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    1. George Lutz, in The Amityville Horror, film, dir. Stuart Rosenberg, 1978, screenplay by Sandor Stern. George feels he is quickly turning into the former inhabitant of his home in the town of Amityville. Unfortunately, the former inhabitant murdered his entire family, so this transformation does not bode well for the Lutzes.

    2. See especially Backus, Gothic Family Romance, passim, for this argument.

    3. Foster, ‘Protestant Magic’, 221.

    4. Eagleton, Heathcliff and the Great Hunger, 187.

    5. Killeen, Gothic Ireland.

    6. Miles, Gothic Writing, 4.

    7. Barnard, ‘Crises of Identity’, 39–83.

    8. Quoted in McDowell, Ireland in the Age of Imperialism, III, 131.

    9. Barnard, ‘Protestantism, Ethnicity and Irish Identities’, 212–13. Of course, and rather ironically, it was Barnard himself who first used the expression ‘crisis of identity’.

    10. Molyneux, Case of Ireland, dedication to the king, 18.

    11. MacDonagh, States of Mind, 19.

    12. Ibid., 23.

    13. Ibid., 37.

    14. Lyons, Culture and Anarchy, 117.

    15. Connerton, How Societies Remember.

    16. Halbwachs, On Collective Memory; idem, The Collective Memory.

    17. For the generation of which egregious term I stand guilty. See Gothic Ireland: Horror and the Irish Anglican Imagination.

    18. Haslam, ‘Irish Gothic: A Rhetorical Hermeneutics Approach’, 3. In his article on ‘Irish Gothic’ in the Routledge Companion, Haslam likewise accuses me (in particular) of ‘hypostasizing’ ‘the Irish Anglican Imagination’ in my book on the subject, although he does admit that I am partly redeemable since I accept that such terms are open to challenge, 88–9.

    19. As Swift addressed the 4th Drapier’s Letter.

    20. Breuninger, ‘Berkeley and Ireland’, 105.

    21. Hayton, ‘From Barbarian to Burlesque’, 5–31.

    22. Shapin, Social History of Truth, 127.

    23. Taylor, ‘Politics of Recognition’, 25.

    24. See Bhabha, ‘Culture’s In-Between’, 53–60.

    25. Douglas, In the Wilderness, 12; idem, How Institutions Think.

    26. King to Bishop William Nicolson, 28 May 1719, quoted in Connolly, Religion, 255.

    27. Bartlett, Fall and Rise, 36; Connolly, Religion, 251. See also, Eccleshall, ‘Anglican political thought’, 37, 49; Johnston, Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, 1; Boyce, Nationalism, 99.

    28. Douglas, How Institutions Think, 80; idem, In the Wilderness, 53.

    29. The historiography of the Penal Laws is extensive. See especially Froude, English in Ireland; Mant, History of the Church of Ireland; Lecky, History of Ireland; Murray, Revolutionary Ireland; Sullivan, Two Centuries; Burke, Irish Priest; Burns, ‘The Irish Penal Code’; Wall, Penal Laws; Burns, ‘Irish Popery Laws’; Cullen, ‘Catholics’; Corish, Catholic Community; Connolly, ‘Religion and History’; idem, Religion, 263–313; McGrath, ‘Securing the Protestant Interest’.

    30. Calculating even the relative size of the different denominations in eighteenth-century Ireland is fraught with difficulties, the only firm statistics coming from a religious census taken in 1732 by collectors of a hearth tax. They calculated that 73 per cent of households were Catholics, but most commentators believe this underestimates the correct number considerably. According to Sean Connolly, ‘the most it seems safe to say is that Catholics in the first half of the eighteenth century probably made up somewhere between three-quarters and four-fifths of the population’. Religion, 145.

    31. Connolly, Religion, 261.

    32. Todorov, Fantastic, 107–39.

    33. Levy, Le Roman ‘gothique’, 46.

    34. Swift, ‘A Letter to the Whole People of Ireland’, Drapier’s Letters, 64.

    35. Anonymous, Considerations concerning Ireland, 3, 2–3.

    36. [Brewster], A discourse concerning Ireland, 44; see also Hayton, ‘From Barbarian to Burlesque’.

    37. Quoted in Connolly, Divided Kingdoms, 219–20.

    38. Connolly, Divided Kingdoms, 227.

    39. See De Valera, ‘Antiquarianism and Historical Investigations in Ireland’, Chapters 1–2.

    40. Quoted in Connolly, Divided Kingdoms, 229.

    41. McBride, ‘“The Common Name of Irishman”’, 246.

    42. Moore, Swift, 3–4.

    43. Ibid., 5–8.

    44. See especially Hayton, ‘Anglo-Irish Attitudes’, 145–57.

    45. Durkheim, Elementary Forms.

    46. Rappaport, Ritual and Religion.

    47. McBride, Eighteenth Century Ireland, 309.

    48. Todorov, Fantasy, 25. 49. Moynahan, Anglo-Irish.

    50. Killeen, ‘Irish Gothic’; see also Todorov, Fantastic, 25.

    51. McCormack, ‘Irish Gothic and After’, 831.

    52. Morash, ‘“Time is Out of Joint”’.

    53. Stoker, Dracula, 402.

    54. Ibid., 306.

    55. Le Fanu, In a Glass Darkly, 319.

    56. It is, for example, no surprise that Gothic appeals powerfully to teenagers, who undergo an extreme version of such hesitation, in their case a hesitation between adulthood and childhood.

    57. Foster, ‘Protestant Magic’, 220.

    58. Ibid., 219.

    59. Moynahan, Anglo-Irish, 111.

    60. Killeen, Gothic Ireland, Chapter 1.

    61. Napier, Failure of Gothic; Day, Circles.

    62. Baldick and Mighall, ‘Gothic Criticism’, 214.

    63. Katherine Thorn, to her ‘son’, Damien (the AntiChrist) as they try to enter a Catholic Church. The Omen, film, dir. John Moore, 2006. Screenplay by David Seltzer.

    64. McCormack, ‘Irish Gothic and After’, 837.

    65. He specifically warns – quite rightly – against over-emphasising ‘the idea of self-conscious historical guilt and repression’ in motivating Irish Anglicans to participate in the Gothic genre. Writers like LeFanu, Wilde and Stoker, for example, were far more interested in analysing the subject position of Irish Protestants and motivated by their liminality and uncertainty than in mitigating or articulating a sense of communal guilt for the wrongs done to Irish Catholic peasants. Foster, Words Alone, 103.

    66. Gibbons, Gaelic Gothic, 10–11.

    67. Deane, Strange Country, 126. Mangan has been correctly read as a writer of Gothic by a number of critics. See also Wurtz, ‘Scarce More a Corpse’; and Haslam, ‘“Broad Farce and Thrilling Tragedy”’.

    68. Haslam, ‘Irish Gothic: A Rhetorical Hermeneutics Approach’, 5; McCormack, ‘Irish Gothic and After’, 837.

    69. Though Wilde’s Catholicism is, of course, a hotly contested subject. See Killeen, Faiths of Oscar Wilde.

    70. Connolly, Cultural History, 170–1.

    71. Sturgeon, ‘“Seven Devils”’. The postulation is, of course, Deane’s rather than Haslam’s, but the point is well made.

    72. Eagleton, How to Read a Poem, 8.

    73. Wolfson, Formal Charges; Cronin, Politics of Romantic Poetry.

    74. Newman, Idea of a University, 262.

    75. I would suggest that the term ‘Protestant novel’ is a tautology, while ‘Catholic novel’ makes a great deal of sense.

    76. Orwell, ‘Inside the Whale’, 515.

    77. Leavis, ‘Englishness of the English Novel’, 318.

    78. Watt, Rise of the Novel, 74.

    79. McKeon, Origins of the English Novel, 337.

    80. Levy, Le Roman ‘gothique’ anglais, 46.

    81. Sage, Horror Fiction, xiii.

    82. Quoted in Sage, Horror Fiction, 27.

    83. O’Malley, Catholicism, 32. See also Schmitt, Alien Nation, 2.

    84. McEvoy, ‘“Really, though secretly, a papist”’, 49–61. see also Tarr, Catholicism in Gothic Fiction; Purves, Gothic and Catholicism.

    85. Gibbons, ‘The Mirror and the Vamp’, 24. For further commentary on Catholic Gothic as a mode of ‘writing back’, see Gibbons, Gaelic Gothic, 14–15.

    86. Walpole, Castle of Otranto, 5–6

    87. Dodington’s remarks are quoted by Connolly, Divided Kingdom, 386.

    88. The Wood’s Halfpence controversy erupted in 1722 when a hardware manufacturer, William Wood, bribed his way into being granted a patent to produce copper coinage for Irish use. Not only was the patent secured by corrupt means but the coins produced by Wood were bad quality, and it was felt by many commentators on the Irish economy that their use would drive gold and silver from circulation in the country. The controversy sparked an intense debate about the right of the Westminster parliament to approve such patents for Ireland, about Irish economic independence, and saw the most dramatic intervention into Irish affairs by Jonathan Swift, who wrote a series of letters, seven pamphlets, on the issue under the pseudonym M. B. Drapier (1724–5).

    89. I have drawn upon a great many accounts of the crisis in this narrative, but especially, Bartlett, Fall and Rise, 38–44; Powell, Britain and Ireland, 16–47; Megennis, Irish Political System, 62–109; Dickson, New Foundations, 97–100. The classic study is O’Donovan, ‘Money Bill Dispute’, 55–87.

    90. Moore, Swift, 5.

    91. The significance of the money bill itself should not be completely ignored. Because of its very reduced power relative to Westminster, the Irish parliament was quite protective of its perceived right to grant the additional duties necessary for the parliament to meet. Powell, Britain and Ireland, 9.

    92. Bartlett, Fall and Rise, 41–2.

    93. Ibid., 42.

    94. Ibid., 42.

    95. Powell, Britain and Ireland, 29.

    96. Megennis, Irish Political System, 62.

    97. Hellen O’Roon, The P______e Vindicated, 9–11.

    98. Powell, Britain and Ireland, 12.

    99. For Powell, ‘this period witnessed a move towards popular participation in Irish politics, through both peaceful and violent means, on a scale that Locating the Gothic 77 completely overshadowed the controversy that raged in Dublin during the Wood’s halfpence dispute’. Britain and Ireland, 25.

    100. Bartlett, Fall and Rise, 43.

    101. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Manuscripts and Correspondence, Vol. 1, p. 7.

    102. Connolly, ‘Precedent and Principle’, 131.

    103. Ibid., 132.

    104. In one instance its influence can be seen in the development of two opposing antiquarian schools of thought. According to those adhering to what Lesa Ní Mhunghaile terms the ‘Scytho-Celtic model’, Celts had descended from the barbaric biblical Sythians, and Celtic ‘civilisation’ was a degraded one in need of thorough improvement and cultivation by the Normans. This was a view most powerfully articulated by Edward Ledwich’s Antiquities of Ireland (1790). The alternative model, articulated by patriot-leaning antiquarians adopting a ‘Phoenician origin myth’, claimed that the Celts were descended from the Phoenicians and had built up a tremendously sophisticated civilisation in pre-Norman invasion Ireland, a sophistication rivalling that of modern England. This meant that there could be seen to be a confluence between ancient Irish civilisation and the civilisation carried over to Ireland by the Norman, Elizabethan, Cromwellian and Williamite English migrants, and therefore the ‘natives and the newcomers’ had more in common than differences. ‘Anglo-Irish Antiquarianism’.

    105. Moore, Swift, 6.

    106. Bakhtin, ‘Discourse in the Novel’, 367.

    107. Loeber and Loeber, Guide to Irish Fiction, liv–lv.

    108. For a very interesting survey of this material, see Hill, ‘“Allegories, Fiction, and Feigned Representations”’.

    109. I would not place too much importance on establishing exactly what the ‘first’ Irish Gothic novel is. Loeber and Loeber, ‘Publication of Irish Novels and Novelettes’.

    110. Backus, Gothic Family Romance, 15–16.

    111. Ibid., 19.

    112. Gibbons, Gaelic Gothic, 10–11.

    113. Cleary, ‘National Novel in an Imperial Age’, 63.

    114. Morash, ‘“Time is Out of Joint’, 138.

    115. For the agitation, see Donnelly, ‘Whiteboy Movement’; Bric, ‘Whiteboy Movement in Tipperarary’; for the Sheehy affair, see Gibbons, Edmund Burke, 21–4.

    116. Gibbons, Gaelic Gothic, 21.

    117. O’Halloran, Golden Ages, 111.

    118. Deane, Celtic Revivals, 20.

    119. De Bolla, Discourse of the Sublime, 106–12.

    120. Ibid., 14.

    121. As Colin Haydon remarks, ‘logic and evidence combine to suggest that detestation of Popery persisted among the lower orders generally’. AntiCatholicism, 179.

    122. Ibid., 253.

    123. Cleary, ‘The National Novel’, 58–9. 78 The Emergence of Irish Gothic Fiction

    124. Fowler, Alienated Reader, 30–3.

    125. Bloch, Principle of Hope, Vol. 1, pp. 29, 417–18. Fowler uses Bloch effectively in Alienated Reader, 32–4.

    126. I would substitute Protestant in that sentence with ‘Anglican’ given the fact that Presbyterians were considered as much outside the Irish political nation as Irish Catholics

    127. Abrahams, ‘Foreword’, ix.

    128. Turner, Ritual Process, 28.

    129. Todorov, Fantasy, 25.

    130. Day, Circles, 189.

    131. Cleary, ‘National Novel’, 50.

    132. And I have even written one myself: Killeen, Gothic Literature, 1825–1914.

    133. Moretti, ‘Novel’, 111.

    134. Moretti, ‘Conjectures’, 57.

    135. Wilkens, ‘Canons’, 256.

    136. He is citing a comment made by Moretti in an interview with John Sutherland, 9 January, 2006 for the Guardian. Ross, ‘Mapping Ireland, 4.

    137. Ross, ‘Mapping’, 16.

    138. Connolly, Cultural History, 18.

    139. Watt, Contesting, 1.

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