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Index of Subjects and Names

  • Page ID
    37152
  • Italic page references are to definitions.
    Italicized terms or phrases followed by a degree symbol identify
    a generic role served (or fulfilled) by terms
    or phrases specific to the religious tradition to which they are applied;
    they function as variables substituting
    for a specific tradition's terms or phrases.

    Academic study of religion, 3-4, 18-19
    Alternative medicine, 98
    Anamnesis, 54, 360, 3 79
    Animistic folk religion, 60
    Archetype (or archetypal form), 53,
    69, 84n, 133, 342, 3 79; examples of, 54
    Aristotle, 103, 123, 124, 129, 142, 268
    Art as religion, 97
    Ascetic practices, 6.3-{)5, 92-93, 98, 199-200, 234-236,
    243-244, 247-255, 319, 320-321, 331, 357
    At-onement, 25, 379
    Attending from/to, 34, 47n
    Awareness, focal/subsidiary, 35, 47n

    Balance of divergent forces, 122-124,
    141n-142n, 379; examples, 133-138
    Bias: in categories, 21; in more easily empathizing
    with favored way of being religious, 50-51, 75;
    in stereotypical preconceptions, xi, 116--119
    Blindered men and elephant, 5-7, 11-12, 13-14
    Blind men and elephant, 5 Business as religion, 151

    Canon, 33, 379; canonical scripture, 33
    Catholic traditions, 40, 95, 108-109, 379;
    examples of, 73, 95, 108-109, 150, 189, 196--197
    Celestial Seasonings quote, 22, 52
    Civil disobedience, 283, 287, 288
    Civil religion, 96--97, 150, 161n
    Common sense (religious), 41-42,
    116, 120-121, 380,
    a basis for achieving practical wisdom, 42, 152, 158;
    basis of evaluative judgment, 116--130, 139, 146, 158-159, 370;
    bibliography of commonsense evaluation
    of religious practice,
    141; independence from
    theological" considerations, 41;
    moderating agent within religions, 151, 158;
    a way of avoiding the is-ought fallacy, 129-130
    Competence/incompetence, 122, 380; examples, 133-138
    Cross-cultural categories, need for, 3-4

    Definition of religion, problem of, 24, 25, 46n
    Deism, 83n
    Devotion, way of, 12, 57-59, 380,
    bibliography, 80-81, 315-316; correlated social structures, 59;
    existential need or motivation for, 29-30, 58-59;
    hermeneutic of, 58; virtues and vices, 59, 135;
    for examples, see specific religious traditions,
    for extended examples, see
    Billy Graham and Evangelical Piety, 305-312, and
    Shinran and Pure Land Devotion, 297-305
    Dialogue (inter-religious), xi-xii, 12, 121, 149, 153, 371, 375;
    bibliography on, 377-378;
    Buddhist-Christian dialogue, 121, 141n,
    149, 160n-161n, 279n, 371, 375, 378n
    Dialogue (intra-religious or ecumenical), 12, 153
    Differences between religions, xii, 22, 31-32, 34, 371-375

    Egoism, the problem of, 126--127, 142n143n,
    215, 373, 378n; examples 133-138
    Egoism/selflessness. See
    Selflesssness/egoism
    Eliade, Mircea, 4, 19, 45n, 79, 83n--84n
    Empathetic objectivity, 19, 380
    Empathy, 19-20, 380;
    analogy with acting in a drama, 19;
    easier to empathize with favored way
    of being religious, 50-51;
    empathetic acquaintance the basis for
    Empathy (cont.)
    discriminating judgment,
    xiii, 115-116; fused with objectivity, xi,
    17-21, 43, 128--130;
    test for success 19-20, 156
    Enlightenment (European) idea of religion, 83n, 209
    Ethics, religious, as an expression of
    religious common sense, 130-131, 152
    Ethics, religious, as expression of
    way of right action, 152, 162n
    Evaluation, commonsense, of religious practice,
    116-117, 139, 146, 152, 162n;
    bibliography, 141, 162n;
    relation to norms specific to
    a tradition, 119-121, 168--169
    Evil. See Problem of meaning
    Existential predicament (or existential problem),
    31, 380; see also
    Motivation, religious/existential, and
    Problematic situation
    Exorcism, 218, 322, 323-324,
    324-325, 331, 332, 334-336

    Faceo (of Ultimate Realityo), 58, 372;
    see also Ultimate Realityo, aspects highlighted
    Fallacy of misplaced concreteness, 50;
    examples of, 64-65, 76, 83n-84n, 154-159
    Feuerbach, Ludwig, 84n
    Finitude, vice of, 124, 380-381; examples, 133-138
    Formation, spiritual, 152, 163n
    Freud, Sigmund, 84n, 98

    Gandhi, Mohandas, 283, 287 Geertz, Clifford,
    23, 27-29, 34, 45, 46n, 47n,48n
    Generic categories: of a commonsense, criteriological nature,
    120-121; consistency with Buddhist antimetaphysical concerns, 46n;
    constituting a basis for religious common sense, 42; correlative to
    ways of being religious, 41-42; distinct from what characterizes
    specific symbol systems, 23, 39, 75, 154-155, 156-157, 371;
    importance of keeping distinct from specific theologicalo
    considerations, 83n-84n, 154-155, 156-157, 158, 372-373;
    nature, 10-11, 20-21, 39, 49-50, 75;
    neutrality, 10-11, 20-21, 23, 46n
    God, 8, 15n, 111n, 191, 219, 220, 242, 270-275, 279n

    Healing ("supernatural"), 60, 61, 63, 136, 218, 322, 324-325, 331-334
    Hegel, G. W. F., 151, 270
    Heresy, heretical practice, 119, 381
    Hermeneutic (or hermeneutical orientation), 36, 68, 381;
    application to interpretation of Buddhist and Christian scriptures, 217-218;
    distinctive for each way of being religious, 40, 68--70; of sacred rite, 54;
    table of hermeneutical orientations, 69-70
    Historical studies: need for more than, xii, 3-4;
    needed by phenomenological study, xii, 155-157
    Hume, David, 129

    Incompetence/competence. See Competence/incompetence
    Infinitude, vice of, 124, 381; examples, 133-138
    Insider, being an, 34-36 Interpretation: of system of symbols, 33-34;
    varying with generic way of being religious, 36-37, 68--70;
    varying with quality of motivation and practice, 37-39; see also Hermeneutic
    Is-ought fallacy, 129

    Jung, Carl, 84n
    Justice, doing to religious phenomena, xi, 20, 43

    Kristensen, W. Brede, 19, 45n
    Kung, Hans, x, xivn, 28, 34, 38, 47n, 48n, 130-131, 143n

    Magic, black, 136
    Maoism as religion, 150
    Marx, Karl, 84n, 98, 151
    Marxism as religion, 150
    Meaning, and Buddhist anti-metaphysical concerns, 46n;
    see also Problem of meaning
    Meditation, 63-65, 93, 98, 171-172, 176-178, 181, 195, 203;
    for extended examples, see Satipatthana
    method of meditation, 233-242, and
    The Prayer of the Heart method of meditation, 243-256
    Mimesis, 54, 381
    Modem (scientific) world view, 60
    Monk, monasticism, 4o-41, 64; see also
    Monasticism under specific traditions
    Moral prophet, 40, 57, 381
    Moral sage, 40, 57, 381
    Moral teacher, 40, 57, 122, 381
    Motivation, religious/existential, 26-31, 95-96;
    chart of existential needs, 69-70;
    possible correlation with personality types, 73-74;
    relation to ways of being religious, 29-31, 40
    Mi.iller, Friederich Max, 7
    Music as religion, 97, 98, 112n, 151, 161n
    Mystic, 40, 64, 63, 381
    Mystical experience: relation to way of mystical quest, 63, 101, 137, 235;
    whether mystical experience is symbolically mediated, 47n, 64-65
    Mysticism, 4-5, 11-12; misconceptions of, 83n, 147
    Mystical quest, way of, 11-12, 63-65, 381-382;
    bibliography, 81-82, 259-260; correlated social structures, 64;
    existential need or motivation for, 29-30, 63-64; hermeneutic of, 63;
    relation to way of shamanic mediation, 63, 64;
    virtues and vices, 65, 136; for examples, see specific religious traditions;
    see also Satipatthana
    method of meditation, 233-242, and
    The Prayer of the Heart method of meditation, 243-256
    Myths, 32, 54

    Natural religion, 83n
    Neutrality (suspension of judgment, epoche):
    need for neutral categories, 3-4, 10-11, 20, 45n-46n;
    for the sake of doing justice, 20; temporary neutrality for
    the sake of discriminating judgment, 115-116, 128, 143n
    Nietzsche, Frederich, 98
    Non-traditional religious phenomena, 95-99, 148, 150-151, 161n
    Objectivity, 17-18, 129, 382;
    appropriate notion of as drawing near to do justice, 19, 129;
    fused with empathy, xi, 17-21, 43;
    inappropriate notion of as distancing, 17-18, 128-129
    Orthodoxy, 33
    Orthopraxy, 33
    Other worldo, See World, othero

    Pastor, 40, 59, 122, 382
    Personal vs. institutional religion, 117, 141n, 148
    Personality types, 73-74, 152, 162n-163n, 373
    Plato, 103, 148, 151, 262
    Plotinus, 151
    Popular culture, religion in, 97-99 Preacher, 40, 59, 382
    Phenomenology (of Religion), 19, 23, 43, 45n, 154-155, 156, 382;
    relation to evaluative judgment, xiii, 127-130, 139
    Philosophical inquiry as religious, 151, 162n
    Philosophy as religion, 99, 151, 162n
    Philosophy of religion, in light of ways of
    being religious, xii-xiii,151
    Polanyi, Michael, 47n; use of ideas of, 34-35
    Presentative symbol, 36, 52, 382
    Priest, priestess, 40, 54, 122, 382
    Problematic situation, 31, 383; see also
    Existential predicament
    Problem of meaning, 27, 383; aspects of,
    differentiating ways of being religious, 40;
    aspects of diagrammed, 30;
    consistency with Buddhist anti-metaphysical
    concerns, 46n; general discussion of, 26-31
    Prophet-oracle, 40
    Psychology of religion, 152, 161n
    Psychotherapy as religion, 151, 161n

    Quality in practice (of ways of being religious), 115, 119, 383;
    be wary of in generalizing, 116-119, 168-169;
    different for each way of being religious, 127;
    distinction between generic,
    commonsense criteria and criteria specific to traditions, 119-121, 130, 132;
    justification for treating in phenomenology of religion, 127-132;
    parameters of assessment, 121-127;
    recognition a matter of religious common sense, 42, 129-130;
    shaping interpretation of system of symbols, 37-39

    Reason, 67, 70, 138
    Reasoned inquiry, way of, 65, 68, 383;
    bibliography, 82, 277-278; correlated social structures, 68;
    existential need or motivation for, 29-30, 65;
    hermeneutic of, 66; virtues and vices, 68, 138;
    for examples, see specific religious traditions;
    for extended examples, see
    Anselm's Faith Seeking Understanding, 267-275, and
    Nagasena Replies to the Questions of King Milinda, 262-267
    Reductive generalization, 4-5, 11-12, 83n-84n, 147, 167-168
    Religion, 22, 24, 43, 383; general characterization, 21-26;
    importance of social and cultural context, 25-26; multiple functions of, 24;
    not knowable from a single perspective, 7-8; universality of, 24-25
    Religious function, 22, 24, 370, 371, 372, 383;
    relation to the problem of meaning, 26--31
    Religious phenomenon, 21, 24, 383; miscellaneous examples, 21
    Right action, way of, 5~57, 383; bibliography, 79-80, 293-294;
    correlated social structures, 57; existential need or motivation for, 29-30, 56-57;
    hermeneutic of, 56; virtues and vices, 57, 134; for examples,
    see specific religious traditions, for extended examples, see
    Catholic Worker Movement, 286--291, and
    Sarvodaya Movement in Sri Lanka, 282-285
    Rite(= ritual), 51, 383; examples of, 51; functions of, 51-52; see also Sacramental ritual

    Sacramental ritual, 52, 106, 107, 341-342, 343, 374, 383-384;
    for examples, see way of sacred rite
    under specific religious traditions
    Sacramental symbol, 52, 383-384
    Sacred, 52, 154, 384
    Sacred rite, way of, 51-55, 384;
    bibliography, 79, 364-366;
    correlated social structures, 54-55;
    existential need or motivation for, 29-30, 53;
    hermeneutic of, 54; virtues and vices, 55, 133;
    for examples,
    see specific religious traditions,
    for extended examples, see
    Orthodox Divine Liturgy, 353-362, a n d
    Rinzai Zen Tea Ceremony, 343-353
    Sacrifice, 88, 101, 360-361, 366n-367n
    Sage, 40, 68, 384
    Santayana, George, 32, 47n
    Science as religion, 99, 151
    Sectarian tradition, 107, 119, 384
    Secular religious phenomena, 95-99
    Self, problem of. See Egoism, the problem of
    Selflessness/egoism, 125, 127,
    142n-143n, 373, 384; examples, 132-138
    Shadow side (of specific ways of being religious), 132-138
    Shaman, 38, 40, 60, 122, 384
    Shamanic mediation, way of, 60-63, 384-385;
    bibliography, 81, 339-340;
    correlated social structures, 61;
    distinct from "spiritual technology," 60;
    existential need or motivation for, 29-30, 60;
    hermeneutic of, 60-61;
    relation to the deep imagination, 61;
    virtues and vices, 61-62, 136;
    for examples, see specific religious traditions,
    for extended examples, see
    Healing and Exorcism in a Charismatic Community, 326--336, and
    Healing and Exorcism in Japanese Shugendo, 319-326
    Shamanism, 149; misconceptions of, 83n;
    modern prejudice against, 60
    Social structures correlated with ways
    of being religious, 40-41
    Socrates, 262
    Sorcery, 136, 318
    Spiritual director (or spiritual master,
    or meditation master), 64, 122, 233, 234, 243,385
    Spiritual discernment (in way of shamanic mediation), 61-62
    Sport as religion, 151
    Stereotypical conceptions of religious prac-
    tices, 116--119; partial truth of, 118;
    means of overcoming, 118-119
    Stories, religious 32-33, 54
    Storyteller, 59, 40, 382
    Streng, Frederick, xiii, xiv, 45, 46n, 79,
    80,81,82,84n, 161n, 163n, 229n
    "Supernatural," 10, 15n, 60, 70, 85n
    Symbol (religious), 31, 385;
    meaning opaque/translucent/transparent, 35;
    nature invites multiple readings, 33;
    presentative 36; twofold function, 23
    Symbolic mediation of religious experience, 32, 47n
    Syncretism, 104, 105, 385
    System of symbols, 31-32,
    43, 385;
    distinct from interpretations, 33-34;
    as the fundamental context for the meaning of
    religious terms, 83n-84n, 154-155, 215-216;
    general discussion of, 31-34;
    how it makes an insider an insider, 34-36;
    idea of a core system of symbols, 32-34;
    interpreted differently in terms of way of being religious,
    36-37, 99, 156-157;
    locus of a traditions-specific archetypes, 54;
    non-conventionally religious, 96;
    as principal defining characteristic of a religion,
    34, 43; relation to religion, 24

    Theologian°, 40, 68,
    122, 385
    Theologicalo, 50, 108,
    151, 156, 157, 158, 371, 385
    Theologizing with the framework, impropriety of,
    154, 157, 158, 371
    Theologyo, 68, 151, 385-386
    Threshold (of a system of symbols), 35, 386
    Threshold effect, 35-36, 386;
    relevance to phenomenological,
    empathetic understanding, 47n-48n
    Tradition, religious: continuity through change, 33-34;
    defined by a system of symbols, 31-32
    Trance, 61, 320, 322-323
    Truth, 66, 70, 98--99, 138, 374-375

    Ultimate reality, 22-23, 43, 372-373, 386;
    example conceptions of, 22;
    chart of aspects highlighted by
    different ways of being religious, 69-70
    Universals, problem of, 154

    Virtue and Vice (in practice of a way of being religious),
    121, 386;
    examples, 55, 57, 59, 61-62, 65, 68, 122, 124-125, 126,
    133-138; need to recognize, 118--119;
    recognition based on religious common sense 42;
    shaping interpretation, 38--39; types of, 121-127;
    varies with way of being religious, 41

    Way of being religious (generically understood),
    39, 50, 386;
    as abstract, generic type, 39, 49-50, 75, 154;
    correlation with aspects of
    ultimate reality, 69-70;
    correlation with existential needs, 29-31, 69-70;
    differentiated in terms of five factors, 40-41;
    distinguished from specific theological'
    considerations, 50, 76, 83n-84n, 154, 157, 158;
    distinguished from what differentiates
    religions, 39, 49-50, 76, 371;
    distinguishing focus of each, 50;
    generic features of, 39-41;
    hermeneutic orientation, 36-37, 68--70;
    relat!on to religious beliefs, 49-50;
    as universal option for carrying on religious life, 39, 41;
    virtues and vices, 41, 121-127
    Ways of being religious (the framework): as abstract,
    generic typology, 39, 49-50, 75, 154, 156-157;
    additional ways, 76; advantages, 11-12, 145-153;
    aid to self knowledge, 145-146; application, 74-76;
    application tips, 13, 21, 49-51, 74-76, 85n, 88,
    132, 147-150, 153-159, 167-169, 214-216;
    categories revisable, 21, 85n, 155; chief purposes of, x-xii;
    correlation with personality types, 73-74,
    152, 162n-163n; diagrammed, 11, 71;
    exhaustiveness of framework, 76, 157; a hypothesis, x-xi, 41;
    introduced, 5-12; liabilities, 153-159;
    misapplications, 76, 153-159; relation to differentiated/
    compact societies, 71-72, 87, 103;
    relation to religious common sense: see
    Common sense (religious);
    relation to social and cultural studies,
    25-26, 154-155, 156-157, 157-158;
    relations of ways with each other (abstract),
    71-74; relevance to inter-religious dialogue, 12, 121, 149, 153;
    relevance to intra-religious (ecumenical) dialogue, 12, 153;
    theologizing with the framework, impropriety of 154, 157, 158, 371
    Ways of being religious (individually considered):
    combinations and fusions, 106-107, 168;
    correlation with personality types, 73-74, 373;
    definitions (of specific ways), 51-70,
    differentiation, 71-72, 87, 103;
    distinguishing focus of each, 50; example caricatures, 116-118;
    exclusions, 107-108; existential needs, correlation with, 29-31;
    hermeneutic orientations, 36-37, 68--70; inclusion, 108-109;
    motivations, correlation with, 29-31, 40;
    oppositional pairings, 72-73, 125, 152;
    prioritizing, 99-103; relations with each other (concrete),
    87, 99-110; shadow side, 132-138;
    "syncretism" 104-105; tentative, revisable formulations, 85n;
    virtues and vices, 133-138
    Weber, Max, 27
    Whitehead, Alfred North, 50, 84n
    Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 151

    World, othero, 35, 387;
    context of religious activity, 35-36;
    to have a religion is to have another world to live in, 31-32;
    "place" of sacramental rituals, 52; relation to archetypes in
    way of sacred rite, 53; relation to shamanic mediation, 61;
    relation to way of right action, 55;
    relation to ways of being religious, 39

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