengt R. Hoffman, Luther and the Mystics (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1976); Robert G. Tuttle, Jr., Mysticism in the Wesleyan Tradition (Grand Rapids, MI: Frances Asbury Press/Zondervan, 1989); Ann Freemantle, Tbe Protestant Mystics (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967); Daniel Liechty, ed., Early Anabaptist Spirituality: Selected Writings, Classics of Western Spirituality, No. 81 (New York: Paulist Press, 1994); and Steven Ozment, Mysticism and Dissent (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973).
    62. See one of the earliest of such books, Elizabeth O'Connor's Search for Silence (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1972).
    63. This theme is developed and documented by Winston L. King in his essay "No-Self, No-Mind, and Emptiness Revisited," in Buddhist-Christian Dialogue: Mutual Renewal and Transformation, ed. Paul 0. Ingram and Frederick]. Streng (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1986), pp. 155-176. See also Frederick Streng, "Selfhood Without Selfishness: Buddhist and Christian Approaches to Authentic Living," ibid., pp. 177-194.
    64. This theme is developed and documented by Masao Abe in his essay, "The Problem of Evil in Christianity and Buddhism," in Buddhist-Christian Dialogue, edited by Ingram and Streng, op. cit., pp. 139-154.
    65. See Norman Perrin and Dennis Duling, Tbe New Testament, An Introduction: Proclamation and Parenesis, Myth and History, 2nd ed. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982). See also John Driver, Understanding the Atonementfor the Mission of the Church (Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press, 1986).
    66. Inversely, it seems possible to construe some of the truth of the Christian revelation as more nonpersonal than personal, as a kind of natural law obscured by human degradation, sin as action oblivious to that natural moral order, heaven and hell as natural consequences of action in relation to it, and the "event" of salvation as a transhistorical (not essentially historical) revelation of that order and how to overcome sin. But such a construal would certainly approach heresy (i.e., an officially declared distortion of Christian truth), if it would not be so in fact.
    67. The available literature is not as helpful as one might like for comparative purposes. A good place to start is the Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987): Antoine Faivre, "Esotericism"; Gilles Quispel, "Gnosticism from Its Origins to the Middle Ages"; loan Petru Culianu, "Gnosticism from the Middle Ages to the Present"; Pheme Perkins, "Gnosticism as a Christian Heresy"; and Antoine Favre, "Hermetism." Also see Antoine Faivre, Access to Western Esotericism (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994); Peter Roche de Coppens, Divine Light and Fire: Experiencing Esoteric Christianity (New York: Continuum, 1994); Walter Nigg, The Heretics (New York: Knopf, 1962); Pheme Perkins, The Gnostic Dialogue (New York: Dialogue, 1980); and Kurt Rudolpf, Gnosis (San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1983). For contemporary manifestations, see Antoine Faivre, Jacob Needleman, and Karen Voss, eds., Modern Esoteric Spirituality (World Spirituality: An Encyclopedic History of the Religious Quest Series, Vol. 21; New York: Crossroad, 1992); and Jacob Needleman, ed., The Sword of Gnosis: Metaphysics, Cosmology, Tradition, Symbolism, 2nd ed. (Boston, MA: Arkana, 1986).

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