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6.3: Review and Discussion Questions

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    1. How does the development of more powerful symbolic systems of logic boost Empiricism at the beginning of the 20th century?

    2. Explain how the Logical Positivists extend Empiricism to the theory of meaning.

    3. How is the verificationist theory of meaning used to address the demarcation problem?

    4. What is a theory according to the Positivists?

    5. Explain what’s wrong with the view that theories are just very well supported hypotheses that are still not so certain.

    6. What does it mean to regard a theory as an explanatory framework?

    7. How do the Logical Positivists understand explanation?

    8. How would Popper resolve (not solve) the problem of induction?

    9. How does Popper address the demarcation problem?

    10. Explain how auxiliary hypotheses challenge Popper’s method of conjecture and refutation.

    11. Explain pre-paradigm science. Why is little lasting progress made at this stage of science?

    12. What is a paradigm?

    13. How does normal science under a paradigm proceed?

    14. What is an anomaly?

    15. What conditions are necessary for a scientific revolution?

    16. What does it mean to speak of competing paradigms as incommensurable?

    17. How are the methods of science sensitive to its history?

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