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7.6: Notes

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    1. Roger J. Corless, in The Vision of Buddhism: The Space Under the Tree (New York: Paragon House, 1989), explicitly seeks to counter the usual historical approach to Buddhism taken by Western scholarship by utilizing an ahistorical orientation drawn from Buddhism itself.
    2. The Mahayanist typology of Buddhist schools of thought usually characterizes what is here called Theravada as Hinayana (the "lesser vehicle"), but when they speak of it in this way they do not have a living lineage in mind. Many popular accounts of Buddhism in the West have unfortunately adopted this somewhat pejorative name.
    3. See, for example, Richard H. Robinson and Willard L. Johnson, The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1982) and their excellent annotated bibliography, pp. 243-269. A much briefer but useful overview is William R. LaFleur, Buddhism: A Cultural Perspective (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988). Other excellent sources are Charles S. Prebish, ed., Buddhism: A Modern Perspective (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975); and P. V. Bapat, ed., 2500 Years of Buddhism (New Delhi: Government of India, Publications Division, 1956). On Chinese Buddhism see Kenneth Ch'en, Buddhism in China: A Historical Suroey (Princeton, N]: Princeton University Press, 1964).
    4. See above Chapter 2, note 9.
    5. See, for example, Donald K. Swearer, Buddhism and Society in Southeast Asia (Chambersburg, PA: Anima Books, 1981).
    6. See Winston King, Theravada Meditation (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1980); Jack Kornfeld, Living Buddhist Masters (Santa Cruz, CA: Unity Press, 1977); and Takeuchi Yoshinori, ed., Buddhist Spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, and Early Chinese, World Spirituality, Vol. 9 (New York: Crossroad, 1993). A course in vipassana is described at some length in the Buddhist Example in Chapter 9, below. For Theravada teachings, see K. N. Jayatilleke, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (London: Allen and Unwin, 1963); and Herbert V. Guenther, Philosophy and Psychology in the Abhidharma (Berkeley, CA: Shambhala, 1976).
    7. Strictly speaking, vipassana meditation is founded on a preliminary mental stabilization or calming of the mind called samatha.
    8. See Jane Bunnag, Buddhist Monk, Buddhist Layman (London: Cambridge University Press, 1973); Hans-Dieter-Evers, Monks, Priests and Peasants: A Study of Buddhism and .Social Structure in Central Ceylon (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1972); and B. ]. Terwiel, Monks and Magic, An Analysis of Religious Ceremonies in Central Thailand (London: Curzon Press, 1975).
    9. There is clear reference in the early Pali scriptures to the attainment of Enlightenment by laypersons. But this is not deemed to be a realistic expectation among Theravada Buddhists today.
    10. See Pe Maung Tin, Buddhist Devotion and Meditation: An Objective Description and Study (London: SPCK, 1964).
    11. See Ruth-Inge Heinze, Trance and Healing in Southeast Asia Today (Berkeley, CA: Independent Scholars of Asia, 1988); Melford E. Spiro, Burmese Supernaturalism (Englewood Cliffs, N]: Prentice-Hall, 1967); S. ]. Tambiah, Buddhism and the Spirit Cults in Northeast Thailand (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1970); and Terence P. Day, Great Tradition andLittle Tradition in Tberavada Buddhist Studies, Studies in Asian Thought and Religion, Vol. 7 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988) [contains a critical review of and response to Spiro and Tambiah's accounts].
    12. See Corless, Tbe Vision of Buddhism, op. cit., pp. 188-191. Corless refers to Buddhaghosa, Tbe Path of Purity, 3 vols., trans. Pe Maung Tin (London: Pali Text Society, 1923--1931), Ch 12.
    13. See Corless, Tbe Vision ofBuddhism, op. cit., pp. 194-196; StanleyJeyaraja Tambiah, Tbe Other Side ofTberavada Buddhism: Tbe Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1984).
    14. See Winston L. King, In the Hope of Nibbana: An Essay on Theravada Buddhist Ethics (LaSalle, IL: Open Court, 1964); Ken Jones, The Social Face of Buddhism: An Approach to Political and Social Activism (London: Wisdom Publications, 1989), especially Ch. 24; Joanna Macy, Dharma and Development: Religion as Resource in the Saroodaya Self-Help Movement (West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1983); Sulak Sivaraksa, Seeds of Peace: A Buddhist Vision for Renewing Society (Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press, 1992); and Reginald A. Ray, Buddhist Saints in India: A Study of Buddhist Values and Orientations (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993). On Ashoka see N. A. Nikam and Richard McKeon, The Edicts of Asoka (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1959). On the role of Buddhism and political life in Southeast Asia, see Bardwell L. Smith, ed., Religion and Legitimation of Power in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos, and Burma (Chambersburg, PA: Anima Books, 1978); Trevor 0. Ling, Buddhism, Imperialism and War: Burma and Thailand in Modern History (London: Allen and Unwin, 1979); and E. Sarkisyanz, Buddhist Backgrounds of the Burmese Revolution (The Hague, Netherlands: Nijhoff, 1965).
    15. See Corless, Tbe Vision of Buddhism, op. cit., pp. 62--63. A similar expression of the way of right action in Sri Lankan Buddhism is described at length in Chapter 11, below.
    16. See Robinson and Johnson, The Buddhist Religion, op. cit., p. 175f.
    17. See Robert S. Ellwood and Richard Pilgrim, japanese Religion (Englewood Cliffs, N]: Prentice-Hall, 1985); Masaharu Anesaki, Nichiren, the Buddhist Prophet (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1916); Richard Causton, Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism (San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1989); Daniel Alfred Metraux, Tbe History and Theology ofSoka Gakkai: A japanese New Religion (Studies in Asian Thought and Religion, Vol. 9; Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988); and Kiyoaki Murata, japan's New Buddhism (New York: Walker/Weatherhill, 1969).
    18. See Charles Wei-hsun Fu and Sandra A. Wawrytko, eds., Buddhist Ethics and Modern Society(New York: Greenwood Press, 1991); Gunapala Dharmasiri, Fundamentals o fBuddhist Ethics (Antioch, CA: Golden Leaves, 1989); Fred Eppsteiner, ed., Tbe Path ofCompassion: Writings ofSocially Engaged Buddhism, rev. ed. (Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press, 1988); Jones, Tbe Social Face of Buddhism, op. cit.; ChristopherIves, Zen Awakening and Society(Hono!u!u, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1992); Tson-khu-pa Blo-bzan-grags-pa, Ethics ofTibet, trans. Alex Wayman (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991); and Reginald A. Ray, Buddhist Saints in India: A Study of Buddhist Values and Orientations, op. cit.
    19. See David]. Kalupahana, A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuities and Discontinuities (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1992); and Hirakawa Akira, A History ofIndian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Nag(irjuna, trans. Paul Groner (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1990).
    20. See Frederick]. Streng, Emptiness: A Study in Religious Meaning (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1967); Richard H. Robinson, Early Madhyamika in India and China (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967); and C. W. Huntington, Jr., with Geshe Namgyal Wangchen, Tbe Emptiness of Emptiness (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1989).
    21. See Ashok Kumar Chatterjee, Tbe Yogacara Idealism (Banaras, India: Hindu University Press, 1962); Chhote La! Tripathi, Tbe Problem of Knowledge in Yogacara Buddhism (Varanasi, India: Bharat-Bharati, 1972); Jeffrey Hopkins, Meditation on Emptiness (London: Wisdom, 1983), pp. 365-397; and Corless, Tbe Vision of Buddhism, op. cit., pp. 174-184.
    22. See Garma Chen-chi Chang, Tbe Buddhist Teaching of Totality: Tbe Philosophy of Hua-yen Buddhism (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1971); Francis H. Cook, Hua-yen Buddhism, Tbejewel Net ofIndra (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UniversityPress, 1977); andThomas Cleary, EntryintotheInconceivable: AnIntroduction to Hua-yen Buddhism (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1992).
    23. See Paul L. Swanson, Foundations o f T'ien T'ai Philosophy: Tbe Flowering o f the Two Truths Tbeory in Chinese Buddhism (Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press, 1989); and Ng Yu-kwan, T'ien-t'ai Buddhism and Early Madhyamika (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1993).
    24. See Herbert V. Guenther, Tibetan Buddhism without Mystification (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1966). For an understanding of what pursuit of Tibetan Buddhist philosophical understanding is like in practice, see Guy Newland, Compassion: A Tibetan Analysis (London: Wisdom, 1984); Daniel Perdue, Introductory Debate in Tibetan Buddhism (Dharmshala, India: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1976); Geshe Lobsang Tharchin, eta!., Tbe LogicandDebate Tradition ofIndia, Tibet, andMongolia: History, Reader, Resources(Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1979); and Jose Ignacio Cabez6n, Buddhism and Language: A Study of Indo-Tibetan Scholasticism (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994).
    25. See Shinzen Young, "Buddhist Meditation," in Robinson and Johnson, Tbe Buddhist Religion, pp. 226-235; Minoru Kiyota, ed., Mahayana Buddhist Meditation: Tbeory and Practice(Hono!u!u, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1978); Peter N. Gregory, ed., Traditions ofMeditation in Chinese Buddhism, Studies in East Asian Buddhism 4 (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1987); Charles Luk (K'uan-Yu Lu), The Secrets of Chinese Meditation (London: Rider and Co., 1964); and Takeuchi Yoshinori, ed., Buddhist Spirituality: Indian, SoutheastAsian, Tibetan, andEarly Chinese, World Spirituality, Vol. 9 (New York: Crossroad, 1993). See also Holmes Welch, The Practice of Chinese Buddhism (New York: Atheneum, 1968); and Lives of the Nuns: Biographies of Chinese Buddhist Nuns from the Fourth to Sixth Centuries, trans. Kathryn Ann Tsai (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1994).
    26. See Heinrich Dumoulin, Zen Buddhism: A History, 2 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1990). See also Thien-An Thich, Buddhism and Zen in Vietnam, in Relation to the Development of Buddhism in Asia (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1975); Mu Soeng Sunim, Thousand Peaks: Korean Zen-Tradition and Teachers (Cumberland, Rl: Primary Point Press, 1991); and Robert E. Buswell, Jr., The Zen Monastic Experience in Contemporary Korea (Princeton, N]: Princeton University Press, 1994).
    27. Campbell, The Masks of God: Oriental Mythology (New York: Viking Press, 1962), p. 29f.
    28. Robinson and Johnson, The Buddhist Religion, op. cit., p. 206. This quotation was originally intended to refer to the goal of the traditional arts nurtured by Japanese Rinzai Zen. My use of it here is based on the conviction that the goal in question has long been an aim of Ch'an meditation.
    29. Peter N. Gregory, ed., Sudden and Gradual: Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Studies in East Asian Buddhism 5 (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1988); T. P. Kasulis, Zen Action, Zen Person (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1981); and Conrad Hyers, Once-Born, Twice-Born Zen: The Soto and Rinzai Schools of japanese Zen (Wolfeboro, NH: Longwood Academic, 1989). Also especially recommended are Kenneth Kraft, ed., Zen: Tradition and Transition [a sourcebook by Contemporary Zen Masters and Scholars] (New York: Grove Press, 1988); Jiyu Kennett, Selling Water by the River: A Manual of!Soto} Zen Training (New York: Vintage Books/Random House, 1972) [later published as Zen is Eternal Life (Emeryville, CA: Dharma Publications, 1976)]; Phillip Kapleau, The Three Pillars ofZen: Teaching, Practice, and Enlightenment, rev. ed. (Garden City, NJ: Anchor Doubleday, 1980); and Isshu Miura and Ruth Fuller Sasaki, The Zen Koan: Its History and Use in Rinzai Zen (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1965).
    30. See Richard B. Pilgrim, Buddhism and the Arts of Japan (Chambersburg, PA: Anima Books, 1981); Masaharu Anesaki, Buddhist Art in Its Relation to Buddhist Ideals: With Special Reference to Buddhism in japan(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1915);Horst Hammitzsch, Zen in the Art of the Tea Ceremony (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980); Trevor Legett, Zen and the Ways (Boulder, CO: Shambhala, 1978); William La Fleur, The Karma of Words: Buddhism and the Literary Arts in Medieval japan (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983); and Daisetz T. Suzuki, Zen and japanese Culture, Bollingen Series 64 (Princeton University Press, 1959). An extended account of Cha-no-yu as an expression of the way of sacred rite in Rinzai Zen is given in Chapter 14, below.
    31. John Stevens, The Marathon Monks of Mount Hiei (Boston, MA: Shambhala, 1988).
    32. See the comprehensive histories of Buddhism mentioned above in note 1, under the topics of "Pure Land Buddhism" and worship of Amitabha/Ami-to-fo/Amida, Avalokitesvara! Kuan-yin/Kannon, and Maitreya. See also articles in the Encyclopedia ofReligion, ed. Mircea Eliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987), under "Pure Land Buddhism" and related topics. A helpful interpretive reconciliation of devotional and mystical Buddism in a Chinese context may be found in John Blofeld, "The Path of Faith and Compassion," in his Beyond the Gods: Taoist and Buddhist Mysticism (London: Allen and Unwin, 1974), pp. 69-88.
    33. I should acknowledge here that my account of devotional forms of Buddhism here and in what follows reflects something of a bias toward their Japanese forms. Partly this is a result of the lack of readily available scholarship on other forms. The reader should keep this in mind.
    34. See Kenneth K. Tanaka, The Dawn of Chinese Pure Land Buddhist Doctrine: Chingying Hui-yuan 's Commentary on the Visualization Sutra (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1990); James C. Dobbins, ]ado Shinshu: Shin Buddhism in Medieval japan (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1989); Alfred Bloom, Shinran's Gospel of Pure Grace, Association for Asian Studies: Monographs and Papers, No. XX: (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1965); Shin Buddhist Handbook, (Los Angeles, CA: Buddhist Sangha of America, 1973); Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Collected Writings on Shin Buddhism, ed. Eastern Buddhist Society (Kyoto, Japan: Shinshu Otaniha, 1973); Lloyd Arthur, The Creed of Halfjapan (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1912); Gendo Nakai, Shinran and His Religion of Pure Faith (Kyoto, Japan: Kanao Bunendo, 1946); and Nishu Utsuki, The Shin Sect (Kyoto, Japan: Pub. Bureau of Buddhist Books, 1937). An account of the basic teachings of Jodo-shin-shu in Shinran's own words is given in Chapter 12, below.
    35. E.g., Taitetsu Unno, "The Nature of Religious Experience in Shin Buddhism," in The Other Side ofGod: A Polarity in World Religions, ed. Peter L. Berger (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books/Doubleday, 1981), pp. 252-271. See also Stephen Beyer, The Buddhist Experience: Sources and Interpretations (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1974), pp. 117-124.
    36. See, for example, Beyer, The Buddhist Experience: Sources and Interpretations, op. cit., Ch. 6.
    37. See Corless, The Vision ofBuddhism, op. cit., pp. 191-194; and James B. Robinson, Buddha's Lions: The Lives ofthe Eighty-four Siddhas (Berkeley, CA: Dharma Publishing, 1979).
    38. See H. Byron Earhart, A Religious Study ofthe Mount Haguro Sect ofSugendo (Tokyo: Sophia University, 1970); Ichiro Hori, Folk Religion in japan: Continuity and Change, ed. Joseph M. Kitagawa and Alan L. Miller, Haskell Lectures on History of Religions, new series, no. 1 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1968), Ch. 5; and Carmen Blacker, The Catalpa Bow: A Study ofShamanistic Practices in japan (London: Allen and Unwin, 1975). An account of certain practices by Buddhist women shamans is given in Chapter 13, below.
    39. See John Powers, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism (Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Press, 1995); Shashibhusan Dasgupta, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism (Berkeley, CA: Shambhala, 1974); Giuseppe Tucci, The Religions of Tibet (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1980); Geshe Lhundrup Sopa and Jeffrey Hopkins, Practice and Theory ofTibetanBuddhism (New York: Grove Press, 1976); and Takeuchi Yoshinori, ed., Buddhist Spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, and Early Chinese, World Spirituality, Vol. 9 (New York: Crossroad, 1993).
    40. See Minoru Kiyota, ShingonBuddhism: TbeoryandPractice(Los Angeles, CA: Buddhist Books International, 1978); and Taiko Yamasaki, Shingon: japanese Esoteric Buddhism, trans. Richard and Cynthia Peterson, ed. Yasuoshi Morimoto and David Kidd (Boston: Shambhala, 1988).
    41. See Hakuju Ui, "A Study of Japanese Tendai Buddhism," in Philosophical Studies o f japan, Vol. 1, compiled by Japanese Commission for UNESCO (Tokyo: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1959); Bruno Petzold, Tendai Buddhism (Tokyo: International Buddhist Exchange Center, 1979); and Michael Saso, Tantric Art and Meditation: The Tendai Tradition (Honolulu, HI: Tendai Educational Foundation, 1990).
    42. See Stephen V. Beyer, The Cult of Tara (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1973); Jamgon Kongtrul, The Torch ofCertainty(Boulder, CO: Shambhala, 1976); Rinbochay Khetsun Sangpo, Tantric Practice in Nying-ma, trans. Jeffrey Hopkins and Anne Klein (London: Rider, 1982); John Blofeld, The Way ofPower: A Practical Guide to the Tantric Mysticism of Tibet (London: Allen and Unwin, 1970; reprint Boulder, CO: Prajna Press, 1982); and Janice Dean Willis, The Diamond Light (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972).
    43. See Thubten Legshay Gyatsho, Gateway to the Temple: Manual of Tibetan Monastic Customs, Art, Buildings, and Celebrations, trans. David Paul Jackson (Kathmandu, Nepal: Ratne Pustak Bhandar, 1979); Robert B. Ekvall, Religious Obseroances in Tibet: Patterns and Function (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1964); Detlef Ingo Lauf, Secret Doctrines of the Tibetan Book of the Dead (Boulder, CO: Shambhala, 1977); and Sherry B. Ortner, Sherpas through Their Rituals (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1978).

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