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  • 1. Ozzie Jones while the O’Grady farm is under attack from an evil Irish creature in search of his pot of gold. Leprechaun, film, dir. Mark Jones, 1993. The leprechaun’s weakness is a four-leaf clover, and at the end of the film he is defeated when the child hero, Alex, sticks a clover plant to some chewing gum and manages to get it into the leprechaun’s mouth. This is the first of a (so-far) six-film franchise.

    2. Newman, ‘Irish Horror Cinema’.

    3. It should, perhaps, be emphasised that these political echoes are almost certainly coincidental and not indicative of Coppola’s insights into Irish society or predictive abilities. Texts have echoes and resonances far beyond the control of their authors, and Gothic texts, in particular, as W. J. McCormack has explained, often violate the ‘official best intentions’ of their authors. ‘Irish Gothic and After’, 111. This interpretive slipperiness is compounded in relation to Dementia 13 which, although ‘authored’ by Francis Ford Coppola, had additional scenes added by the producer, Roger Corman, after an initial screening of Coppola’s version. Corman was apparently disappointed by the relative restraint on display and he wanted some supplementary violence. He was also concerned about the shortness of the film and added a prologue in which 30 The Emergence of Irish Gothic Fiction a psychiatrist ‘tests’ the psychological fortitude of audience members, given that they are about to undergo such a terrifying experience. The additional material was directed by Jack Hill.

    4. Quoted in O’Beirne Ranelagh, Short History, 8.

    5. Gerald of Wales, History, 74.

    6. Gilbert White to Thomas Pennant, 9 March 1775, quoted in O’Halloran, Golden Ages, 98.

    7. Kilfeather, ‘Gothic Novel’, 80.

    8. Lee, The Recess, 222–3. 9. Ibid., 224. 10. Ibid., 229. 11. Hume, History of England (1763), Vol. 6, p. 374.

    12. Lee, Young Lady’s Tale.

    13. Musgrave, Memoirs, 858.

    14. Shelley, Frankenstein, 177.

    15. Randel, ‘Political Geography’, 485.

    16. Shelley, Frankenstein, 187.

    17. Machen, Terror, 17.

    18. For an analysis of the ‘Gothicising’ of Ireland and Wales, see Jones, ‘Borderlands’. For the depiction of the Irish in the Victorian press see Curtis, Jr, Apes and Angels.

    19. Gibbons, Gaelic Gothic, 11.

    20. Griffith, History of Lady Barton, 15–16.

    21. Ibid., 17. 22. Ibid., 10.

    23. Morin, ‘“Terre inconnuë”’, 7.

    24. Burke, Philosophical Enquiry, 231.

    25. Edmund Burke to Richard Shackleton, 25 January 1744/45. Correspondence, 38–9.

    26. Gibbons, Edmund Burke, 2–3.

    27. Roche, Children of the Abbey, 91. Obviously, Roche here mingles Burke’s two categories, but the implications of her use of his treatise are clear.

    28. Ibid., 147–8.

    29. Owenson, Wild Irish Girl (1999), 19.

    30. Stoker, Snake’s Pass, 3–4.

    31. For films which have essentially the same plot see also the equally bad Leap Year, dir. Anand Tucker, 2010 – with Amy Adams and Matthew Goode – the rather better The MatchMaker, dir. Mark Joffe, 1997 – Janeane Garofalo and David O’Hara – and the enjoyable The Last of the High Kings, dir. David Keating, 1996 – Christina Ricci and Jared Leto. Female American tourists appear in such films to be equally impressed by the primitive landscape and version of masculinity on offer in Ireland.

    32. Maturin, Milesian Chief, Vol. 1, p. 54.

    33. For Ireland in popular cinema, see Barton, Acting Irish; Rockett, Gibbons and Hill, Cinema and Ireland; Gillespie, Myth of an Irish Cinema.

    34. Colley, ‘Britishness and Otherness’.

    35. There is currently a strong tendency in horror cinema to locate the Gothic in places like Eastern Europe. See, for example, Hostel, dir. Eli Roth, 2005; A Serbian Film, dir. Srdjan Spasojevic, 2010. Introduction 31

    36. Haydon, ‘“I Love my King and my Country”’.

    37. Jones, Horror, 18.

    38. See also Hechter, Internal Colonialism.

    39. Morash, ‘“Time is Out of Joint”’, 133.

    40. Kiberd, Inventing Ireland, passim.

    41. Kreilkamp, ‘Review’, 248.

    42. For this argument, see especially Gibbons, Transformations, 15–16.

    43. I am, to put it mildly, unqualified to write such a study.

    44. Davenport-Hines, Gothic.

    45. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari are currently strong contenders to take over from Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan as the most cited theorists in Gothic Studies. See, for a very provocative intervention, Powell, Deleuze.

    46. Botting, Gothic, 16.

    47. Haslam, ‘Irish Gothic’, 83, 86.

    48. Kilfeather, ‘Gothic Novel’, 82–3.

    49. Ibid., 86.

    50. Halberstam, Skin Shows, 92.

    51. Hogle, ‘Introduction’, 1.

    52. Watt, Contesting, 6.

    53. Platzner and Hume, ‘“Gothic Versus Romantic”’, 273.

    54. Miles, Gothic Writing, 4.

    55. Richter, ‘Reception of the Gothic Novel’, 117.

    56. Miles, Gothic Writing, 3.

    57. Watt, Contesting, 1. Although, part of the attraction of Watt’s study is that despite the fact that he begins by claiming that the Gothic is not a genre he carries on using the term ‘genre’ to refer to the Gothic for the rest of the book.

    58. Kelly, English Fiction, 49.

    59. Duff, Romanticism, vii.

    60. Frow, Genre, 23.

    61. Anne Freadman, ‘Untitles: (On Genre)’, Cultural Studies, 2: 1 (1988), 73, quoted in Frow, Genre, 24.

    62. Ibid., 25.

    63. Mighall, Geography, xiv.

    64. There is no space here for a full reading of the role of the Gothic in Edgeworth’s novel. For a beginning to such a reading see, Killeen, ‘Irish Gothic Revisited’.

    65. Duff, Romanticism, 161.

    66. Quoted in Duff, Romanticism, 161.

    67. Samuel Richardson to Aaron Hill, 26 January 1746/47, Selected Letters, 78.

    68. Ellis, History of Gothic, 12.

    69. Watt, Contesting, 1.

    70. Walpole, Castle of Otranto, 9.

    71. Reprinted in Clery and Miles (eds), Gothic Documents, 183–4.

    72. Howard, Reading Gothic Fiction, 2.

    73. Contrarily, Jim Hansen argues that rather than being a generic mess, ‘the English Gothic novel, with its fleets of unquiet ghosts, overly-sensitive confined women, usurping Catholic counts, and ineffectual suitors, 32 The Emergence of Irish Gothic Fiction provides what might be the most lucid and flagrant set of generic tropes, approaches and concerns in the history of modern English literature’ Terror and Irish Modernism, 7.

    74. Bradshaw, ‘Nationalism and Historical Scholarship’, 251.

    75. Derrida, ‘Law of Genre’, 212.

    76. Haslam, ‘Irish Gothic’, 87. 77. Gamer, Romanticism and the Gothic, 2.

    78. Ibid., 4. 79. Botting, ‘Preface’, 1–6; for discussions on the Gothic’s transformative tendencies see Botting, Gothic; Goddu, Gothic America; Hogle, ‘Introduction’, 1–20; Miles, Gothic Writing; Mulvey-Roberts, ‘Introduction’, xv–xviii; Punter, Literature of Terror: Vol. 1.

    80. Watt, Contesting, 1.

    81. Ellis, History, 13.

    82. McCormack, ‘Irish Gothic and After’, 833.

    83. McCormack, Dissolute Characters, 2–11.

    84. Ibid., 2–33.

    85. Ibid., 2.

    86. Ibid., 2.

    87. McCormack, From Burke to Beckett, 14.

    88. McCormack, Dissolute Characters, 3.

    89. McCormack, Ascendancy and Tradition, 337.

    90. Brown, ‘New Literary Histories’, 468–9.

    91. Platzner and Hume, ‘“Gothic Versus Romantic”’, 273.

    92. A rather misleading word here – Haslam appears in no doubt as to the sagacity of his approach.

    93. Haslam, ‘Irish Gothic: A Rhetorical Hermeneutics Approach’.

    94. Morin, ‘“Gothic” and “National”?’, 185, note 12.

    95. Kelleher, ‘Prose Writing and Drama in English’, 472.

    96. Hansen, Terror and Irish Modernism.

    97. Williams, Keywords, 320.

    98. de Certeau, Writing of History, 2.

    99. Ó Giolláin, Locating Irish Folklore, 12–13.

    100. Montague Summers claims that ‘the connexion between the Gothic Romance and Gothic Architecture [of the twelfth century] is, so to speak, congenital and indigenous’. Gothic Quest, 189. This claim was echoed by Varma, Gothic Flame, 18, and Kilgour, Rise of the Gothic Novel, 11.

    101. McIntyre, ‘Were the “Gothic Novels” Gothic?’, 645.

    102. Miles, Ann Radcliffe, 87.

    103. Veeder, ‘Nurture of the Gothic’, 54–5; Punter, Gothic Pathologies, 2.

    104. For the classic study, see Hobsbawn and Ranger, Invention of Tradition.

    105. In Irish terms see Comerford, Ireland.

    106. Eliot, ‘Tradition and the Individual Talent’, 51.

    107. Baldick and Mighall, ‘Gothic Criticism’, 210.

    108. McCormack, From Burke to Beckett, 12.

    109. Ibid., 12.

    110. Ibid., 303.

    111. Ibid., 305.

    112. Ibid., 306. Introduction 33

    113. Haslam, ‘Irish Gothic: A Rhetorical Hermeneutics Approach’.

    114. Haslam, ‘“Broad Farce and Thrilling Tragedy”’, fn. 17.

    115. Indeed, bizarrely, Haslam points out that McCormack himself uses both the term ‘mode’ and the term ‘tradition’ in his studies. Most critics I have consulted do not see a conflict between the terms.

    116. Botting, Gothic, 14.

    117. Ibid., 14.

    118. Ibid., 16.

    119. Ibid., 21.

    120. Ibid., 115.

    121. Ibid., 175.

    122. McCormack, Burke to Beckett 12.

    123. Ibid., 12.

    124. Ibid., 303.

    125. McBrien, Catholicism, 62–3.

    126. Ibid., 62.

    127. Ricoeur, Time and Narrative, Vol. 1, p. 68.

    128. Shils, Tradition, 12–13.

    129. MacIntyre, After Virtue.

    130. Lloyd, Anomalous States, 125–62.

    131. This is a description Richard Haslam dismisses as ‘picturesque’ (and we know what he means by that). ‘Irish Gothic: A Rhetorical Hermeneutics Approach’.

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