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Glossary

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    70983
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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Image Caption Link Source
    Durational values Durational Values are those symbols (“note values”) that are used to represent the relative length of a particular sound in music.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Dotted values Durational Values may be non-dotted or dotted. Dotted Values have three interpretations: (1) The dot represents the addition of half the original value; (2) The dotted value may divide into two lower dotted values; (3) Or the dotted value may divide into three non-dotted values. This potential division into three is critical for comprehending Compound Meter.       CC BY-NC-SA
    rests Rests are the symbols used to represent the relative length of silence in music. They are equivalent in value to durations.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Pulse Pulse (or beat) is the regularly recurring background pulsation in music.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Tempo Tempo is the rate at which we perceive the pulse in time. This is indicated by metronome markings, pulse value markings and terms.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Meter Meter is the “ratio” of how many of what type of pulse values are grouped together. Simple Meter divides the pulse into two equal portions; Compound Meter divides the pulse into three equal portions.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Time signatures Meter is expressed as time signatures, indicating how many pulses (beats) are grouped together into cogent units.       CC BY-NC-SA
    measure A measure of music is a span of music, bounded by a bar line. It is a discrete grouping of pulse values dictated by the time signature.       CC BY-NC-SA
    repeat signs Special symbols indicating that segments of the music previously performed are to be repeated.       CC BY-NC-SA
    slur Slurs are curved lines above or below notes showing connection.       CC BY-NC-SA
    phrase marking Phrase markings are curved lines over segments of music showing complete ideas or statements.       CC BY-NC-SA
    tie A tie is a short slur used to connect notes across a bar line.       CC BY-NC-SA
    artificial division Inserting a compound division into simple time (triplets) or simple divisions into compound time (duplet).       CC BY-NC-SA
    Durational values Durational Values are those symbols (“note values”) that are used to represent the relative length of a particular sound in music.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Dotted values Durational Values may be non-dotted or dotted. Dotted Values have three interpretations: (1) The dot represents the addition of half the original value; (2) The dotted value may divide into two lower dotted values; (3) Or the dotted value may divide into three non-dotted values. This potential division into three is critical for comprehending Compound Meter.       CC BY-NC-SA
    rests Rests are the symbols used to represent the relative length of silence in music. They are equivalent in value to durations.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Pulse Pulse (or beat) is the regularly recurring background pulsation in music.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Tempo Tempo is the rate at which we perceive the pulse in time. This is indicated by metronome markings, pulse value markings and terms.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Meter Meter is the “ratio” of how many of what type of pulse values are grouped together. Simple Meter divides the pulse into two equal portions; Compound Meter divides the pulse into three equal portions.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Time signatures Meter is expressed as time signatures, indicating how many pulses (beats) are grouped together into cogent units.       CC BY-NC-SA
    measure A measure of music is a span of music, bounded by a bar line. It is a discrete grouping of pulse values dictated by the time signature.       CC BY-NC-SA
    repeat signs Special symbols indicating that segments of the music previously performed are to be repeated.       CC BY-NC-SA
    slur Slurs are curved lines above or below notes showing connection.       CC BY-NC-SA
    phrase marking Phrase markings are curved lines over segments of music showing complete ideas or statements.       CC BY-NC-SA
    tie A tie is a short slur used to connect notes across a bar line.       CC BY-NC-SA
    artificial division Inserting a compound division into simple time (triplets) or simple divisions into compound time (duplet).       CC BY-NC-SA
    Pitch-class Pitch-classes are all those pitches which share the same letter name, or share the same “pitch-space” but have different spellings.       CC BY-NC-SA
    staff The Staff (or staves) is a system of parallel lines used to locate and notate specific pitches.       CC BY-NC-SA
    The Grand Staff A system of two five-line staves used to locate and notate pitch. This evolved from the early eleven-line staff.       CC BY-NC-SA
    ledger lines Ledger lines are small horizontal dashes above, below, or through a notehead used to extend the range of the staff.       CC BY-NC-SA
    chromaticism Chromaticism refers to those altered pitches that lie “outside” the range of a particular collection.       CC BY-NC-SA
    accidentals Accidentals are those specialized symbols used to show chromatic alterations.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Enharmonic equivalence Enharmonic equivalence describes pitches that share the same pitch-space (sound identical) but are “spelled” differently.       CC BY-NC-SA
    register designations The labeling system used to locate pitch based upon the piano keyboard.       CC BY-NC-SA
    octave In this context, an eight-tone species, or sequence of pitches.       CC BY-NC-SA
    solfége Syllables adapted to denote pitches. Originally used as a pedagogical mnemonic.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Moveable C-clef A clef derived from the eleven-line staff. This clef locates C4 regardless of what line of the staff it is placed upon.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Tenor Clef The C-clef placed on the fourth line of the staff. Used for ‘Cello, Bassoon, and Trombone.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Pitch-class Pitch-classes are all those pitches which share the same letter name, or share the same “pitch-space” but have different spellings.       CC BY-NC-SA
    staff The Staff (or staves) is a system of parallel lines used to locate and notate specific pitches.       CC BY-NC-SA
    The Grand Staff A system of two five-line staves used to locate and notate pitch. This evolved from the early eleven-line staff.       CC BY-NC-SA
    ledger lines Ledger lines are small horizontal dashes above, below, or through a notehead used to extend the range of the staff.       CC BY-NC-SA
    chromaticism Chromaticism refers to those altered pitches that lie “outside” the range of a particular collection.       CC BY-NC-SA
    accidentals Accidentals are those specialized symbols used to show chromatic alterations.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Enharmonic equivalence Enharmonic equivalence describes pitches that share the same pitch-space (sound identical) but are “spelled” differently.       CC BY-NC-SA
    register designations The labeling system used to locate pitch based upon the piano keyboard.       CC BY-NC-SA
    octave In this context, an eight-tone species, or sequence of pitches.       CC BY-NC-SA
    solfége Syllables adapted to denote pitches. Originally used as a pedagogical mnemonic.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Moveable C-clef A clef derived from the eleven-line staff. This clef locates C4 regardless of what line of the staff it is placed upon.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Tenor Clef The C-clef placed on the fourth line of the staff. Used for ‘Cello, Bassoon, and Trombone.       CC BY-NC-SA
    equal temperament The current system of tuning whereby pitches have been adjusted to allow division of the octave into twelve equal portions.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Chromatic Scale The source set or collection for pitch materials as defined within equal temperament.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Common Practice Period Music from roughly the 17th- through the 19th Centuries. Also may be referred to as Tonal Music.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Major Scale A heptatonic (“seven-tone”) scale consisting of the following arrangement: W-W-H-W-W-W-H.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Minor Scale A heptatonic scale having three distinct forms, Natural, Harmonic, and Melodic Minor.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Relative Major/Minor The relationship between Major and Minor scales wherein they share the same pitch content but have a different order.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Parallel Major/Minor The relationship between Major and Minor scales wherein they share the same starting pitch but different pitch content.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Harmonic Minor The most commonly used and expected form of the Minor scale. It is altered from Natural Minor by raising the seventh scale degree to artificially create a Leading Tone.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Melodic Minor The second altered version of the Minor scale. It is altered by raising both the sixth and seventh scale degrees.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Moveable Do A solfége system wherein Do shifts to the starting pitch of the scale. Other syllables are sung in relationship to this.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Do-based Minor A sub-category of Moveable Do. Both Major and Minor begin on Do.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Modes Heptatonic scales used in early music. Also used in post-Tonal music.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Plagal A re-ordering of the mode wherein the top tetrachord is placed below the final.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Associative Method Recognition of modes by association with either the Major or the Minor scale and observing the variances from these.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Revolving Scale Method Recognition of modes by their consistent order in the context of the Revolving Major Scale.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Pentatonic scale Properly, a scale that divides the octave into five equal portions. In equal temperament, this is most closely approximated aurally by playing the black keys at the piano.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Whole Tone Scale A hexatonic scale comprised of only whole steps that divides the octave symmetrically into six equal portions of two half steps each.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Octatonic Scale An eight-tone scale. The most common form is the symmetrical division of the octave into eight portions of either alternating half steps and whole steps, or alternating whole steps and half steps       CC BY-NC-SA
    “Augmented” scale A hexatonic scale that symmetrically divides the octave by alternating half step and step-and-a-half, or the reverse.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Lydian-Dominant A heptatonic scale wherein the first tetrachord resembles Lydian mode (raised 4) and the second tetrachord resembles Mixolydian mode (lowered 7).       CC BY-NC-SA
    scales A sequential collection of five or more pitches.       CC BY-NC-SA
    equal temperament The current system of tuning whereby pitches have been adjusted to allow division of the octave into twelve equal portions.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Chromatic Scale The source set or collection for pitch materials as defined within equal temperament.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Common Practice Period Music from roughly the 17th- through the 19th Centuries. Also may be referred to as Tonal Music.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Major Scale A heptatonic (“seven-tone”) scale consisting of the following arrangement: W-W-H-W-W-W-H.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Minor Scale A heptatonic scale having three distinct forms, Natural, Harmonic, and Melodic Minor.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Relative Major/Minor The relationship between Major and Minor scales wherein they share the same pitch content but have a different order.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Parallel Major/Minor The relationship between Major and Minor scales wherein they share the same starting pitch but different pitch content.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Harmonic Minor The most commonly used and expected form of the Minor scale. It is altered from Natural Minor by raising the seventh scale degree to artificially create a Leading Tone.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Melodic Minor The second altered version of the Minor scale. It is altered by raising both the sixth and seventh scale degrees.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Moveable Do A solfége system wherein Do shifts to the starting pitch of the scale. Other syllables are sung in relationship to this.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Do-based Minor A sub-category of Moveable Do. Both Major and Minor begin on Do.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Modes Heptatonic scales used in early music. Also used in post-Tonal music.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Plagal A re-ordering of the mode wherein the top tetrachord is placed below the final.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Associative Method Recognition of modes by association with either the Major or the Minor scale and observing the variances from these.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Revolving Scale Method Recognition of modes by their consistent order in the context of the Revolving Major Scale.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Pentatonic scale Properly, a scale that divides the octave into five equal portions. In equal temperament, this is most closely approximated aurally by playing the black keys at the piano.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Whole Tone Scale A hexatonic scale comprised of only whole steps that divides the octave symmetrically into six equal portions of two half steps each.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Octatonic Scale An eight-tone scale. The most common form is the symmetrical division of the octave into eight portions of either alternating half steps and whole steps, or alternating whole steps and half steps       CC BY-NC-SA
    “Augmented” scale A hexatonic scale that symmetrically divides the octave by alternating half step and step-and-a-half, or the reverse.       CC BY-NC-SA
    Lydian-Dominant A heptatonic scale wherein the first tetrachord resembles Lydian mode (raised 4) and the second tetrachord resembles Mixolydian mode (lowered 7).       CC BY-NC-SA
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