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- See the Christian Example in Chapter 9, below.
- See Eva de Vitray-Meyerovitch, Rilmf and Sufism, trans. Simone Fattal (Sausalito, CA: The Post-Apollo Press, 1987); and Jalal al-Din Rumi, Tbe Sufi Path ofLove: Tbe Spiritual Teachings ofRumi, trans. William C. Chittick (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1983).
- See Chapter 5, note 2.
- See Masatoshi Doi, "Dynamics of Faith: A Dialogical Study of Pure Land Buddhism and Evangelical Christianity," japanese Religions 7:2-3 (September 1980), pp. 56-73; D. T.Adamo, "Soteriological Dialogue Between Wesleyan Christians and Pure Land Sect Buddhism," journal ofDharma: An International Quarterly of World Religions 14 (OctoberDecember 1989), pp. 311-406; and Alfred Bloom, "A Spiritual Odyssey: My Encounter with Pure Land Buddhism," Buddhist-Christian Studies 10 (1990), pp. 173-175.
- See Paul 0. Ingram, "Faith as Knowledge in the Teaching of Shinran Shonin and Martin Luther," Buddhist-Christian Studies 8 (1988), pp. 23-35; John Ishihara, "Luther and Shinran: simul iustus et peccator and nishu jinshin," japanese Religions, 14:4 (1987), pp. 31-54; and Gregory Alles, "'When Men Revile You and Persecute You': Advice, Conflict, and Grace in Shinran and Luther," History ofReligions 25 (1985), pp. 148-162.
- Frederick ]. Streng has been one of the few scholars to attempt a systematic study of nontraditional modes of religious expression but he does not seek to correlate them with what he calls traditional ways of being religious. He does, however, draw some connections with certain traditional practices. See his Understanding Religious Life, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1985), Part 2. See also Frederick]. Streng, Charles L. Lloyd, Jr., and Jay T. Allen, eds., Ways ofBeing Religious: Readingsfor a New Approach to Religion (Englewood Cliffs, N]: Prentice-Hall, 1973), pp. 333-612. See also Catherine L. Albanese, America: Religions and Religion, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1992), Ch. 14: "Cultural Religion: Explorations in Millennia! Dominance and Innocence."
- Robert N. Bellah, Tbe Broken Covenant: American Civil Religion in Time of Trial (New York: Seabury Press, 1975); and Robert N. Bellah and Phillip E. Hammond, Varieties of Civil Religion (San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1980). See also Catherine L. Albanese, America: Religions and Religion, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1992), Ch. 13, "Civil Religion: Millennia! Politics and History."
- See R. C. Zaehner, "A New Buddha and a New Tao," Concise Encyclopedia ofLiving Faiths, ed. R. C. Zaehner (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1959), pp. 402-412; Ninian Smart, BeyondIdeology:ReligionandtheFutureofWesternCivilization(SanFrancisco,CA: Harper and Row, 1981), Ch. 7: "Secular Ideologies: A First Anatomy," and Ch. 8: "The Chinese Experience in the Modern World"; Ninian Smart, Tbe Religious Experience, 4th ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1991), Ch. 12: "The Humanist Experience;" Frederick]. Streng, Understanding Religious Life, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1985), Ch. 8: "The Religious Significance of Social Responsibility"; and Frederick]. Streng, Charles L. Lloyd, Jr., and Jay T. Allen, eds., Ways ofBeing Religious: Readingsfor a New Approach to Religion (Englewood Cliffs, N]: Prentice-Hall, 1973), Ch. 6: "Achievement of Human Rights through Political and Economic Action."
- Michael Novak, Tbejoy ofSports: End Zones, Bases, Baskets, Balls, and the Consecration ofthe American Spirit (New York: Basic Books, 1976).
- See Paul C. Vitz, Psychology as Religion: Tbe Cult o f Self Worship (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1977). Vitz's account is developed from a conservative Protestant perspective, yet it has a number of insights of significance beyond his own perspective. A more neutral, phenomenological perspective is found in Frederick ]. Streng, Understanding Religious Life, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1985), Ch. 6: "The Religious Significance of Fulfilling Human Relationships;" and Frederick]. Streng, Charles L. Lloyd, Jr., and Jay T. Allen, eds., Ways ofBeing Religious: Readingsfor a New Approach to Religion (Englewood Cliffs, N]: Prentice-Hall, 1973), Ch. 5: "Attaining an Integrated Self through Creative Interaction."
- Neil Leonard, jazz: Myth and Religion (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). See also Gilbert Rouget, Music and Trance: A Theory ofthe Relations between Music and Possession, trans. Brunhilde Biebuyck (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1985).
- One venture in this direction is Ninian Smart, Philosophy ofReligion (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979). Another is Stephen R. L. Clark, Tbe Mysteries ofReligion: An Introduction to Philosophy through Religion (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1986). See also Thomas Dean, ed., Religious Pluralism and Truth: Essays on Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994); and the series of books published by the State University of New York Press, "Toward a Comparative Philosophy of Religions," ed. Paul]. Griffiths and Laurie L. Patton.
- An example of this kind of exploration is adumbrated by John A. Taber, Traniformative Philosophy: A Study ofSankara, Fichte, and Heidegger (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1983). An important retrospective view of theology as a monastic practice distinct from scholasticism in the medieval period is given in Jean Leclerq, The Love of Learning and the Desirefor God: A Study ofMonastic Culture, trans. Catherine Misrahi (New York: Fordham University Press, 1974). Still a different view identified with what has been called inter-religious perennialism or primordialism is found in Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Knowledge and the Sacred: The Gifford Lectures 1981 (New York: Crossroad, 1981); in Jacob Needleman, Consciousness and Tradition (New York: Crossroad, 1982), especially the leading essay, "Why Philosophy Is Easy," pp. 12-22; and in Jacob Needleman, ed., The Sword of Gnosis: Metaphysics, Cosmology, Tradition, Symbolism, 2nd ed. (Boston, MA: Arkana, 1986).
- See Huston Smith, "Western Philosophy as a Great Religion," in his Essays on World Religion, ed. M. Darrol Bryant (New York: Paragon House, 1992), pp. 205-223.
- Hans Kung, in his Global Responsibility: In Search ofa New World Ethic, trans. John Bowden (New York: Crossroad, 1991), has sought to advance this project particularly as it relates to the way of right action. Other important forays into what might be called the ethics of religion are listed under the references in For Further Study at the end of Chapter 5.
- A useful overview of the psychology of religion as it relates to most of the ways of being religious as here presented is Wayne E. Oates, The Psychology ofReligion (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1973). Although Oates writes from a conservative Protestant perspective, his commitment to a phenomenological approach makes his insights and observations useful and relevant for other traditions.
- Three attempts to correlate personality types with different forms of Christian spirituality are Charles]. Keating, Who We Are Is How We Pray: Matching Personality and Spirituality (Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1987), and Chester P. Michael and Marie C. Norrisey, Prayerand Temperament: DifferentPrayerFormsfor DifferentPersonality Types (Charlottesville, VA: The Open Door, 1984), and Allan H. Sager, Gospel-Centered Spirituality: An Introduction to Our Spiritualjourney (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, 1990). None of these three fully correlates with the six ways of being religious. The first two make use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (which identifies sixteen personality types) and (primarily) the main historical forms of contemplative spirituality (primarily oriented to mystical quest and devotion) in Roman Catholicism. None of the Myers-Briggs types correlate directly with the ways of being religious. An advantage of the Prayer and Temperament book is that it discusses the the liability for imbalance and the need for balance in each type. The third book makes use of a fourfold typology first developed by Urban T. Holmes that correlates directly with the ways of right action, wisdom, mystical quest, and devotion in both personality type and type of spirituality. It too addresses the liability for imbalance and the need for balance in each type. A quite different scheme for connecting personality types with different patterns of spiritual growth is the use of the Enneagram. Like the Myers-Briggs types, however, none of the nine Enneagram types correlate directly with the six ways of being religious, although in both cases certain types clearly seem likely to associate more with one way of being religious than with another. However, Barbara Metz and John Burchill's, The Enneagram and Prayer: Discovering Our True Selves Before God (Denville, NJ: Dimension Books, 1987) organizes the nine types in three groups of three-head-centered, gut-centered, and heart-centered persons-and correlates with each group a most appropriate pattern of prayer: focused meditation, quiet prayer, and expressive prayer, respectively. These three suggest a loose correlation with reasoned inquiry, mystical quest, and devotion. A fuller overview of the nine personality types of the Enneagram in terms of their potential for maturation and for degeneration is Don Richard Riso, Understanding the Enneagram: The Practical Guide to Personality Types (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1990), and Andreas Ebert and Marion Ktistenmacher, eds., Experiencing the Enneagram, trans. Peter Heinegg (New York: Crossroad, 1992).
- An important attempt to address this problem in the way of mystical quest is Spiritual Choices: The Problem ofRecognizing Authentic Paths to Inner Transformation, ed. Dick Anthony, Bruce Ecker, and Ken Wilber (New York: Paragon House, 1987). See also the previous note.
- A number of studies have begun to make forays in this field, many of them the fruits of inter-religious dialogue. See Spirituality in Interfaith Dialogue, ed. Tosh Arai and Wesley Ariarajah (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989); Susan Rakoezy, Common journey, Different Paths: Spiritual Direction in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1992); and Ultimate Reality and Spiritual Discipline, ed. James Duerlinger (God: The Contemporarary Discussion Series; New York: New Era Books, 1984). Another source of insight into these matters is recent studies of attempts to "indigenize" Christianity-e.g., Asian Christian Spirituality: Reclaiming Traditions, ed. Virginia Fabella, Peter K. H. Lee, and David Kwang-sun Suh (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1992). A quite different approach is taken by philosopher Robert C. Neville in his study of the quest for spiritual liberation or perfection through the models of the spiritual soldier, the sage, and the saint, Soldier, Sage, Saint (New York: Fordham University Press, 1978).
- See Chapter 5, note 2, and the suggestions in For Further Study at the end of Chapter 15.
- One of the best places for a novice to begin any such study is with the Encyclopedia ofReligion, ed. Mircea Eliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987), reading articles both on specific religious tradition and on cross-tradition categories. Another good place is with a good textbook survey of the religions of the world. One of the current best of these is Theodore M. Ludwig, The Sacred Paths: Understanding the Religions of the World (New York: Macmillan, 1989).
- A good brief overview of the different approaches to an objective study of religion is given in Frederick]. Streng, Understanding Religious Life, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1985), Part 3. The most thorough and comprehensive overview available is Frank Whaling, ed., Contemporary Approaches to the Study ofReligion, 2 vols. (New York: Mouton, 1985).