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    1. Sean Crenshaw in The Monster Squad, film, dir. Fred Dekker, 1987. Screenplay, Shane Black and Fred Dekker. Poor Sean discovers that, not only are monsters like Dracula and the Mummy very real, but they are planning to take over the world. It is up to him and his band of adolescent monster hunters to stop them.

    2. The Borg are an alien intelligence central to Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987–94). They are distinguished not only by their apparently unstoppable drive for power but also by the fact that they have managed to destroy individuality and have become one collective intelligence.

    3. Archbishop William King to Archbishop Wake of Canterbury, 12 July 1727, quoted in Fagan, ‘Dublin Catholic Mob’, 133.

    4. For an account of these sermons, see Barnard, ‘Uses of 23 October 1641’; Kelly, ‘“Glorious and Immortal Memory”’.

    5. This anecdote is told by Charles O’Conor in his ‘Account of the Author’, a prefatory introduction to John Curry’s own Historical and Critical Review of the Civil Wars, iv.

    6. See Gilmore, Monsters, 9; Asma, On Monsters, 13.

    7. For a brilliant study of the freak show phenomenon, see Durbach, Spectacle of Deformity; see also Youngquist, Monstrosities.

    8. Anonymous, Miracle of Miracles, 6.

    9. Aristotle, Physics II.8.

    10. Carroll, Philosophy of Horror, 27, 28, 32.

    11. See Eagleton, On Evil, for the liberal uneasiness with the term ‘evil’, 13–15. For serial killers and discourses of monstrosity, see Tithecott, Of Men and Monsters.

    12. For Freud’s theory see ‘The Uncanny’.

    13. For an excellent study of the Nilsen case, see Masters, Killing for Company.

    14. Eagleton, On Evil, 2.

    15. Carroll, Philosophy of Horror, 38–9.

    16. Wood, ‘American Nightmare’, 69, 66–7.

    17. Cohen, ‘Monster Culture’, 7.

    18. Freeland, Naked and the Undead, 10–11.

    19. Schneider, ‘Monsters as (Uncanny) Metaphors’, 6.

    20. de Certeau, Writing of History, 2.

    21. Colley, Britons; Tumbleson, Catholicism.

    22. Colley, Britons, 11–12.

    23. See Miller, Popery and Politics, 82; Kenyon, Popish Plot, 8.

    24. ‘Protestants . . . [were] able to produce an image of England as inherently Protestant because Protestantism’s opposite, popery, was inherently foreign’. Lake, ‘Anti-Popery’, 82; Jones, Revolution of 1688, 95.

    25. Though Robert Clifton does worry that ‘though the horror and fear felt by . . . Englishmen for Catholicism is a cliché of historical writing, its brutal strength is seldom fully communicated to readers of the present day’. Last Popular Rebellion, 57.

    26. Haydon, Anti-Catholicism, 15.

    27. Tumbleson, Catholicism, 13–14.

    28. Black, Natural and Necessary Enemies, 161.

    29. The blaming of Catholics for the Great Fire of London was part of a complex affair. Fingers were pointed at many including the French and the Dutch, but in 1681 an inscription was added to the Monument erected to commemorate the Great Fire, an inscription that blamed Papists. See Miller, Popery and Politics, 103. For the annual commemoration of events attached to deliverance from Catholic danger, see Cressy, ‘Protestant Calendar’, 31–52.

    30. Colley, Britons, 21, gives illustration. For ‘nationality’ as a subsection of Protestantism, see Clifton, ‘Fear of Popery’.

    31. Crawford, Marvelous Protestantism, 104.

    32. Ibid., 105–7.

    33. For Foxe’s contribution to ‘nation forming’ see Haller, Foxe’s Book of Martyrs. For the idea of England as an elect nation with a singular and privileged destiny, see Lamont, Godly Rule.

    34. Foxe, Acts and Monuments, 1, 192, 452.

    35. Anonymous, Grand Plutoes Remonstrance, 4.

    36. Colley, Britons, 36.

    37. Quoted in Tumbleson, Catholicism, 9.

    38. Quoted in Speck, Reluctant Revolutionaries, 235.

    39. Colley, Britons, 23.

    40. Early modern versions of Rosemary’s Baby. See Dolan, Whores of Babylon, 39.

    41. As one rhyme put it: ‘Their Church consists of vicious Popes, the rest / Are whoring Nuns, and bawdy bugg’ring Priests. / A noble Church! Dub’d with religious Paint, / Each Priest’s a Stallion, every Rogue’s a Saint.’ Quoted in Haydon, Anti-Catholicism, 254.

    42. Quoted in Miller, Popery and Politics, 75.

    43. [Daniel Defoe], Great Law of Subordination Consider’d, 20.

    44. Foucault, Order of Things, 326.

    45. See Killeen, Gothic Ireland, 28–54.

    46. Henry, Philippic oration, 9–10.

    47. Barnard, ‘Uses of 23 October’, 898.

    48. Downes, Sermon Preach’d . . . the 5th November 1722, 15–16.

    49. Ramsay, Sermon Preach’d to the Protestants of Ireland, 52.

    50. [James de Dallion], The ax laid to the root, 22.

    51. See Backus on Irish Protestantism and child sacrifice. Gothic Family Romance, passim.

    52. William King to Archbishop Wake of Canterbury, 12 July, 1727. Quoted in Fagan, ‘Dublin Catholic Mob’, 133.

    53. The best account to give consideration to all of these features is Bartlett, ‘Rise and Fall’, 7–18.

    54. Colley, Britons, 325.

    55. Haydon, Anti-Catholicism, 164.

    56. Ibid., pp. 164–178; also Bartlett, Fall and Rise, 66–8.

    57. Haydon, Anti-Catholicism, 164–203.

    58. An underlying distrust of Catholicism remains central to British society today – an anti-Catholicism made visible recently in the lead up to the visit of Pope Benedict XVI in 2010. During the weeks leading up to the Pope’s arrival, a particularly startling resurfacing of this submerged current in British history was evident, though now energised by a fashionable version of atheism and a disgust at child abuse scandals.

    59. For Catholicism and the Gothic, see Tarr, Catholicism in Gothic Fiction; for a more recent study which argues that the Gothic is in fact rather generous in relation to Catholicism, see Purves, Gothic and Catholicism.

    60. For the sheer pervasiveness of anti-Catholicism in British life, see Haynes, Pictures and Popery. For nineteenth-century incarnations of anti-Catholicism see Peschier, Nineteenth-Century; Paz, Popular AntiCatholicism; Norman, Anti-Catholicism; Wheeler, Old Enemies.

    61. Davies, Protestant unity urg’d, 10–13.

    62. Ibid., 6.

    63. LeVine and Campbell, Ethnocentrism; Brown, Prejudice.

    64. Boulter, Letters, Vol. 1, p. 210; Vol. 2, p. 70.

    65. Quoted in Bartlett, Fall and Rise, 48.

    66. Quoted in Barnard, New Anatomy, 282.

    67. See Bartlett, Fall and Rise, 56–7, 77–81, 282–3.

    68. Leighton, Catholicism, 67–86.

    69. Woodward, Present State of the Church of Ireland, quoted in McCormack, The Dublin Paper War, 7.

    70. [John Curry], A Brief Account . . . of the Irish Rebellion, 63.

    71. Gilbert and Gubar, Madwoman in the Attic, 65–6.

    72. Garber, Vested Interests, 10.

    73. [John Curry], Brief Account, 1–2.

    74. Ibid., 3.

    75. Ibid., 4.

    76. Ibid., 50–1.

    77. Ibid., 47.

    78. Garber, Vested Interests, 16.

    79. Harris, Fiction Unmask’d, 1.

    80. Ibid., 15.

    81. Ibid., 1.

    82. Ibid., 8.

    83. Ibid., 3. The terror surrounding ‘mental reservation’ was recently on display again in response to Cardinal Desmond Connell’s explanation of his actions in the investigation of institutional child sexual abuse in the diocese of Dublin. When responding to questions by the Commission of Investigation under Judge Yvonne Murphy (investigating the way allegations of sexual abuse by priests and religious were dealt with by the Dublin Archdiocese from 1974 to 2005), the Cardinal gave completely inadequate and at times misleading answers, which he later justified by invoking ‘mental reservation’. His explanation provoked justified outrage.

    84. Ibid., 4.

    85. Ibid., 13–14.

    86. Ibid., 17.

    87. Ibid., 194.

    88. Revisionism has had a very controversial history in twentieth- and twentyfirst-century Ireland. It supposedly emerged from an attempt to write a version of Irish history which did not reproduce the nationalist tale of ‘faith and fatherland’, but it quickly became accused of perpetuating a colonial view of Irish history rather than providing anything really ‘objective’. On the ‘revisionist controversy’, see Brady (ed.), Interpreting Irish History; Foster, Irish Story; Boyce and O’Day, Making of Modern Irish History.

    89. Hill, ‘Popery and Protestantism’, 116.

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