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1.4: Beowulf

  • Page ID
    7726
  • Author unknown

    Manuscript from around 1000 ACE (from an earlier oral story)

    Beowulf survives in a single manuscript that was burned around the edges in a fire in 1741; without it, the story of the hero of the Geats would have been lost to history. It is impossible to know how long the oral story was in circulation before it was written down. The British manuscript is written mostly in a West Saxon dialect of Anglo- Saxon/Old English, although the main actions of the story take place in what would be modern- day Denmark and Sweden (see map). Saxon lands were just south of that area, in modern day northern Germany, so when the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes invaded Britain, leading to the creation of Angleland, or England, they brought with them stories of their previous homelands. There are some real people and historical events mentioned in Beowulf alongside the more legendary and literary elements of the story, although scholars have not found any historical reference to Beowulf himself.

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    The story can be divided into three major sections: the conflict with Grendel (a monster), which draws Beowulf to Hrothgar’s kingdom at the beginning of the story; the fight with Grendel’s (unnamed) mother; and Beowulf’s battle with the dragon years later. As those divisions suggest, heroic behavior drives the action, but the story also asks the audience to stop and consider what heroic behavior really is, sometimes by highlighting the opposite. When Hrothgar lectures Beowulf after Grendel dies (a passage referred to as Hrothgar’s sermon), he warns about the dangers of pride and seeking after fame, foreshadowing Beowulf’s death. This warning is appropriate for a warrior culture, but it also works as a reference to Christian values. The tensions in the story between the Germanic heroic code and Christian values are worth noting, since the clearly-pagan story was written down after the Saxons had begun to convert. The story records the past glories of the warrior culture within a (barely) Christian framework to justify preserving the story.

    The poem contains over three thousand lines, each consisting of alliterative half-lines separated by a caesura (a pause or gap), which is the standard format of Anglo-Saxon poetry (with the exception of the lyric poetry, all of the other works in this section follow the same pattern). Another standard feature of Anglo-Saxon (and Norse) writing is its use of kennings: a type of metaphor that takes a simple word, such as “ship,” and describes it figuratively in a compound phrase, such as “wave-rider.” The kennings “gold-friend” almost always refers to the leader of a band of warriors (perhaps a king, perhaps a war lord) who was expected to maintain his status and the loyalty of his men by distributing his accumulated wealth to them. The band of warriors, or comitatus, were expected to fight and die alongside their leader; the shame of not falling in battle by the side of your gold- friend is demonstrated near the end of Beowulf in the speech that Wiglaf gives to the other men. Many of the customs in the story require some explanation for a modern audience. Grendel is considered uncivilized for many reasons in the story, but one of them is that he does not pay wergild, or blood money, for the men that he kills. In order to avoid blood feuds between families, wergild would be paid to the family by the killer, at which point the feud would be (supposedly) ended. In Beowulf, there are nonetheless many moments when revenge is praised as a mark of loyalty and honor, even when the families were related by marriage. High-born women often were sent to marry into a rival or enemy family, in an attempt to bring the families together; these “peace-weavers,” however, more often than not found themselves caught in the middle when their families resumed their feuds. The song that the bard sings in honor of Beowulf’s triumph is about Hildeburh, the daughter of a Danish king and the wife of a Frisian king. As with all of the songs (or stories-within-the-story), it uses past events to foreshadow future events: in this instance, the fate of Wealhtheow’s sons. Far from being unrelated digressions, the songs enrich the story by placing the action in a larger context.

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    1.5.1 Beowulf

    Part I:

    Lo! the Spear-Danes’ glory through splendid achievements

    The folk-kings’ former fame we have heard of,

    How princes displayed then their prowess-in-battle.

    Oft Scyld the Scefing from scathers in numbers

    From many a people their mead-benches tore.

    Since first he found him friendless and wretched,

    The earl had had terror: comfort he got for it,

    Waxed ’neath the welkin, world-honor gained,

    Till all his neighbors o’er sea were compelled to

    Bow to his bidding and bring him their tribute:

    An excellent atheling! After was borne him

    A son and heir, young in his dwelling,

    Whom God-Father sent to solace the people.

    He had marked the misery malice had caused them,

    That reaved of their rulers they wretched had erstwhile

    Long been afflicted. The Lord, in requital,

    Wielder of Glory, with world-honor blessed him.

    Famed was Beowulf, far spread the glory

    Of Scyld’s great son in the lands of the Danemen.

    So the carle that is young, by kindnesses rendered

    The friends of his father, with fees in abundance

    Must be able to earn that when age approacheth

    Eager companions aid him requitingly,

    When war assaults him serve him as liegemen:

    By praise-worthy actions must honor be got

    ’Mong all of the races. At the hour that was fated

    Scyld then departed to the All-Father’s keeping

    Warlike to wend him; away then they bare him

    To the flood of the current, his fond-loving comrades,

    As himself he had bidden, while the friend of the Scyldings

    Word-sway wielded, and the well-lovèd land-prince

    Long did rule them. The ring-stemmèd vessel,

    Bark of the atheling, lay there at anchor,

    Icy in glimmer and eager for sailing;

    The belovèd leader laid they down there,

    Giver of rings, on the breast of the vessel,

    The famed by the mainmast. A many of jewels,

    Of fretted embossings, from far-lands brought over,

    Was placed near at hand then; and heard I not ever

    That a folk ever furnished a float more superbly

    With weapons of warfare, weeds for the battle,

    Bills and burnies; on his bosom sparkled

    Many a jewel that with him must travel

    On the flush of the flood afar on the current.

    And favors no fewer they furnished him soothly,

    Excellent folk-gems, than others had given him

    Who when first he was born outward did send him

    Lone on the main, the merest of infants:

    And a gold-fashioned standard they stretched under heaven

    High o’er his head, let the holm-currents bear him,

    Seaward consigned him: sad was their spirit,

    Their mood very mournful. Men are not able

    Soothly to tell us, they in halls who reside,

    Heroes under heaven, to what haven he hied.

    Part II

    In the boroughs then Beowulf, bairn of the Scyldings,

    Belovèd land-prince, for long-lasting season

    Was famed mid the folk (his father departed,

    The prince from his dwelling), till afterward sprang

    Great-minded Healfdene; the Danes in his lifetime

    He graciously governed, grim-mooded, agèd.

    Four bairns of his body born in succession

    Woke in the world, war-troopers’ leader

    Heorogar, Hrothgar, and Halga the good;

    Heard I that Elan was Ongentheow’s consort,

    The well-beloved bedmate of the War-Scylfing leader.

    Then glory in battle to Hrothgar was given,

    Waxing of war-fame, that willingly kinsmen

    Obeyed his bidding, till the boys grew to manhood,

    A numerous band. It burned in his spirit

    To urge his folk to found a great building,

    A mead-hall grander than men of the era

    Ever had heard of, and in it to share

    With young and old all of the blessings

    The Lord had allowed him, save life and retainers.

    Then the work I find afar was assigned

    To many races in middle-earth’s regions,

    To adorn the great folk-hall. In due time it happened

    Early ’mong men, that ’twas finished entirely,

    The greatest of hall-buildings; Heorot he named it

    Who wide-reaching word-sway wielded ’mong earlmen.

    His promise he brake not, rings he lavished,

    Treasure at banquet. Towered the hall up

    High and horn-crested, huge between antlers:

    It battle-waves bided, the blasting fire-demon;

    Ere long then from hottest hatred must sword-wrath

    Arise for a woman’s husband and father.

    Then the mighty war-spirit endured for a season,

    Bore it bitterly, he who bided in darkness,

    That light-hearted laughter loud in the building

    Greeted him daily; there was dulcet harp-music,

    Clear song of the singer. He said that was able

    To tell from of old earthmen’s beginnings,

    That Father Almighty earth had created,

    The winsome wold that the water encircleth,

    Set exultingly the sun’s and the moon’s beams

    To lavish their lustre on land-folk and races,

    And earth He embellished in all her regions

    With limbs and leaves; life He bestowed too

    On all the kindreds that live under heaven.

    So blessed with abundance, brimming with joyance,

    The warriors abided, till a certain one gan to

    Dog them with deeds of direfullest malice,

    A foe in the hall-building: this horrible stranger

    Was Grendel entitled, the march-stepper famous

    Who dwelt in the moor-fens, the marsh and the fastness; T

    he wan-mooded being abode for a season

    In the land of the giants, when the Lord and Creator

    Had banned him and branded. For that bitter murder,

    The killing of Abel, all-ruling Father

    The kindred of Cain crushed with His vengeance;

    In the feud He rejoiced not, but far away drove him

    From kindred and kind, that crime to atone for,

    Meter of Justice. Thence ill-favored creatures,

    Elves and giants, monsters of ocean,

    Came into being, and the giants that longtime

    Grappled with God; He gave them requital.

    Part III

    When the sun was sunken, he set out to visit

    The lofty hall-building, how the Ring-Danes had used it

    For beds and benches when the banquet was over.

    Then he found there reposing many a noble

    Asleep after supper; sorrow the heroes,

    Misery knew not. The monster of evil

    Greedy and cruel tarried but little,

    Fell and frantic, and forced from their slumbers

    Thirty of thanemen; thence he departed

    Leaping and laughing, his lair to return to,

    With surfeit of slaughter sallying homeward.

    In the dusk of the dawning, as the day was just breaking,

    Was Grendel’s prowess revealed to the warriors:

    Then, his meal-taking finished, a moan was uplifted,

    Morning-cry mighty. The man-ruler famous,

    The long-worthy atheling, sat very woful,

    Suffered great sorrow, sighed for his liegemen,

    When they had seen the track of the hateful pursuer,

    The spirit accursèd: too crushing that sorrow,

    Too loathsome and lasting. Not longer he tarried,

    But one night after continued his slaughter

    Shameless and shocking, shrinking but little

    From malice and murder; they mastered him fully.

    He was easy to find then who otherwhere looked for

    A pleasanter place of repose in the lodges,

    A bed in the bowers. Then was brought to his notice

    Told him truly by token apparent

    The hall-thane’s hatred: he held himself after

    Further and faster who the foeman did baffle.

    So ruled he and strongly strove against justice

    Lone against all men, till empty uptowered

    The choicest of houses. Long was the season:

    Twelve-winters’ time torture suffered

    The friend of the Scyldings, every affliction,

    Endless agony; hence it after became

    Certainly known to the children of men

    Sadly in measures, that long against Hrothgar

    Grendel struggled:—his grudges he cherished,

    Murderous malice, many a winter,

    Strife unremitting, and peacefully wished he

    Life-woe to lift from no liegeman at all of

    The men of the Dane-folk, for money to settle,

    No counsellor needed count for a moment

    On handsome amends at the hands of the murderer;

    The monster of evil fiercely did harass,

    The ill-planning death-shade, both elder and younger,

    Trapping and tricking them. He trod every night then

    The mist-covered moor-fens; men do not know where

    Witches and wizards wander and ramble.

    So the foe of mankind many of evils

    Grievous injuries, often accomplished,

    Horrible hermit; Heort he frequented,

    Gem-bedecked palace, when night-shades had fallen

    (Since God did oppose him, not the throne could he touch,

    The light-flashing jewel, love of Him knew not).

    ’Twas a fearful affliction to the friend of the Scyldings

    Soul-crushing sorrow. Not seldom in private

    Sat the king in his council; conference held they

    What the braves should determine ’gainst terrors unlooked for.

    At the shrines of their idols often they promised

    Gifts and offerings, earnestly prayed they

    The devil from hell would help them to lighten

    Their people’s oppression. Such practice they used then,

    Hope of the heathen; hell they remembered

    In innermost spirit, God they knew not,

    The true God they do not know.

    Judge of their actions, All-wielding Ruler,

    No praise could they give th Greedy and cruel tarried but little,

    Fell and frantic, and forced from their slumbers Thirty

    of thanemen; thence he departed Leaping and

    laughing, his lair to return to, With surfeit of

    slaughter sallying homeward.

    In the dusk of the dawning, as the day was just breaking, Was

    Grendel’s prowess revealed to the warriors:

    Part IV

    So Healfdene’s kinsman constantly mused on

    His long-lasting sorrow; the battle-thane clever

    Was not anywise able evils to ’scape from:

    Too crushing the sorrow that came to the people,

    Loathsome and lasting the life-grinding torture,

    Greatest of night-woes. So Higelac’s liegeman,

    Good amid Geatmen, of Grendel’s achievements

    Heard in his home: of heroes then living

    He was stoutest and strongest, sturdy and noble.

    He bade them prepare him a bark that was trusty;

    He said he the war-king would seek o’er the ocean,

    The folk-leader noble, since he needed retainers.

    For the perilous project prudent companions

    Chided him little, though loving him dearly;

    They egged the brave atheling, augured him glory.

    The excellent knight from the folk of the Geatmen

    Had liegemen selected, likest to prove them

    Trustworthy warriors; with fourteen companions

    The vessel he looked for; a liegeman then showed them,

    A sea-crafty man, the bounds of the country.

    Fast the days fleeted; the float was a-water,

    The craft by the cliff. Clomb to the prow then

    Well-equipped warriors: the wave-currents twisted

    The sea on the sand; soldiers then carried

    On the breast of the vessel bright-shining jewels,

    Handsome war-armor; heroes outshoved then,

    Warmen the wood-ship, on its wished-for adventure.

    The foamy-necked floater fanned by the breeze,

    Likest a bird, glided the waters,

    Till twenty and four hours thereafter

    The twist-stemmed vessel had traveled such distance

    That the sailing-men saw the sloping embankments,

    The sea cliffs gleaming, precipitous mountains,

    Nesses enormous: they were nearing the limits

    At the end of the ocean. Up thence quickly

    The men of the Weders clomb to the mainland,

    Fastened their vessel (battle weeds rattled,

    War burnies clattered), the Wielder they thanked

    That the ways o’er the waters had waxen so gentle.

    Then well from the cliff edge the guard of the Scyldings

    Who the sea-cliffs should see to, saw o’er the gangway

    Brave ones bearing beauteous targets,

    Armor all ready, anxiously thought he,

    Musing and wondering what men were approaching.

    High on his horse then Hrothgar’s retainer

    Turned him to coastward, mightily brandished

    His lance in his hands, questioned with boldness.

    “Who are ye men here, mail-covered warriors

    Clad in your corslets, come thus a-driving

    A high riding ship o’er the shoals of the waters,

    And hither ’neath helmets have hied o’er the ocean?

    I have been strand-guard, standing as warden,

    Lest enemies ever anywise ravage

    Danish dominions with army of war-ships.

    More boldly never have warriors ventured

    Hither to come; of kinsmen’s approval,

    Word-leave of warriors, I ween that ye surely

    Nothing have known. Never a greater one

    Of earls o’er the earth have I had a sight of

    Than is one of your number, a hero in armor;

    No low-ranking fellow adorned with his weapons,

    But launching them little, unless looks are deceiving,

    And striking appearance. Ere ye pass on your journey

    As treacherous spies to the land of the Scyldings

    And farther fare, I fully must know now

    What race ye belong to. Ye far-away dwellers,

    Sea-faring sailors, my simple opinion

    Hear ye and hearken: haste is most fitting

    Plainly to tell me what place ye are come from.”

    Part V

    The chief of the strangers rendered him answer,

    War-troopers’ leader, and word-treasure opened:

    “We are sprung from the lineage of the people of Geatland,

    And Higelac’s hearth-friends. To heroes unnumbered

    My father was known, a noble head-warrior

    Ecgtheow titled; many a winter

    He lived with the people, ere he passed on his journey,

    Old from his dwelling; each of the counsellors

    Widely mid world-folk well remembers him.

    We, kindly of spirit, the lord of thy people,

    The son of King Healfdene, have come here to visit,

    Folk-troop’s defender: be free in thy counsels!

    To the noble one bear we a weighty commission,

    The helm of the Danemen; we shall hide, I ween,

    Naught of our message. Thou know’st if it happen,

    As we soothly heard say, that some savage despoiler,

    Some hidden pursuer, on nights that are murky

    By deeds very direful ’mid the Danemen exhibits

    Hatred unheard of, horrid destruction

    And the falling of dead. From feelings least selfish

    I am able to render counsel to Hrothgar,

    How he, wise and worthy, may worst the destroyer,

    If the anguish of sorrow should ever be lessened,

    Comfort come to him, and care-waves grow cooler,

    Or ever hereafter he agony suffer

    And troublous distress, while towereth upward

    The handsomest of houses high on the summit.”

    Bestriding his stallion, the strand-watchman answered,

    The doughty retainer: “The difference surely

    ’Twixt words and works, the warlike shield-bearer

    Who judgeth wisely well shall determine.

    This band, I hear, beareth no malice

    To the prince of the Scyldings. Pass ye then onward

    With weapons and armor. I shall lead you in person;

    To my war-trusty vassals command I shall issue

    To keep from all injury your excellent vessel,

    Your fresh-tarred craft, ’gainst every opposer

    Close by the sea-shore, till the curved-neckèd bark shall

    Waft back again the well-beloved hero

    O’er the way of the water to Weder dominions.

    To warrior so great ’twill be granted sure

    In the storm of strife to stand secure.”

    Onward they fared then (the vessel lay quiet,

    The broad-bosomed bark was bound by its cable,

    Firmly at anchor); the boar-signs glistened

    Bright on the visors vivid with gilding,

    Blaze-hardened, brilliant; the boar acted warden.

    The heroes hastened, hurried the liegemen,

    Descended together, till they saw the great palace,

    The well-fashioned wassail-hall wondrous and gleaming:

    ’Mid world-folk and kindreds that was widest reputed

    Of halls under heaven which the hero abode in;

    Its lustre enlightened lands without number.

    Then the battle-brave hero showed them the glittering

    Court of the bold ones, that they easily thither

    Might fare on their journey; the aforementioned warrior

    Turning his courser, quoth as he left them:

    “’Tis time I were faring; Father Almighty

    Grant you His grace, and give you to journey

    Safe on your mission! To the sea I will get me

    ’Gainst hostile warriors as warden to stand.”

    Part VI

    The highway glistened with many-hued pebble,

    A by-path led the liegemen together.

    Firm and hand-locked the war-burnie glistened,

    The ring-sword radiant rang ’mid the armor

    As the party was approaching the palace together

    In warlike equipments. ’Gainst the wall of the building

    Their wide-fashioned war-shields they weary did set then,

    Battle-shields sturdy; benchward they turned then;

    Their battle-sarks rattled, the gear of the heroes;

    The lances stood up then, all in a cluster,

    The arms of the seamen, ashen-shafts mounted

    With edges of iron: the armor-clad troopers

    Were decked with weapons. Then a proud-mooded hero

    Asked of the champions questions of lineage:

    “From what borders bear ye your battle-shields plated,

    Gilded and gleaming, your gray-colored burnies,

    Helmets with visors and heap of war-lances?—

    To Hrothgar the king I am servant and liegeman.

    ’Mong folk from far-lands found I have never

    Men so many of mien more courageous.

    I ween that from valor, nowise as outlaws,

    But from greatness of soul ye sought for King Hrothgar.”

    Then the strength-famous earlman answer rendered,

    The proud-mooded Wederchief replied to his question,

    Hardy ’neath helmet: “Higelac’s mates are we;

    Beowulf hight I. To the bairn of Healfdene,

    The famous folk-leader, I freely will tell

    To thy prince my commission, if pleasantly hearing

    He’ll grant we may greet him so gracious to all men.”

    Wulfgar replied then (he was prince of the Wendels,

    His boldness of spirit was known unto many,

    His prowess and prudence): “The prince of the Scyldings,

    The friend-lord of Danemen, I will ask of thy journey,

    The giver of rings, as thou urgest me do it,

    The folk-chief famous, and inform thee early

    What answer the good one mindeth to render me.”

    He turned then hurriedly where Hrothgar was sitting,

    Old and hoary, his earlmen attending him;

    The strength-famous went till he stood at the shoulder

    Of the lord of the Danemen, of courteous thanemen

    The custom he minded. Wulfgar addressed then

    His friendly liegelord: “Folk of the Geatmen

    O’er the way of the waters are wafted hither,

    Faring from far-lands: the foremost in rank

    The battle-champions Beowulf title.

    They make this petition: with thee, O my chieftain,

    To be granted a conference; O gracious King Hrothgar,

    Friendly answer refuse not to give them!

    In war-trappings weeded worthy they seem

    Of earls to be honored; sure the atheling is doughty

    Who headed the heroes hitherward coming.”

    Part VII

    Hrothgar answered, helm of the Scyldings:

    “I remember this man as the merest of striplings.

    His father long dead now was Ecgtheow titled,

    Him Hrethel the Geatman granted at home his

    One only daughter; his battle-brave son

    Is come but now, sought a trustworthy friend.

    Seafaring sailors asserted it then,

    Who valuable gift-gems of the Geatmen carried

    As peace-offering thither, that he thirty men’s grapple

    Has in his hand, the hero-in-battle.

    The holy Creator usward sent him,

    To West-Dane warriors, I ween, for to render

    ’Gainst Grendel’s grimness gracious assistance:

    I shall give to the good one gift-gems for courage.

    Hasten to bid them hither to speed them,

    To see assembled this circle of kinsmen;

    Tell them expressly they’re welcome in sooth to

    The men of the Danes.” To the door of the building

    Wulfgar went then, this word-message shouted:

    “My victorious liegelord bade me to tell you,

    The East-Danes’ atheling, that your origin knows he,

    And o’er wave-billows wafted ye welcome are hither,

    Valiant of spirit. Ye straightway may enter

    Clad in corslets, cased in your helmets,

    To see King Hrothgar. Here let your battle-boards,

    Wood-spears and war-shafts, await your conferring.”

    The mighty one rose then, with many a liegeman,

    An excellent thane-group; some there did await them,

    And as bid of the brave one the battle-gear guarded.

    Together they hied them, while the hero did guide them,

    ’Neath Heorot’s roof; the high-minded went then

    Sturdy ’neath helmet till he stood in the building.

    Beowulf spake (his burnie did glisten,

    His armor seamed over by the art of the craftsman):

    “Hail thou, Hrothgar! I am Higelac’s kinsman

    And vassal forsooth; many a wonder

    I dared as a stripling. The doings of Grendel,

    In far-off fatherland I fully did know of:

    Sea-farers tell us, this hall-building standeth,

    Excellent edifice, empty and useless

    To all the earlmen after evenlight’s glimmer

    ’Neath heaven’s bright hues hath hidden its glory.

    This my earls then urged me, the most excellent of them,

    Carles very clever, to come and assist thee,

    Folk-leader Hrothgar; fully they knew of

    The strength of my body. Themselves they beheld me

    When I came from the contest, when covered with gore

    Foes I escaped from, where five I had bound,

    The giant-race wasted, in the waters destroying

    The nickers by night, bore numberless sorrows,

    The Weders avenged (woes had they suffered)

    Enemies ravaged; alone now with Grendel

    I shall manage the matter, with the monster of evil,

    The giant, decide it. Thee I would therefore

    Beg of thy bounty, Bright-Danish chieftain,

    Lord of the Scyldings, this single petition:

    Not to refuse me, defender of warriors,

    Friend-lord of folks, so far have I sought thee,

    That I may unaided, my earlmen assisting me,

    This brave-mooded war-band, purify Heorot.

    I have heard on inquiry, the horrible creature

    From veriest rashness recks not for weapons;

    I this do scorn then, so be Higelac gracious,

    My liegelord belovèd, lenient of spirit,

    To bear a blade or a broad-fashioned target,

    A shield to the onset; only with hand-grip

    The foe I must grapple, fight for my life then,

    Foeman with foeman; he fain must rely on

    The doom of the Lord whom death layeth hold of.

    I ween he will wish, if he win in the struggle,

    To eat in the war-hall earls of the Geat-folk,

    Boldly to swallow them, as of yore he did often

    The best of the Hrethmen! Thou needest not trouble

    A head-watch to give me; he will have me dripping

    And dreary with gore, if death overtake me,

    Will bear me off bleeding, biting and mouthing me,

    The hermit will eat me, heedless of pity,

    Marking the moor-fens; no more wilt thou need then

    Should I fall, send my armor to my lord, King Higelac.

    Find me my food. If I fall in the battle,

    Send to Higelac the armor that serveth

    To shield my bosom, the best of equipments,

    Richest of ring-mails; ’tis the relic of Hrethla,

    The work of Wayland. Goes Weird as she must go!”

    Part VIII

    Hrothgar discoursed, helm of the Scyldings:

    “To defend our folk and to furnish assistance,

    Thou soughtest us hither, good friend Beowulf.

    The fiercest of feuds thy father engaged in,

    Heatholaf killed he in hand-to-hand conflict

    ’Mid Wilfingish warriors; then the Wederish people

    For fear of a feud were forced to disown him.

    Thence flying he fled to the folk of the South-Danes,

    The race of the Scyldings, o’er the roll of the waters;

    I had lately begun then to govern the Danemen,

    The hoard-seat of heroes held in my youth,

    Rich in its jewels: dead was Heregar,

    My kinsman and elder had earth-joys forsaken,

    Healfdene his bairn. He was better than I am!

    That feud thereafter for a fee I compounded;

    O’er the weltering waters to the Wilfings I sent

    Ornaments old; oaths did he swear me.

    It pains me in spirit to any to tell it,

    What grief in Heorot Grendel hath caused me,

    What horror unlooked-for, by hatred unceasing.

    Waned is my war-band, wasted my hall-troop;

    Weird hath offcast them to the clutches of Grendel.

    God can easily hinder the scather

    From deeds so direful. Oft drunken with beer

    O’er the ale-vessel promised warriors in armor

    They would willingly wait on the wassailing-benches

    A grapple with Grendel, with grimmest of edges.

    Then this mead-hall at morning with murder was reeking,

    The building was bloody at breaking of daylight,

    The bench-deals all flooded, dripping and bloodied,

    The folk-hall was gory: I had fewer retainers,

    Dear-beloved warriors, whom death had laid hold of.

    Sit at the feast now, thy intents unto heroes,

    Thy victor-fame show, as thy spirit doth urge thee!”

    For the men of the Geats then together assembled,

    In the beer-hall blithesome a bench was made ready;

    There warlike in spirit they went to be seated,

    Proud and exultant. A liegeman did service,

    Who a beaker embellished bore with decorum,

    And gleaming-drink poured. The gleeman sang whilom

    Hearty in Heorot; there was heroes’ rejoicing,

    A numerous war-band of Weders and Danemen.

    Part IX

    Unferth spoke up, Ecglaf his son,

    Who sat at the feet of the lord of the Scyldings,

    Opened the jousting (the journey of Beowulf,

    Sea-farer doughty, gave sorrow to Unferth

    And greatest chagrin, too, for granted he never

    That any man else on earth should attain to,

    Gain under heaven, more glory than he):

    “Art thou that Beowulf with Breca did struggle,

    On the wide sea-currents at swimming contended,

    Where to humor your pride the ocean ye tried,

    From vainest vaunting adventured your bodies

    In care of the waters? And no one was able

    Nor lief nor loth one, in the least to dissuade you

    Your difficult voyage; then ye ventured a-swimming,

    Where your arms outstretching the streams ye did cover,

    The mere-ways measured, mixing and stirring them,

    Glided the ocean; angry the waves were,

    With the weltering of winter. In the water’s possession,

    Ye toiled for a seven-night; he at swimming outdid thee,

    In strength excelled thee. Then early at morning

    On the Heathoremes’ shore the holm-currents tossed him,

    Sought he thenceward the home of his fathers,

    Beloved of his liegemen, the land of the Brondings,

    The peace-castle pleasant, where a people he wielded,

    Had borough and jewels. The pledge that he made thee

    The son of Beanstan hath soothly accomplished.

    Then I ween thou wilt find thee less fortunate issue,

    Though ever triumphant in onset of battle,

    A grim grappling, if Grendel thou darest

    For the space of a night near-by to wait for!”

    Beowulf answered, offspring of Ecgtheow:

    “My good friend Unferth, sure freely and wildly,

    Thou fuddled with beer of Breca hast spoken,

    Hast told of his journey! A fact I allege it,

    That greater strength in the waters I had then,

    Ills in the ocean, than any man else had.

    We made agreement as the merest of striplings

    Promised each other (both of us then were

    Younkers in years) that we yet would adventure

    Out on the ocean; it all we accomplished.

    While swimming the sea-floods, sword-blade unscabbarded

    Boldly we brandished, our bodies expected

    To shield from the sharks. He sure was unable

    To swim on the waters further than I could,

    More swift on the waves, nor would I from him go.

    Then we two companions stayed in the ocean

    Five nights together, till the currents did part us,

    The weltering waters, weathers the bleakest,

    And nethermost night, and the north-wind whistled

    Fierce in our faces; fell were the billows.

    The mere fishes’ mood was mightily ruffled:

    And there against foemen my firm-knotted corslet,

    Hand-jointed, hardy, help did afford me;

    My battle-sark braided, brilliantly gilded,

    Lay on my bosom. To the bottom then dragged me,

    A hateful fiend-scather, seized me and held me,

    Grim in his grapple: ’twas granted me, nathless,

    To pierce the monster with the point of my weapon,

    My obedient blade; battle offcarried

    The mighty mere-creature by means of my hand-blow.

    Part X

    “So ill-meaning enemies often did cause me

    Sorrow the sorest. I served them, in quittance,

    With my dear-lovèd sword, as in sooth it was fitting;

    They missed the pleasure of feasting abundantly,

    Ill-doers evil, of eating my body,

    Of surrounding the banquet deep in the ocean;

    But wounded with edges early at morning

    They were stretched a-high on the strand of the ocean,

    Put to sleep with the sword, that sea-going travelers

    No longer thereafter were hindered from sailing

    The foam-dashing currents. Came a light from the east,

    God’s beautiful beacon; the billows subsided,

    That well I could see the nesses projecting,

    The blustering crags. Weird often saveth

    The undoomed hero if doughty his valor!

    But me did it fortune to fell with my weapon

    Nine of the nickers. Of night-struggle harder

    ’Neath dome of the heaven heard I but rarely,

    Nor of wight more woful in the waves of the ocean;

    Yet I ’scaped with my life the grip of the monsters,

    Weary from travel. Then the waters bare me

    To the land of the Finns, the flood with the current,

    The weltering waves. Not a word hath been told me

    Of deeds so daring done by thee, Unferth,

    And of sword-terror none; never hath Breca

    At the play of the battle, nor either of you two,

    Feat so fearless performèd with weapons

    Glinting and gleaming . . . . . . . . . . . .

    . . . . . . . . . . . . I utter no boasting;

    Though with cold-blooded cruelty thou killedst thy brothers,

    Thy nearest of kin; thou needs must in hell get

    Direful damnation, though doughty thy wisdom.

    I tell thee in earnest, offspring of Ecglaf,

    Never had Grendel such numberless horrors,

    The direful demon, done to thy liegelord,

    Harrying in Heorot, if thy heart were as sturdy,

    Thy mood as ferocious as thou dost describe them.

    He hath found out fully that the fierce-burning hatred,

    The edge-battle eager, of all of your kindred,

    Of the Victory-Scyldings, need little dismay him:

    Oaths he exacteth, not any he spares

    Of the folk of the Danemen, but fighteth with pleasure,

    Killeth and feasteth, no contest expecteth

    From Spear-Danish people. But the prowess and valor

    Of the earls of the Geatmen early shall venture

    To give him a grapple. He shall go who is able

    Bravely to banquet, when the bright-light of morning

    Which the second day bringeth, the sun in its ether-robes,

    O’er children of men shines from the southward!”

    Then the gray-haired, war-famed giver of treasure

    Was blithesome and joyous, the Bright-Danish ruler

    Expected assistance; the people’s protector

    Heard from Beowulf his bold resolution.

    There was laughter of heroes; loud was the clatter,

    The words were winsome. Wealhtheow advanced then,

    Consort of Hrothgar, of courtesy mindful,

    Gold-decked saluted the men in the building,

    And the freeborn woman the beaker presented

    To the lord of the kingdom, first of the East-Danes,

    Bade him be blithesome when beer was a-flowing,

    Lief to his liegemen; he lustily tasted

    Of banquet and beaker, battle-famed ruler.

    The Helmingish lady then graciously circled

    ’Mid all the liegemen lesser and greater:

    Treasure-cups tendered, till time was afforded

    That the decorous-mooded, diademed folk-queen

    Might bear to Beowulf the bumper o’errunning;

    She greeted the Geat-prince, God she did thank,

    Most wise in her words, that her wish was accomplished

    That in any of earlmen she ever should look for

    Solace in sorrow. He accepted the beaker,

    Battle-bold warrior, at Wealhtheow’s giving,

    Then equipped for combat quoth he in measures,

    Beowulf spake, offspring of Ecgtheow:

    “I purposed in spirit when I mounted the ocean,

    When I boarded my boat with a band of my liegemen,

    I would work to the fullest the will of your people

    Or in foe’s-clutches fastened fall in the battle.

    Deeds I shall do of daring and prowess,

    Or the last of my life-days live in this mead-hall.”

    These words to the lady were welcome and pleasing,

    The boast of the Geatman; with gold trappings broidered

    Went the freeborn folk-queen her fond-lord to sit by.

    Then again as of yore was heard in the building

    Courtly discussion, conquerors’ shouting,

    Heroes were happy, till Healfdene’s son would

    Go to his slumber to seek for refreshing;

    For the horrid hell-monster in the hall-building knew he

    A fight was determined, since the light of the sun they

    No longer could see, and lowering darkness

    O’er all had descended, and dark under heaven

    Shadowy shapes came shying around them.

    The liegemen all rose then. One saluted the other,

    Hrothgar Beowulf, in rhythmical measures,

    Wishing him well, and, the wassail-hall giving

    To his care and keeping, quoth he departing:

    “Not to any one else have I ever entrusted,

    But thee and thee only, the hall of the Danemen,

    Since high I could heave my hand and my buckler.

    Take thou in charge now the noblest of houses;

    Be mindful of honor, exhibiting prowess,

    Watch ’gainst the foeman! Thou shalt want no enjoyments,

    Survive thou safely adventure so glorious!”

    Part XI

    Then Hrothgar departed, his earl-throng attending him,

    Folk-lord of Scyldings, forth from the building;

    The war-chieftain wished then Wealhtheow to look for,

    The queen for a bedmate. To keep away Grendel

    The Glory of Kings had given a hall-watch,

    As men heard recounted: for the king of the Danemen

    He did special service, gave the giant a watcher:

    And the prince of the Geatmen implicitly trusted

    His warlike strength and the Wielder’s protection.

    His armor of iron off him he did then,

    His helmet from his head, to his henchman committed

    His chased-handled chain-sword, choicest of weapons,

    And bade him bide with his battle-equipments.

    The good one then uttered words of defiance,

    Beowulf Geatman, ere his bed he upmounted:

    “I hold me no meaner in matters of prowess,

    In warlike achievements, than Grendel does himself;

    Hence I seek not with sword-edge to sooth him to slumber,

    Of life to bereave him, though well I am able.

    No battle-skill has he, that blows he should strike me,

    To shatter my shield, though sure he is mighty

    In strife and destruction; but struggling by night we

    Shall do without edges, dare he to look for

    Weaponless warfare, and wise-mooded Father

    The glory apportion, God ever-holy,

    On which hand soever to him seemeth proper.”

    Then the brave-mooded hero bent to his slumber,

    The pillow received the cheek of the noble;

    And many a martial mere-thane attending

    Sank to his slumber. Seemed it unlikely

    That ever thereafter any should hope to

    Be happy at home, hero-friends visit

    Or the lordly troop-castle where he lived from his childhood;

    They had heard how slaughter had snatched from the wine-hall

    Had recently ravished, of the race of the Scyldings

    Too many by far. But the Lord to them granted

    The weaving of war-speed, to Wederish heroes

    Aid and comfort, that every opponent

    By one man’s war-might they worsted and vanquished,

    By the might of himself; the truth is established

    That God Almighty hath governed for ages

    Kindreds and nations. A night very lurid

    The trav’ler-at-twilight came tramping and striding.

    The warriors were sleeping who should watch the horned-building,

    One only excepted. ’Mid earthmen ’twas ’stablished,

    Th’ implacable foeman was powerless to hurl them

    To the land of shadows, if the Lord were unwilling;

    But serving as warder, in terror to foemen,

    He angrily bided the issue of battle.

    Part XII

    ’Neath the cloudy cliffs came from the moor then

    Grendel going, God’s anger bare he.

    The monster intended some one of earthmen

    In the hall-building grand to entrap and make way with:

    He went under welkin where well he knew of

    The wine-joyous building, brilliant with plating,

    Gold-hall of earthmen. Not the earliest occasion

    He the home and manor of Hrothgar had sought:

    Ne’er found he in life-days later nor earlier

    Hardier hero, hall-thanes more sturdy!

    Then came to the building the warrior marching,

    Bereft of his joyance. The door quickly opened

    On fire-hinges fastened, when his fingers had touched it;

    The fell one had flung then—his fury so bitter—

    Open the entrance. Early thereafter

    The foeman trod the shining hall-pavement,

    Strode he angrily; from the eyes of him glimmered

    A lustre unlovely likest to fire.

    He beheld in the hall the heroes in numbers,

    A circle of kinsmen sleeping together,

    A throng of thanemen: then his thoughts were exultant, He minded to sunder from each of the thanemen

    The life from his body, horrible demon,

    Ere morning came, since fate had allowed him

    The prospect of plenty. Providence willed not

    To permit him any more of men under heaven

    To eat in the night-time. Higelac’s kinsman

    Great sorrow endured how the dire-mooded creature

    In unlooked-for assaults were likely to bear him.

    No thought had the monster of deferring the matter,

    But on earliest occasion he quickly laid hold of

    A soldier asleep, suddenly tore him,

    Bit his bone-prison, the blood drank in currents,

    Swallowed in mouthfuls: he soon had the dead man’s

    Feet and hands, too, eaten entirely.

    Nearer he strode then, the stout-hearted warrior

    Snatched as he slumbered, seizing with hand-grip,

    Forward the foeman foined with his hand;

    Caught he quickly the cunning deviser,

    On his elbow he rested. This early discovered

    The master of malice, that in middle-earth’s regions,

    ’Neath the whole of the heavens, no hand-grapple greater

    In any man else had he ever encountered:

    Fearful in spirit, faint-mooded waxed he,

    Not off could betake him; death he was pondering,

    Would fly to his covert, seek the devils’ assembly:

    His calling no more was the same he had followed

    Long in his lifetime. The liege-kinsman worthy

    Of Higelac minded his speech of the evening,

    Stood he up straight and stoutly did seize him.

    His fingers crackled; the giant was outward,

    The earl stepped farther. The famous one minded

    To flee away farther, if he found an occasion,

    And off and away, avoiding delay,

    To fly to the fen-moors; he fully was ware of

    The strength of his grapple in the grip of the foeman.

    ’Twas an ill-taken journey that the injury-bringing,

    Harrying harmer to Heorot wandered:

    The palace re-echoed; to all of the Danemen,

    Dwellers in castles, to each of the bold ones,

    Earlmen, was terror. Angry they both were,

    Archwarders raging. Rattled the building;

    ’Twas a marvellous wonder that the wine-hall withstood then

    The bold-in-battle, bent not to earthward,

    Excellent earth-hall; but within and without it

    Was fastened so firmly in fetters of iron,

    By the art of the armorer. Off from the sill there

    Bent mead-benches many, as men have informed me,

    Adorned with gold-work, where the grim ones did struggle.

    The Scylding wise men weened ne’er before

    That by might and main-strength a man under heaven

    Might break it in pieces, bone-decked, resplendent,

    Crush it by cunning, unless clutch of the fire

    In smoke should consume it. The sound mounted upward

    Novel enough; on the North Danes fastened

    A terror of anguish, on all of the men there

    Who heard from the wall the weeping and plaining,

    The song of defeat from the foeman of heaven,

    Heard him hymns of horror howl, and his sorrow

    Hell-bound bewailing. He held him too firmly

    Who was strongest of main-strength of men of that era.

    Part XIII

    For no cause whatever would the earlmen’s defender

    Leave in life-joys the loathsome newcomer,

    He deemed his existence utterly useless

    To men under heaven. Many a noble

    Of Beowulf brandished his battle-sword old,

    Would guard the life of his lord and protector,

    The far-famous chieftain, if able to do so;

    While waging the warfare, this wist they but little,

    Brave battle-thanes, while his body intending

    To slit into slivers, and seeking his spirit:

    That the relentless foeman nor finest of weapons

    Of all on the earth, nor any of war-bills

    Was willing to injure; but weapons of victory

    Swords and suchlike he had sworn to dispense with.

    His death at that time must prove to be wretched,

    And the far-away spirit widely should journey

    Into enemies’ power. This plainly he saw then

    Who with mirth of mood malice no little

    Had wrought in the past on the race of the earthmen

    (To God he was hostile), that his body would fail him,

    But Higelac’s hardy henchman and kinsman

    Held him by the hand; hateful to other

    Was each one if living. A body-wound suffered

    The direful demon, damage incurable

    Was seen on his shoulder, his sinews were shivered,

    His body did burst. To Beowulf was given

    Glory in battle; Grendel from thenceward

    Must flee and hide him in the fen-cliffs and marshes,

    Sick unto death, his dwelling must look for

    Unwinsome and woful; he wist the more fully

    The monster flees away to hide in the moors.

    The end of his earthly existence was nearing,

    His life-days’ limits. At last for the Danemen,

    When the slaughter was over, their wish was accomplished.

    The comer-from-far-land had cleansed then of evil,

    Wise and valiant, the war-hall of Hrothgar,

    Saved it from violence. He joyed in the night-work,

    In repute for prowess; the prince of the Geatmen

    For the East-Danish people his boast had accomplished,

    Bettered their burdensome bale-sorrows fully,

    The craft-begot evil they erstwhile had suffered

    And were forced to endure from crushing oppression,

    Their manifold misery. ’Twas a manifest token,

    When the hero-in-battle the hand suspended,

    The arm and the shoulder (there was all of the claw

    Of Grendel together) ’neath great-stretching hall-roof.

    Part XIV

    In the mist of the morning many a warrior

    Stood round the gift-hall, as the story is told me:

    Folk-princes fared then from far and from near

    Through long-stretching journeys to look at the wonder,

    The footprints of the foeman. Few of the warriors

    Who gazed on the foot-tracks of the inglorious creature

    His parting from life pained very deeply,

    How, weary in spirit, off from those regions

    In combats conquered he carried his traces,

    Fated and flying, to the flood of the nickers.

    There in bloody billows bubbled the currents,

    The angry eddy was everywhere mingled

    And seething with gore, welling with sword-blood;

    He death-doomed had hid him, when reaved of his joyance

    He laid down his life in the lair he had fled to,

    His heathenish spirit, where hell did receive him.

    Thence the friends from of old backward turned them,

    And many a younker from merry adventure,

    Striding their stallions, stout from the seaward,

    Heroes on horses. There were heard very often

    Beowulf’s praises; many often asserted

    That neither south nor north, in the circuit of waters,

    O’er outstretching earth-plain, none other was better

    ’Mid bearers of war-shields, more worthy to govern,

    ’Neath the arch of the ether. Not any, however,

    ’Gainst the friend-lord muttered, mocking-words uttered

    Of Hrothgar the gracious (a good king he).

    Oft the famed ones permitted their fallow-skinned horses

    To run in rivalry, racing and chasing,

    Where the fieldways appeared to them fair and inviting,

    Known for their excellence; oft a thane of the folk-lord,

    A man of celebrity, mindful of rhythms,

    Who ancient traditions treasured in memory,

    New word-groups found properly bound:

    The bard after ’gan then Beowulf’s venture

    Wisely to tell of, and words that were clever

    To utter skilfully, earnestly speaking,

    Everything told he that he heard as to Sigmund’s

    Mighty achievements, many things hidden,

    The strife of the Wælsing, the wide-going ventures

    The children of men knew of but little,

    The feud and the fury, but Fitela with him,

    When suchlike matters he minded to speak of,

    Uncle to nephew, as in every contention

    Each to other was ever devoted:

    A numerous host of the race of the scathers

    They had slain with the sword-edge. To Sigmund accrued then

    No little of glory, when his life-days were over,

    Since he sturdy in struggle had destroyed the great dragon,

    The hoard-treasure’s keeper; ’neath the hoar-grayish stone he,

    The son of the atheling, unaided adventured

    The perilous project; not present was Fitela,

    Yet the fortune befell him of forcing his weapon

    Through the marvellous dragon, that it stood in the wall,

    Well-honored weapon; the worm was slaughtered.

    The great one had gained then by his glorious achievement

    To reap from the ring-hoard richest enjoyment,

    As best it did please him: his vessel he loaded,

    Shining ornaments on the ship’s bosom carried,

    Kinsman of Wæls: the drake in heat melted.

    He was farthest famed of fugitive pilgrims,

    Mid wide-scattered world-folk, for works of great prowess,

    War-troopers’ shelter: hence waxed he in honor.4

    Afterward Heremod’s hero-strength failed him,

    His vigor and valor. ’Mid venomous haters

    To the hands of foemen he was foully delivered,

    Offdriven early. Agony-billows

    Oppressed him too long, to his people he became then,

    To all the athelings, an ever-great burden;

    And the daring one’s journey in days of yore

    Many wise men were wont to deplore,

    Such as hoped he would bring them help in their sorrow,

    That the son of their ruler should rise into power,

    Holding the headship held by his fathers,

    Should govern the people, the gold-hoard and borough,

    The kingdom of heroes, the realm of the Scyldings.

    He to all men became then far more beloved,

    Higelac’s kinsman, to kindreds and races,

    To his friends much dearer; him malice assaulted.—

    Oft running and racing on roadsters they measured

    The dun-colored highways. Then the light of the morning

    Was hurried and hastened. Went henchmen in numbers

    To the beautiful building, bold ones in spirit,

    To look at the wonder; the liegelord himself then

    From his wife-bower wending, warden of treasures,

    Glorious trod with troopers unnumbered,

    Famed for his virtues, and with him the queen-wife

    Measured the mead-ways, with maidens attending.

    Part XV

    Hrothgar discoursed (to the hall-building went he,

    He stood by the pillar, saw the steep-rising hall-roof

    Gleaming with gold-gems, and Grendel his hand there):

    “For the sight we behold now, thanks to the Wielder

    Early be offered! Much evil I bided,

    Snaring from Grendel: God can e’er ’complish

    Wonder on wonder, Wielder of Glory!

    But lately I reckoned ne’er under heaven

    Comfort to gain me for any of sorrows,

    While the handsomest of houses horrid with bloodstain

    Gory uptowered; grief had offfrightened

    Each of the wise ones who weened not that ever

    The folk-troop’s defences ’gainst foes they should strengthen,

    ’Gainst sprites and monsters. Through the might of the Wielder

    A doughty retainer hath a deed now accomplished

    Which erstwhile we all with our excellent wisdom

    Failed to perform. May affirm very truly

    What woman soever in all of the nations

    Gave birth to the child, if yet she surviveth,

    That the long-ruling Lord was lavish to herward

    In the birth of the bairn. Now, Beowulf dear,

    Most excellent hero, I’ll love thee in spirit

    As bairn of my body; bear well henceforward

    The relationship new. No lack shall befall thee

    Of earth-joys any I ever can give thee.

    Full often for lesser service I’ve given

    Hero less hardy hoard-treasure precious,

    To a weaker in war-strife. By works of distinction

    Thou hast gained for thyself now that thy glory shall flourish

    Forever and ever. The All-Ruler quite thee

    With good from His hand as He hitherto did thee!”

    Beowulf answered, Ecgtheow’s offspring:

    “That labor of glory most gladly achieved we,

    The combat accomplished, unquailing we ventured

    The enemy’s grapple; I would grant it much rather

    Thou wert able to look at the creature in person,

    Faint unto falling, the foe in his trappings!

    On murder-bed quickly I minded to bind him,

    With firm-holding fetters, that forced by my grapple

    Low he should lie in life-and-death struggle

    ’Less his body escape; I was wholly unable,

    Since God did not will it, to keep him from going,

    Not held him that firmly, hated opposer;

    Too swift was the foeman. Yet safety regarding

    He suffered his hand behind him to linger,

    His arm and shoulder, to act as watcher;

    No shadow of solace the woe-begone creature

    Found him there nathless: the hated destroyer

    Liveth no longer, lashed for his evils,

    But sorrow hath seized him, in snare-meshes hath him

    Close in its clutches, keepeth him writhing

    In baleful bonds: there banished for evil

    The man shall wait for the mighty tribunal,

    How the God of glory shall give him his earnings.”

    Then the soldier kept silent, son of old Ecglaf,

    From boasting and bragging of battle-achievements,

    Since the princes beheld there the hand that depended

    ’Neath the lofty hall-timbers by the might of the nobleman, Each one before him, the enemy’s fingers;

    Each finger-nail strong steel most resembled,

    The heathen one’s hand-spur, the hero-in-battle’s

    Claw most uncanny; quoth they agreeing,

    That not any excellent edges of brave ones

    Was willing to touch him, the terrible creature’s

    Battle-hand bloody to bear away from him.

    Part XVI

    Then straight was ordered that Heorot inside

    With hands be embellished: a host of them gathered,

    Of men and women, who the wassailing-building

    The guest-hall begeared. Gold-flashing sparkled

    Webs on the walls then, of wonders a many

    To each of the heroes that look on such objects.

    The beautiful building was broken to pieces

    Which all within with irons was fastened,

    Its hinges torn off: only the roof was

    Whole and uninjured when the horrible creature

    Outlawed for evil off had betaken him,

    Hopeless of living. ’Tis hard to avoid it

    (Whoever will do it!); but he doubtless must come to The place awaiting, as Wyrd hath appointed,

    Soul-bearers, earth-dwellers, earls under heaven,

    Where bound on its bed his body shall slumber

    When feasting is finished. Full was the time then

    That the son of Healfdene went to the building;

    The excellent atheling would eat of the banquet.

    Ne’er heard I that people with hero-band larger

    Bare them better tow’rds their bracelet-bestower.

    The laden-with-glory stooped to the bench then

    (Their kinsmen-companions in plenty were joyful,

    Many a cupful quaffing complaisantly),

    Doughty of spirit in the high-tow’ring palace,

    Hrothgar and Hrothulf. Heorot then inside

    Was filled with friendly ones; falsehood and treachery

    The Folk-Scyldings now nowise did practise.

    Then the offspring of Healfdene offered to Beowulf

    A golden standard, as reward for the victory,

    A banner embossed, burnie and helmet;

    Many men saw then a song-famous weapon

    Borne ’fore the hero. Beowulf drank of

    The cup in the building; that treasure-bestowing

    He needed not blush for in battle-men’s presence.

    Ne’er heard I that many men on the ale-bench

    In friendlier fashion to their fellows presented

    Four bright jewels with gold-work embellished.

    ’Round the roof of the helmet a head-guarder outside

    Braided with wires, with bosses was furnished,

    That swords-for-the-battle fight-hardened might fail

    Boldly to harm him, when the hero proceeded

    Forth against foemen. The defender of earls then

    Commanded that eight steeds with bridles

    Gold-plated, gleaming, be guided to hallward,

    Inside the building; on one of them stood then

    An art-broidered saddle embellished with jewels;

    ’Twas the sovereign’s seat, when the son of King Healfdene

    Was pleased to take part in the play of the edges;

    The famous one’s valor ne’er failed at the front when

    Slain ones were bowing. And to Beowulf granted

    The prince of the Ingwins, power over both,

    O’er war-steeds and weapons; bade him well to enjoy them.

    In so manly a manner the mighty-famed chieftain,

    Hoard-ward of heroes, with horses and jewels

    War-storms requited, that none e’er condemneth

    Who willeth to tell truth with full justice.

    Part XVII

    And the atheling of earlmen to each of the heroes

    Who the ways of the waters went with Beowulf,

    A costly gift-token gave on the mead-bench,

    Offered an heirloom, and ordered that that man

    The warrior killed by Grendel is to be paid for in gold.

    With gold should be paid for, whom Grendel had erstwhile

    Wickedly slaughtered, as he more of them had done

    Had far-seeing God and the mood of the hero

    The fate not averted: the Father then governed

    All of the earth-dwellers, as He ever is doing;

    Hence insight for all men is everywhere fittest,

    Forethought of spirit! much he shall suffer

    Of lief and of loathsome who long in this present

    Useth the world in this woful existence.

    There was music and merriment mingling together

    Touching Healfdene’s leader; the joy-wood was fingered,

    Measures recited, when the singer of Hrothgar

    On mead-bench should mention the merry hall-joyance

    Of the kinsmen of Finn, when onset surprised them:

    “The Half-Danish hero, Hnæf of the Scyldings,

    On the field of the Frisians was fated to perish.

    Sure Hildeburg needed not mention approving

    The faith of the Jutemen: though blameless entirely,

    When shields were shivered she was shorn of her darlings,

    Of bairns and brothers: they bent to their fate

    With war-spear wounded; woe was that woman.

    Not causeless lamented the daughter of Hoce

    The decree of the Wielder when morning-light came and

    She was able ’neath heaven to behold the destruction

    Of brothers and bairns, where the brightest of earth-joys

    She had hitherto had: all the henchmen of Finn

    War had offtaken, save a handful remaining,

    That he nowise was able to offer resistance

    To the onset of Hengest in the parley of battle,

    Nor the wretched remnant to rescue in war from

    The earl of the atheling; but they offered conditions,

    Compact between the Frisians and the Danes.

    Another great building to fully make ready,

    A hall and a high-seat, that half they might rule with

    The sons of the Jutemen, and that Folcwalda’s son would

    Day after day the Danemen honor

    When gifts were giving, and grant of his ring-store

    To Hengest’s earl-troop ever so freely,

    Of his gold-plated jewels, as he encouraged the Frisians

    On the bench of the beer-hall. On both sides they swore then

    A fast-binding compact; Finn unto Hengest

    With no thought of revoking vowed then most solemnly

    The woe-begone remnant well to take charge of,

    His Witan advising; the agreement should no one

    By words or works weaken and shatter,

    By artifice ever injure its value,

    Though reaved of their ruler their ring-giver’s slayer

    They followed as vassals, Fate so requiring:

    Then if one of the Frisians the quarrel should speak of

    In tones that were taunting, terrible edges

    Should cut in requital. Accomplished the oath was,

    And treasure of gold from the hoard was uplifted.

    The best of the Scylding braves was then fully

    Prepared for the pile; at the pyre was seen clearly

    The blood-gory burnie, the boar with his gilding,

    The iron-hard swine, athelings many

    Fatally wounded; no few had been slaughtered.

    Hildeburg bade then, at the burning of Hnæf,

    The bairn of her bosom to bear to the fire,

    That his body be burned and borne to the pyre.

    The woe-stricken woman wept on his shoulder,

    In measures lamented; upmounted the hero.

    The greatest of dead-fires curled to the welkin,

    On the hill’s-front crackled; heads were a-melting,

    Wound-doors bursting, while the blood was a-coursing

    From body-bite fierce. The fire devoured them,

    Greediest of spirits, whom war had offcarried

    From both of the peoples; their bravest were fallen.

    Part XVIII

    “Then the warriors departed to go to their dwellings,

    Reaved of their friends, Friesland to visit,

    Their homes and high-city. Hengest continued

    Biding with Finn the blood-tainted winter,

    Wholly unsundered; of fatherland thought he

    Though unable to drive the ring-stemmèd vessel

    O’er the ways of the waters; the wave-deeps were tossing,

    Fought with the wind; winter in ice-bonds

    Closed up the currents, till there came to the dwelling

    A year in its course, as yet it revolveth,

    If season propitious one alway regardeth,

    World-cheering weathers. Then winter was gone,

    Earth’s bosom was lovely; the exile would get him,

    The guest from the palace; on grewsomest vengeance

    He brooded more eager than on oversea journeys,

    Whe’r onset-of-anger he were able to ’complish,

    The bairns of the Jutemen therein to remember.

    Nowise refused he the duties of liegeman

    When Hun of the Frisians the battle-sword Láfing,

    Fairest of falchions, friendly did give him:

    Its edges were famous in folk-talk of Jutland.

    And savage sword-fury seized in its clutches

    Bold-mooded Finn where he bode in his palace,

    When the grewsome grapple Guthlaf and Oslaf

    Had mournfully mentioned, the mere-journey over,

    For sorrows half-blamed him; the flickering spirit

    Could not bide in his bosom. Then the building was covered

    With corpses of foemen, and Finn too was slaughtered,

    The king with his comrades, and the queen made a prisoner.

    The troops of the Scyldings bore to their vessels

    All that the land-king had in his palace,

    Such trinkets and treasures they took as, on searching,

    At Finn’s they could find. They ferried to Daneland

    The excellent woman on oversea journey,

    Led her to their land-folk.” The lay was concluded,

    The gleeman’s recital. Shouts again rose then,

    Bench-glee resounded, bearers then offered

    Wine from wonder-vats. Wealhtheo advanced then

    Going ’neath gold-crown, where the good ones were seated

    Uncle and nephew; their peace was yet mutual,

    True each to the other. And Unferth the spokesman

    Sat at the feet of the lord of the Scyldings:

    Each trusted his spirit that his mood was courageous,

    Though at fight he had failed in faith to his kinsmen.

    Said the queen of the Scyldings: “My lord and protector,

    Treasure-bestower, take thou this beaker;

    Joyance attend thee, gold-friend of heroes,

    And greet thou the Geatmen with gracious responses!

    So ought one to do. Be kind to the Geatmen,

    In gifts not niggardly; anear and afar now

    Peace thou enjoyest. Report hath informed me

    Thou’lt have for a bairn the battle-brave hero.

    Now is Heorot cleansèd, ring-palace gleaming;

    Give while thou mayest many rewards,

    And bequeath to thy kinsmen kingdom and people,

    On wending thy way to the Wielder’s splendor.

    I know good Hrothulf, that the noble young troopers

    He’ll care for and honor, lord of the Scyldings,

    If earth-joys thou endest earlier than he doth;

    I reckon that recompense he’ll render with kindness

    Our offspring and issue, if that all he remember,

    What favors of yore, when he yet was an infant,

    We awarded to him for his worship and pleasure.”

    Then she turned by the bench where her sons were carousing,

    Hrethric and Hrothmund, and the heroes’ offspring,

    The war-youth together; there the good one was sitting

    ’Twixt the brothers twain, Beowulf Geatman.

    Part XIX

    A beaker was borne him, and bidding to quaff it

    Graciously given, and gold that was twisted

    Pleasantly proffered, a pair of arm-jewels,

    Rings and corslet, of collars the greatest

    I’ve heard of ’neath heaven. Of heroes not any

    More splendid from jewels have I heard ’neath the welkin,

    Since Hama off bore the Brosingmen’s necklace,

    The bracteates and jewels, from the bright-shining city,

    Eormenric’s cunning craftiness fled from,

    Chose gain everlasting. Geatish Higelac,

    Grandson of Swerting, last had this jewel

    When tramping ’neath banner the treasure he guarded,

    The field-spoil defended; Fate offcarried him

    When for deeds of daring he endured tribulation,

    Hate from the Frisians; the ornaments bare he

    O’er the cup of the currents, costly gem-treasures,

    Mighty folk-leader, he fell ’neath his target;

    The corpse of the king then came into charge of

    The race of the Frankmen, the mail-shirt and collar:

    Warmen less noble plundered the fallen,

    When the fight was finished; the folk of the Geatmen

    Part XIX

    A beaker was borne him, and bidding to quaff it

    Graciously given, and gold that was twisted

    Pleasantly proffered, a pair of arm-jewels,

    Rings and corslet, of collars the greatest

    I’ve heard of ’neath heaven. Of heroes not any

    More splendid from jewels have I heard ’neath the welkin,

    Since Hama off bore the Brosingmen’s necklace,

    The bracteates and jewels, from the bright-shining city,

    Eormenric’s cunning craftiness fled from,

    Chose gain everlasting. Geatish Higelac,

    Grandson of Swerting, last had this jewel

    When tramping ’neath banner the treasure he guarded,

    The field-spoil defended; Fate offcarried him

    When for deeds of daring he endured tribulation,

    Hate from the Frisians; the ornaments bare he

    O’er the cup of the currents, costly gem-treasures,

    Mighty folk-leader, he fell ’neath his target;

    The corpse of the king then came into charge of

    The race of the Frankmen, the mail-shirt and collar:

    Warmen less noble plundered the fallen,

    When the fight was finished; the folk of the Geatmen

    The field of the dead held in possession.

    The choicest of mead-halls with cheering resounded.

    Wealhtheo discoursed, the war-troop addressed she:

    “This collar enjoy thou, Beowulf worthy,

    Young man, in safety, and use thou this armor,

    Gems of the people, and prosper thou fully,

    Show thyself sturdy and be to these liegemen

    Mild with instruction! I’ll mind thy requital.

    Thou hast brought it to pass that far and near

    Forever and ever earthmen shall honor thee,

    Even so widely as ocean surroundeth

    The blustering bluffs. Be, while thou livest,

    A wealth-blessèd atheling. I wish thee most truly

    Jewels and treasure. Be kind to my son, thou

    Living in joyance! Here each of the nobles

    Is true unto other, gentle in spirit,

    Loyal to leader. The liegemen are peaceful,

    The war-troops ready: well-drunken heroes,

    Do as I bid ye.” Then she went to the settle.

    There was choicest of banquets, wine drank the heroes:

    Weird they knew not, destiny cruel,

    As to many an earlman early it happened,

    When evening had come and Hrothgar had parted

    Off to his manor, the mighty to slumber.

    Warriors unnumbered warded the building

    As erst they did often: the ale-settle bared they,

    ’Twas covered all over with beds and pillows.

    Doomed unto death, down to his slumber

    Bowed then a beer-thane. Their battle-shields placed they,

    Bright-shining targets, up by their heads then;

    O’er the atheling on ale-bench ’twas easy to see there

    Battle-high helmet, burnie of ring-mail,

    And mighty war-spear. ’Twas the wont of that people

    To constantly keep them equipped for the battle,

    At home or marching—in either condition—

    At seasons just such as necessity ordered

    As best for their ruler; that people was worthy.

    Part XX

    They sank then to slumber. With sorrow one paid for

    His evening repose, as often betid them

    While Grendel was holding the gold-bedecked palace,

    Ill-deeds performing, till his end overtook him,

    Death for his sins. ’Twas seen very clearly,

    Known unto earth-folk, that still an avenger

    Outlived the loathed one, long since the sorrow

    Caused by the struggle; the mother of Grendel,

    Devil-shaped woman, her woe ever minded,

    Who was held to inhabit the horrible waters,

    The cold-flowing currents, after Cain had become a

    Slayer-with-edges to his one only brother,

    The son of his sire; he set out then banished,

    Marked as a murderer, man-joys avoiding,

    Lived in the desert. Thence demons unnumbered

    Fate-sent awoke; one of them Grendel,

    Sword-cursèd, hateful, who at Heorot met with

    A man that was watching, waiting the struggle,

    Where a horrid one held him with hand-grapple sturdy;

    Nathless he minded the might of his body,

    The glorious gift God had allowed him,

    And folk-ruling Father’s favor relied on,

    His help and His comfort: so he conquered the foeman,

    The hell-spirit humbled: he unhappy departed then,

    Reaved of his joyance, journeying to death-haunts,

    Foeman of man. His mother moreover

    Eager and gloomy was anxious to go on

    Her mournful mission, mindful of vengeance

    For the death of her son. She came then to Heorot

    Where the Armor-Dane earlmen all through the building

    Were lying in slumber. Soon there became then

    Return to the nobles, when the mother of Grendel

    Entered the folk-hall; the fear was less grievous

    By even so much as the vigor of maidens,

    War-strength of women, by warrior is reckoned,

    When well-carved weapon, worked with the hammer,

    Blade very bloody, brave with its edges,

    Strikes down the boar-sign that stands on the helmet.

    Then the hard-edgèd weapon was heaved in the building,

    The brand o’er the benches, broad-lindens many

    Hand-fast were lifted; for helmet he recked not,

    For armor-net broad, whom terror laid hold of.

    She went then hastily, outward would get her

    Her life for to save, when some one did spy her;

    Soon she had grappled one of the athelings

    Fast and firmly, when fenward she hied her;

    That one to Hrothgar was liefest of heroes

    In rank of retainer where waters encircle,

    A mighty shield-warrior, whom she murdered at slumber,

    A broadly-famed battle-knight. Beowulf was absent,

    But another apartment was erstwhile devoted

    To the glory-decked Geatman when gold was distributed.

    There was hubbub in Heorot. The hand that was famous

    She grasped in its gore; grief was renewed then

    In homes and houses: ’twas no happy arrangement

    In both of the quarters to barter and purchase

    With lives of their friends. Then the well-agèd ruler,

    The gray-headed war-thane, was woful in spirit,

    When his long-trusted liegeman lifeless he knew of,

    His dearest one gone. Quick from a room was

    Beowulf brought, brave and triumphant.

    As day was dawning in the dusk of the morning,

    Went then that earlman, champion noble,

    Came with comrades, where the clever one bided

    Whether God all gracious would grant him a respite

    After the woe he had suffered. The war-worthy hero

    With a troop of retainers trod then the pavement

    (The hall-building groaned), till he greeted the wise one,

    The earl of the Ingwins; asked if the night had

    Fully refreshed him, as fain he would have it.

    Part XXI

    Hrothgar rejoined, helm of the Scyldings:

    “Ask not of joyance! Grief is renewed to

    The folk of the Danemen. Dead is Æschere,

    Yrmenlaf’s brother, older than he,

    My true-hearted counsellor, trusty adviser,

    Shoulder-companion, when fighting in battle

    Our heads we protected, when troopers were clashing,

    And heroes were dashing; such an earl should be ever,

    An erst-worthy atheling, as Æschere proved him.

    The flickering death-spirit became in Heorot

    His hand-to-hand murderer; I can not tell whither

    The cruel one turned in the carcass exulting,

    By cramming discovered. The quarrel she wreaked then,

    That last night igone Grendel thou killedst

    In grewsomest manner, with grim-holding clutches,

    Since too long he had lessened my liege-troop and wasted

    My folk-men so foully. He fell in the battle

    With forfeit of life, and another has followed,

    A mighty crime-worker, her kinsman avenging,

    And henceforth hath ‘stablished her hatred unyielding,

    As it well may appear to many a liegeman,

    Who mourneth in spirit the treasure-bestower,

    Her heavy heart-sorrow; the hand is now lifeless

    Which availed you in every wish that you cherished.

    Land-people heard I, liegemen, this saying,

    Dwellers in halls, they had seen very often

    A pair of such mighty march-striding creatures,

    Far-dwelling spirits, holding the moorlands:

    One of them wore, as well they might notice,

    The image of woman, the other one wretched

    In guise of a man wandered in exile,

    Except he was huger than any of earthmen;

    Earth-dwelling people entitled him Grendel

    In days of yore: they know not their father,

    Whe’r ill-going spirits any were borne him Ever before.

    They guard the wolf-coverts, Lands inaccessible, wind-beaten nesses,

    Fearfullest fen-deeps, where a flood from the mountains

    ’Neath mists of the nesses netherward rattles,

    The stream under earth: not far is it henceward

    Measured by mile-lengths that the mere-water standeth,

    Which forests hang over, with frost-whiting covered,

    A firm-rooted forest, the floods overshadow.

    There ever at night one an ill-meaning portent

    A fire-flood may see; ’mong children of men

    None liveth so wise that wot of the bottom;

    Though harassed by hounds the heath-stepper seek for,

    Fly to the forest, firm-antlered he-deer,

    Spurred from afar, his spirit he yieldeth,

    His life on the shore, ere in he will venture

    To cover his head. Uncanny the place is:

    Thence upward ascendeth the surging of waters,

    Wan to the welkin, when the wind is stirring

    The weathers unpleasing, till the air groweth gloomy,

    And the heavens lower. Now is help to be gotten

    From thee and thee only! The abode thou know’st not,

    The dangerous place where thou’rt able to meet with

    The sin-laden hero: seek if thou darest!

    For the feud I will fully fee thee with money,

    With old-time treasure, as erstwhile I did thee,

    With well-twisted jewels, if away thou shalt get thee.”

    Part XXII

    Beowulf answered, Ecgtheow’s son:

    “Grieve not, O wise one! for each it is better,

    His friend to avenge than with vehemence wail him;

    Each of us must the end-day abide of

    His earthly existence; who is able accomplish

    Glory ere death! To battle-thane noble

    Lifeless lying, ’tis at last most fitting.

    Arise, O king, quick let us hasten

    To look at the footprint of the kinsman of Grendel!

    I promise thee this now: to his place he’ll escape not,

    To embrace of the earth, nor to mountainous forest,

    Nor to depths of the ocean, wherever he wanders.

    Practice thou now patient endurance

    Of each of thy sorrows, as I hope for thee soothly!”

    Then up sprang the old one, the All-Wielder thanked he,

    Ruler Almighty, that the man had outspoken.

    Then for Hrothgar a war-horse was decked with a bridle,

    Curly-maned courser. The clever folk-leader

    Stately proceeded: stepped then an earl-troop

    Of linden-wood bearers. Her footprints were seen then

    Widely in wood-paths, her way o’er the bottoms,

    Where she faraway fared o’er fen-country murky,

    Bore away breathless the best of retainers

    Who pondered with Hrothgar the welfare of country.

    The son of the athelings then went o’er the stony,

    Declivitous cliffs, the close-covered passes,

    Narrow passages, paths unfrequented,

    Nesses abrupt, nicker-haunts many;

    One of a few of wise-mooded heroes,

    He onward advanced to view the surroundings,

    Till he found unawares woods of the mountain

    O’er hoar-stones hanging, holt-wood unjoyful;

    The water stood under, welling and gory.

    ’Twas irksome in spirit to all of the Danemen,

    Friends of the Scyldings, to many a liegeman

    Sad to be suffered, a sorrow unlittle

    To each of the earlmen, when to Æschere’s head they

    Came on the cliff. The current was seething

    With blood and with gore (the troopers gazed on it).

    The horn anon sang the battle-song ready.

    The troop were all seated; they saw ’long the water then

    Many a serpent, mere-dragons wondrous

    Trying the waters, nickers a-lying

    On the cliffs of the nesses, which at noonday full often

    Go on the sea-deeps their sorrowful journey,

    Wild-beasts and wormkind; away then they hastened

    ot-mooded, hateful, they heard the great clamor,

    The war-trumpet winding. One did the Geat-prince

    Sunder from earth-joys, with arrow from bowstring,

    From his sea-struggle tore him, that the trusty war-missile

    Pierced to his vitals; he proved in the currents

    Less doughty at swimming whom death had offcarried.

    Soon in the waters the wonderful swimmer

    Was straitened most sorely with sword-pointed boar-spears,

    Pressed in the battle and pulled to the cliff-edge;

    The liegemen then looked on the loath-fashioned stranger.

    Beowulf donned then his battle-equipments,

    Cared little for life; inlaid and most ample,

    The hand-woven corslet which could cover his body,

    Must the wave-deeps explore, that war might be powerless

    To harm the great hero, and the hating one’s grasp might

    Not peril his safety; his head was protected

    By the light-flashing helmet that should mix with the bottoms,

    Trying the eddies, treasure-emblazoned,

    Encircled with jewels, as in seasons long past

    The weapon-smith worked it, wondrously made it,

    With swine-bodies fashioned it, that thenceforward no longer

    Brand might bite it, and battle-sword hurt it.

    And that was not least of helpers in prowess

    That Hrothgar’s spokesman had lent him when straitened;

    And the hilted hand-sword was Hrunting entitled,

    Old and most excellent ’mong all of the treasures;

    Its blade was of iron, blotted with poison,

    Hardened with gore; it failed not in battle

    Any hero under heaven in hand who it brandished,

    Who ventured to take the terrible journeys,

    The battle-field sought; not the earliest occasion

    That deeds of daring ’twas destined to ’complish.

    Ecglaf’s kinsman minded not soothly,

    Exulting in strength, what erst he had spoken

    Drunken with wine, when the weapon he lent to

    A sword-hero bolder; himself did not venture

    ’Neath the strife of the currents his life to endanger,

    To fame-deeds perform; there he forfeited glory,

    Repute for his strength. Not so with the other

    When he clad in his corslet had equipped him for battle.

    Part XXIII

    Beowulf spake, Ecgtheow’s son:

    “Recall now, oh, famous kinsman of Healfdene,

    Prince very prudent, now to part I am ready,

    Gold-friend of earlmen, what erst we agreed on,

    Should I lay down my life in lending thee assistance,

    When my earth-joys were over, thou wouldst evermore serve me

    In stead of a father; my faithful thanemen,

    My trusty retainers, protect thou and care for,

    Fall I in battle: and, Hrothgar belovèd,

    Send unto Higelac the high-valued jewels

    Thou to me hast allotted. The lord of the Geatmen

    May perceive from the gold, the Hrethling may see it

    When he looks on the jewels, that a gem-giver found I

    Good over-measure, enjoyed him while able.

    And the ancient heirloom Unferth permit thou,

    The famed one to have, the heavy-sword splendid

    The hard-edgèd weapon; with Hrunting to aid me,

    I shall gain me glory, or grim-death shall take me.”

    The atheling of Geatmen uttered these words and

    Heroic did hasten, not any rejoinder

    Was willing to wait for; the wave-current swallowed

    The doughty-in-battle. Then a day’s-length elapsed ere

    He was able to see the sea at its bottom.

    Early she found then who fifty of winters

    The course of the currents kept in her fury,

    Grisly and greedy, that the grim one’s dominion

    Some one of men from above was exploring.

    Forth did she grab them, grappled the warrior

    With horrible clutches; yet no sooner she injured

    His body unscathèd: the burnie out-guarded,

    That she proved but powerless to pierce through the armor,

    The limb-mail locked, with loath-grabbing fingers.

    The sea-wolf bare then, when bottomward came she,

    The ring-prince homeward, that he after was powerless

    (He had daring to do it) to deal with his weapons,

    But many a mere-beast tormented him swimming,

    Flood-beasts no few with fierce-biting tusks did

    Break through his burnie, the brave one pursued they.

    The earl then discovered he was down in some cavern

    Where no water whatever anywise harmed him,

    And the clutch of the current could come not anear him,

    Since the roofed-hall prevented; brightness a-gleaming

    Fire-light he saw, flashing resplendent.

    The good one saw then the sea-bottom’s monster,

    The mighty mere-woman; he made a great onset

    With weapon-of-battle, his hand not desisted

    From striking, that war-blade struck on her head then

    A battle-song greedy. The stranger perceived then

    The sword would not bite, her life would not injure,

    But the falchion failed the folk-prince when straitened:

    Erst had it often onsets encountered,

    Oft cloven the helmet, the fated one’s armor:

    ’Twas the first time that ever the excellent jewel

    Had failed of its fame. Firm-mooded after,

    Not heedless of valor, but mindful of glory,

    Was Higelac’s kinsman; the hero-chief angry

    Cast then his carved-sword covered with jewels

    That it lay on the earth, hard and steel-pointed;

    He hoped in his strength, his hand-grapple sturdy.

    So any must act whenever he thinketh

    To gain him in battle glory unending,

    And is reckless of living. The lord of the War-Geats

    (He shrank not from battle) seized by the shoulder

    The mother of Grendel; then mighty in struggle

    Swung he his enemy, since his anger was kindled,

    That she fell to the floor. With furious grapple

    She gave him requital early thereafter,

    And stretched out to grab him; the strongest of warriors

    Faint-mooded stumbled, till he fell in his traces,

    Foot-going champion. Then she sat on the hall-guest

    And wielded her war-knife wide-bladed, flashing,

    For her son would take vengeance, her one only bairn.

    His breast-armor woven bode on his shoulder;

    It guarded his life, the entrance defended

    ’Gainst sword-point and edges. Ecgtheow’s son there

    Had fatally journeyed, champion of Geatmen,

    In the arms of the ocean, had the armor not given,

    Close-woven corslet, comfort and succor,

    And had God most holy not awarded the victory,

    All-knowing Lord; easily did heaven’s

    Ruler most righteous arrange it with justice;

    Uprose he erect ready for battle.

    Part XXIV

    Then he saw mid the war-gems a weapon of victory,

    An ancient giant-sword, of edges a-doughty,

    Glory of warriors: of weapons ’twas choicest,

    Only ’twas larger than any man else was

    Able to bear to the battle-encounter,

    The good and splendid work of the giants.

    He grasped then the sword-hilt, knight of the Scyldings,

    Bold and battle-grim, brandished his ring-sword,

    Hopeless of living, hotly he smote her,

    That the fiend-woman’s neck firmly it grappled,

    Broke through her bone-joints, the bill fully pierced her

    Fate-cursèd body, she fell to the ground then:

    The hand-sword was bloody, the hero exulted.

    The brand was brilliant, brightly it glimmered,

    Just as from heaven gemlike shineth

    The torch of the firmament. He glanced ’long the building,

    And turned by the wall then, Higelac’s vassal

    Raging and wrathful raised his battle-sword

    Strong by the handle. The edge was not useless

    To the hero-in-battle, but he speedily wished to

    Give Grendel requital for the many assaults he

    Had worked on the West-Danes not once, but often,

    When he slew in slumber the subjects of Hrothgar,

    Swallowed down fifteen sleeping retainers

    Of the folk of the Danemen, and fully as many

    Carried away, a horrible prey.

    He gave him requital, grim-raging champion,

    When he saw on his rest-place weary of conflict

    Grendel lying, of life-joys bereavèd,

    As the battle at Heorot erstwhile had scathed him;

    His body far bounded, a blow when he suffered,

    Death having seized him, sword-smiting heavy,

    And he cut off his head then. Early this noticed

    The clever carles who as comrades of Hrothgar

    Gazed on the sea-deeps, that the surging wave-currents

    Were mightily mingled, the mere-flood was gory:

    Of the good one the gray-haired together held converse,

    The hoary of head, that they hoped not to see again

    The atheling ever, that exulting in victory

    He’d return there to visit the distinguished folk-ruler:

    Then many concluded the mere-wolf had killed him.

    The ninth hour came then. From the ness-edge departed

    The bold-mooded Scyldings; the gold-friend of heroes

    Homeward betook him. The strangers sat down then

    Soul-sick, sorrowful, the sea-waves regarding:

    They wished and yet weened not their well-loved friend-lord

    To see any more. The sword-blade began then,

    The blood having touched it, contracting and shriveling

    With battle-icicles; ’twas a wonderful marvel

    That it melted entirely, likest to ice when

    The Father unbindeth the bond of the frost and

    Unwindeth the wave-bands, He who wieldeth dominion

    Of times and of tides: a truth-firm Creator.

    Nor took he of jewels more in the dwelling,

    Lord of the Weders, though they lay all around him,

    Than the head and the handle handsome with jewels;

    The brand early melted, burnt was the weapon:

    So hot was the blood, the strange-spirit poisonous

    That in it did perish. He early swam off then

    Who had bided in combat the carnage of haters,

    Went up through the ocean; the eddies were cleansèd,

    The spacious expanses, when the spirit from farland

    His life put aside and this short-lived existence.

    The seamen’s defender came swimming to land then

    Doughty of spirit, rejoiced in his sea-gift,

    The bulky burden which he bore in his keeping.

    The excellent vassals advanced then to meet him,

    To God they were grateful, were glad in their chieftain,

    That to see him safe and sound was granted them.

    From the high-minded hero, then, helmet and burnie

    Were speedily loosened: the ocean was putrid,

    The water ’neath welkin weltered with gore.

    Forth did they fare, then, their footsteps retracing,

    Merry and mirthful, measured the earth-way,

    The highway familiar: men very daring

    Bare then the head from the sea-cliff, burdening

    Each of the earlmen, excellent-valiant.

    Four of them had to carry with labor

    The head of Grendel to the high towering gold-hall

    Upstuck on the spear, till fourteen most-valiant

    And battle-brave Geatmen came there going

    Straight to the palace: the prince of the people

    Measured the mead-ways, their mood-brave companion.

    The atheling of earlmen entered the building,

    Deed-valiant man, adorned with distinction,

    Doughty shield-warrior, to address King Hrothgar:

    Then hung by the hair, the head of Grendel

    Was borne to the building, where beer-thanes were drinking,

    Loth before earlmen and eke ’fore the lady:

    The warriors beheld then a wonderful sight.

    Part XXV

    Beowulf spake, offspring of Ecgtheow:

    “Lo! we blithely have brought thee, bairn of Healfdene,

    Prince of the Scyldings, these presents from ocean

    Which thine eye looketh on, for an emblem of glory.

    I came off alive from this, narrowly ’scaping:

    In war ’neath the water the work with great pains I

    Performed, and the fight had been finished quite nearly,

    Had God not defended me. I failed in the battle

    Aught to accomplish, aided by Hrunting,

    Though that weapon was worthy, but the Wielder of earth-folk

    Gave me willingly to see on the wall a

    Heavy old hand-sword hanging in splendor

    (He guided most often the lorn and the friendless),

    That I swung as a weapon. The wards of the house then

    I killed in the conflict (when occasion was given me).

    Then the battle-sword burned, the brand that was lifted,

    As the blood-current sprang, hottest of war-sweats;

    Seizing the hilt, from my foes I offbore it;

    I avenged as I ought to their acts of malignity,

    The murder of Danemen. I then make thee this promise,

    Thou’lt be able in Heorot careless to slumber

    With thy throng of heroes and the thanes of thy people

    Every and each, of greater and lesser,

    And thou needest not fear for them from the selfsame direction

    As thou formerly fearedst, oh, folk-lord of Scyldings,

    End-day for earlmen.” To the age-hoary man then,

    The gray-haired chieftain, the gold-fashioned sword-hilt,

    Old-work of giants, was thereupon given;

    Since the fall of the fiends, it fell to the keeping

    Of the wielder of Danemen, the wonder-smith’s labor,

    And the bad-mooded being abandoned this world then,

    Opponent of God, victim of murder,

    And also his mother; it went to the keeping

    Of the best of the world-kings, where waters encircle,

    Who the scot divided in Scylding dominion.

    Hrothgar discoursed, the hilt he regarded,

    The ancient heirloom where an old-time contention’s

    Beginning was graven: the gurgling currents,

    The flood slew thereafter the race of the giants,

    They had proved themselves daring: that people was loth to

    The Lord everlasting, through lash of the billows

    The Father gave them final requital.

    So in letters of rune on the clasp of the handle

    Gleaming and golden, ’twas graven exactly,

    Set forth and said, whom that sword had been made for,

    Finest of irons, who first it was wrought for,

    Wreathed at its handle and gleaming with serpents.

    The wise one then said (silent they all were)

    Son of old Healfdene: “He may say unrefuted

    Who performs ’mid the folk-men fairness and truth

    (The hoary old ruler remembers the past),

    That better by birth is this bairn of the nobles!

    Thy fame is extended through far-away countries,

    Good friend Beowulf, o’er all of the races,

    Thou holdest all firmly, hero-like strength with

    Prudence of spirit. I’ll prove myself grateful

    As before we agreed on; thou granted for long shalt

    Become a great comfort to kinsmen and comrades,

    A help unto heroes. Heremod became not

    Such to the Scyldings, successors of Ecgwela;

    He grew not to please them, but grievous destruction,

    And diresome death-woes to Danemen attracted;

    He slew in anger his table-companions,

    Trustworthy counsellors, till he turned off lonely

    From world-joys away, wide-famous ruler:

    Though high-ruling heaven in hero-strength raised him,

    In might exalted him, o’er men of all nations

    Made him supreme, yet a murderous spirit

    Grew in his bosom: he gave then no ring-gems

    To the Danes after custom; endured he unjoyful

    Standing the straits from strife that was raging,

    Longsome folk-sorrow. Learn then from this,

    Lay hold of virtue! Though laden with winters,

    I have sung thee these measures. ’Tis a marvel to tell it,

    How all-ruling God from greatness of spirit

    Giveth wisdom to children of men,

    Manor and earlship: all things He ruleth.

    He often permitteth the mood-thought of man of

    The illustrious lineage to lean to possessions,

    Allows him earthly delights at his manor,

    A high-burg of heroes to hold in his keeping,

    Maketh portions of earth-folk hear him,

    And a wide-reaching kingdom so that, wisdom failing him,

    He himself is unable to reckon its boundaries;

    He liveth in luxury, little debars him,

    Nor sickness nor age, no treachery-sorrow

    Becloudeth his spirit, conflict nowhere,

    No sword-hate, appeareth, but all of the world doth

    Wend as he wisheth; the worse he knoweth not,

    Till arrant arrogance inward pervading,

    Waxeth and springeth, when the warder is sleeping,

    The guard of the soul: with sorrows encompassed,

    Too sound is his slumber, the slayer is near him,

    Who with bow and arrow aimeth in malice.

    Part XXVI

    “Then bruised in his bosom he with bitter-toothed missile

    Is hurt ’neath his helmet: from harmful pollution

    He is powerless to shield him by the wonderful mandates

    Of the loath-cursèd spirit; what too long he hath holden

    Him seemeth too small, savage he hoardeth,

    Nor boastfully giveth gold-plated rings,

    The fate of the future flouts and forgetteth

    Since God had erst given him greatness no little,

    Wielder of Glory. His end-day anear,

    It afterward happens that the bodily-dwelling

    Fleetingly fadeth, falls into ruins;

    Another lays hold who doleth the ornaments,

    The nobleman’s jewels, nothing lamenting,

    Heedeth no terror. Oh, Beowulf dear,

    Best of the heroes, from bale-strife defend thee,

    And choose thee the better, counsels eternal;

    Beware of arrogance, world-famous champion!

    But a little-while lasts thy life-vigor’s fulness;

    ’Twill after hap early, that illness or sword-edge

    Shall part thee from strength, or the grasp of the fire,

    Or the wave of the current, or clutch of the edges,

    Or flight of the war-spear, or age with its horrors,

    Or thine eyes’ bright flashing shall fade into darkness:

    ’Twill happen full early, excellent hero,

    That death shall subdue thee. So the Danes a half-century

    I held under heaven, helped them in struggles

    ’Gainst many a race in middle-earth’s regions,

    With ash-wood and edges, that enemies none

    On earth molested me. Lo! offsetting change, now,

    Came to my manor, grief after joyance,

    When Grendel became my constant visitor,

    Inveterate hater: I from that malice

    Continually travailed with trouble no little.

    Thanks be to God that I gained in my lifetime,

    To the Lord everlasting, to look on the gory

    Head with mine eyes, after long-lasting sorrow!

    Go to the bench now, battle-adornèd

    Joy in the feasting: of jewels in common

    We’ll meet with many when morning appeareth.”

    The Geatman was gladsome, ganged he immediately

    To go to the bench, as the clever one bade him.

    Then again as before were the famous-for-prowess,

    Hall-inhabiters, handsomely banqueted,

    Feasted anew. The night-veil fell then

    Dark o’er the warriors. The courtiers rose then;

    The gray-haired was anxious to go to his slumbers,

    The hoary old Scylding. Hankered the Geatman,

    The champion doughty, greatly, to rest him:

    An earlman early outward did lead him,

    Fagged from his faring, from far-country springing,

    Who for etiquette’s sake all of a liegeman’s

    Needs regarded, such as seamen at that time

    Were bounden to feel. The big-hearted rested;

    The building uptowered, spacious and gilded,

    The guest within slumbered, till the sable-clad raven

    Blithely foreboded the beacon of heaven.

    Then the bright-shining sun o’er the bottoms came going;

    The warriors hastened, the heads of the peoples

    Were ready to go again to their peoples,

    The high-mooded farer would faraway thenceward

    Look for his vessel. The valiant one bade then,

    Offspring of Ecglaf, off to bear Hrunting,

    To take his weapon, his well-beloved iron;

    He him thanked for the gift, saying good he accounted

    The war-friend and mighty, nor chid he with words then

    The blade of the brand: ’twas a brave-mooded hero.

    When the warriors were ready, arrayed in their trappings,

    The atheling dear to the Danemen advanced then

    On to the dais, where the other was sitting,

    Grim-mooded hero, greeted King Hrothgar.

    Part XXVII

    Beowulf spake, Ecgtheow’s offspring:

    “We men of the water wish to declare now

    Fared from far-lands, we’re firmly determined

    To seek King Higelac. Here have we fitly

    Been welcomed and feasted, as heart would desire it;

    Good was the greeting. If greater affection

    I am anywise able ever on earth to

    Gain at thy hands, ruler of heroes,

    Than yet I have done, I shall quickly be ready

    For combat and conflict. O’er the course of the waters

    Learn I that neighbors alarm thee with terror,

    As haters did whilom, I hither will bring thee

    For help unto heroes henchmen by thousands.

    I know as to Higelac, the lord of the Geatmen,

    Though young in years, he yet will permit me,

    By words and by works, ward of the people,

    Fully to furnish thee forces and bear thee

    My lance to relieve thee, if liegemen shall fail thee,

    And help of my hand-strength; if Hrethric be treating,

    Bairn of the king, at the court of the Geatmen,

    He thereat may find him friends in abundance:

    Faraway countries he were better to seek for

    Who trusts in himself.” Hrothgar discoursed then,

    Making rejoinder: “These words thou hast uttered

    All-knowing God hath given thy spirit!

    Ne’er heard I an earlman thus early in life

    More clever in speaking: thou’rt cautious of spirit,

    Mighty of muscle, in mouth-answers prudent.

    I count on the hope that, happen it ever

    That missile shall rob thee of Hrethel’s descendant,

    Edge-horrid battle, and illness or weapon

    Deprive thee of prince, of people’s protector,

    And life thou yet holdest, the Sea-Geats will never

    Find a more fitting folk-lord to choose them,

    Gem-ward of heroes, than thou mightest prove thee,

    If the kingdom of kinsmen thou carest to govern.

    Thy mood-spirit likes me the longer the better,

    Beowulf dear: thou hast brought it to pass that

    To both these peoples peace shall be common,

    To Geat-folk and Danemen, the strife be suspended,

    The secret assailings they suffered in yore-days;

    And also that jewels be shared while I govern

    The wide-stretching kingdom, and that many shall visit

    Others o’er the ocean with excellent gift-gems:

    The ring-adorned bark shall bring o’er the currents

    Presents and love-gifts. This people I know

    Tow’rd foeman and friend firmly established,

    After ancient etiquette everywise blameless.”

    Then the warden of earlmen gave him still farther,

    Kinsman of Healfdene, a dozen of jewels,

    Bade him safely seek with the presents

    His well-beloved people, early returning.

    Then the noble-born king kissed the distinguished,

    Dear-lovèd liegeman, the Dane-prince saluted him,

    And claspèd his neck; tears from him fell,

    From the gray-headed man: he two things expected,

    Agèd and reverend, but rather the second,

    That bold in council they’d meet thereafter.

    The man was so dear that he failed to suppress the

    Emotions that moved him, but in mood-fetters fastened

    The long-famous hero longeth in secret

    Deep in his spirit for the dear-beloved man

    Though not a blood-kinsman. Beowulf thenceward,

    Gold-splendid warrior, walked o’er the meadows

    Exulting in treasure: the sea-going vessel

    Riding at anchor awaited its owner.

    As they pressed on their way then, the present of Hrothgar

    Was frequently referred to: a folk-king indeed that

    Everyway blameless, till age did debar him

    The joys of his might, which hath many oft injured.

    Part XXVIII

    Then the band of very valiant retainers

    Came to the current; they were clad all in armor,

    In link-woven burnies. The land-warder noticed

    The return of the earlmen, as he erstwhile had seen them;

    Nowise with insult he greeted the strangers

    From the naze of the cliff, but rode on to meet them;

    Said the bright-armored visitors vesselward traveled

    Welcome to Weders. The wide-bosomed craft then

    Lay on the sand, laden with armor,

    With horses and jewels, the ring-stemmèd sailer:

    The mast uptowered o’er the treasure of Hrothgar.

    To the boat-ward a gold-bound brand he presented,

    That he was afterwards honored on the ale-bench more highly

    As the heirloom’s owner. Set he out on his vessel,

    To drive on the deep, Dane-country left he.

    Along by the mast then a sea-garment fluttered,

    A rope-fastened sail. The sea-boat resounded,

    The wind o’er the waters the wave-floater nowise

    Kept from its journey; the sea-goer traveled,

    The foamy-necked floated forth o’er the currents,

    The well-fashioned vessel o’er the ways of the ocean,

    Till they came within sight of the cliffs of the Geatmen,

    The well-known headlands. The wave-goer hastened

    Driven by breezes, stood on the shore.

    Prompt at the ocean, the port-ward was ready,

    Who long in the past outlooked in the distance,

    At water’s-edge waiting well-lovèd heroes;

    He bound to the bank then the broad-bosomed vessel

    Fast in its fetters, lest the force of the waters

    Should be able to injure the ocean-wood winsome.

    Bade he up then take the treasure of princes,

    Plate-gold and fretwork; not far was it thence

    To go off in search of the giver of jewels:

    Hrethel’s son Higelac at home there remaineth,

    Himself with his comrades close to the sea-coast.

    The building was splendid, the king heroic,

    Great in his hall, Hygd very young was,

    Fine-mooded, clever, though few were the winters

    That the daughter of Hæreth had dwelt in the borough;

    But she nowise was cringing nor niggard of presents,

    Of ornaments rare, to the race of the Geatmen.

    Thrytho nursed anger, excellent folk-queen,

    Hot-burning hatred: no hero whatever

    ’Mong household companions, her husband excepted

    Dared to adventure to look at the woman

    With eyes in the daytime; but he knew that death-chains

    Hand-wreathed were wrought him: early thereafter,

    When the hand-strife was over, edges were ready,

    That fierce-raging sword-point had to force a decision,

    Murder-bale show. Such no womanly custom

    For a lady to practise, though lovely her person,

    That a weaver-of-peace, on pretence of anger

    A belovèd liegeman of life should deprive.

    Soothly this hindered Heming’s kinsman;

    Other ale-drinking earlmen asserted

    That fearful folk-sorrows fewer she wrought them,

    Treacherous doings, since first she was given

    Adorned with gold to the war-hero youthful,

    For her origin honored, when Offa’s great palace

    O’er the fallow flood by her father’s instructions

    She sought on her journey, where she afterwards fully,

    Famed for her virtue, her fate on the king’s-seat

    Enjoyed in her lifetime, love did she hold with

    The ruler of heroes, the best, it is told me,

    Of all of the earthmen that oceans encompass,

    Of earl-kindreds endless; hence Offa was famous

    Far and widely, by gifts and by battles,

    Spear-valiant hero; the home of his fathers

    He governed with wisdom, whence Eomær did issue

    For help unto heroes, Heming’s kinsman,

    Grandson of Garmund, great in encounters.

    Part XXIX

    Then the brave one departed, his band along with him,

    Seeking the sea-shore, the sea-marches treading,

    The wide-stretching shores. The world-candle glimmered,

    The sun from the southward; they proceeded then onward,

    Early arriving where they heard that the troop-lord,

    Ongentheow’s slayer, excellent, youthful

    Folk-prince and warrior was distributing jewels,

    Close in his castle. The coming of Beowulf

    Was announced in a message quickly to Higelac,

    That the folk-troop’s defender forth to the palace

    The linden-companion alive was advancing,

    Secure from the combat courtward a-going.

    The building was early inward made ready

    For the foot-going guests as the good one had ordered.

    He sat by the man then who had lived through the struggle,

    Kinsman by kinsman, when the king of the people

    Had in lordly language saluted the dear one,

    In words that were formal. The daughter of Hæreth

    Coursed through the building, carrying mead-cups:

    She loved the retainers, tendered the beakers

    To the high-minded Geatmen. Higelac ’gan then

    Pleasantly plying his companion with questions

    In the high-towering palace. A curious interest

    Tormented his spirit, what meaning to see in

    The Sea-Geats’ adventures: “Beowulf worthy,

    How throve your journeying, when thou thoughtest suddenly

    Far o’er the salt-streams to seek an encounter,

    A battle at Heorot? Hast bettered for Hrothgar,

    The famous folk-leader, his far-published sorrows

    Any at all? In agony-billows

    I mused upon torture, distrusted the journey

    Of the belovèd liegeman; I long time did pray thee

    By no means to seek out the murderous spirit,

    To suffer the South-Danes themselves to decide on

    Grappling with Grendel. To God I am thankful

    To be suffered to see thee safe from thy journey.”

    Beowulf answered, bairn of old Ecgtheow:

    “’Tis hidden by no means, Higelac chieftain,

    From many of men, the meeting so famous,

    What mournful moments of me and of Grendel

    Were passed in the place where he pressing affliction

    On the Victory-Scyldings scathefully brought,

    Anguish forever; that all I avengèd,

    So that any under heaven of the kinsmen of Grendel

    Needeth not boast of that cry-in-the-morning,

    Who longest liveth of the loth-going kindred,

    Encompassed by moorland. I came in my journey

    To the royal ring-hall, Hrothgar to greet there:

    Soon did the famous scion of Healfdene,

    When he understood fully the spirit that led me,

    Assign me a seat with the son of his bosom.

    The troop was in joyance; mead-glee greater

    ’Neath arch of the ether not ever beheld I

    ’Mid hall-building holders. The highly-famed queen,

    Peace-tie of peoples, oft passed through the building,

    Cheered the young troopers; she oft tendered a hero

    A beautiful ring-band, ere she went to her sitting.

    Oft the daughter of Hrothgar in view of the courtiers

    To the earls at the end the ale-vessel carried,

    Whom Freaware I heard then hall-sitters title,

    When nail-adorned jewels she gave to the heroes:

    Gold-bedecked, youthful, to the glad son of Froda

    Her faith has been plighted; the friend of the Scyldings,

    The guard of the kingdom, hath given his sanction,

    And counts it a vantage, for a part of the quarrels,

    A portion of hatred, to pay with the woman.

    Somewhere not rarely, when the ruler has fallen,

    The life-taking lance relaxeth its fury

    For a brief breathing-spell, though the bride be charming!

    Part XXX

    “It well may discomfit the prince of the Heathobards

    And each of the thanemen of earls that attend him,

    When he goes to the building escorting the woman,

    That a noble-born Daneman the knights should be feasting:

    There gleam on his person the leavings of elders

    Hard and ring-bright, Heathobards’ treasure,

    While they wielded their arms, till they misled to the battle

    Their own dear lives and belovèd companions.

    He saith at the banquet who the collar beholdeth,

    An ancient ash-warrior who earlmen’s destruction

    Clearly recalleth (cruel his spirit),

    Sadly beginneth sounding the youthful

    Thane-champion’s spirit through the thoughts of his bosom,

    War-grief to waken, and this word-answer speaketh:

    ‘Art thou able, my friend, to know when thou seest it

    The brand which thy father bare to the conflict

    In his latest adventure, ’neath visor of helmet,

    The dearly-loved iron, where Danemen did slay him,

    And brave-mooded Scyldings, on the fall of the heroes,

    (When vengeance was sleeping) the slaughter-place wielded?

    E’en now some man of the murderer’s progeny

    Exulting in ornaments enters the building,

    Boasts of his blood-shedding, offbeareth the jewel

    Which thou shouldst wholly hold in possession!’

    So he urgeth and mindeth on every occasion

    With woe-bringing words, till waxeth the season

    When the woman’s thane for the works of his father,

    The bill having bitten, blood-gory sleepeth,

    Fated to perish; the other one thenceward

    ’Scapeth alive, the land knoweth thoroughly.

    Then the oaths of the earlmen on each side are broken,

    When rancors unresting are raging in Ingeld

    And his wife-love waxeth less warm after sorrow.

    So the Heathobards’ favor not faithful I reckon,

    Their part in the treaty not true to the Danemen,

    Their friendship not fast. I further shall tell thee

    More about Grendel, that thou fully mayst hear,

    Ornament-giver, what afterward came from

    The hand-rush of heroes. When heaven’s bright jewel

    O’er earthfields had glided, the stranger came raging,

    The horrible night-fiend, us for to visit,

    Where wholly unharmed the hall we were guarding.

    To Hondscio happened a hopeless contention,

    Death to the doomed one, dead he fell foremost,

    Girded war-champion; to him Grendel became then,

    To the vassal distinguished, a tooth-weaponed murderer,

    The well-beloved henchman’s body all swallowed.

    Not the earlier off empty of hand did

    The bloody-toothed murderer, mindful of evils,

    Wish to escape from the gold-giver’s palace,

    But sturdy of strength he strove to outdo me,

    Hand-ready grappled. A glove was suspended

    Spacious and wondrous, in art-fetters fastened,

    Which was fashioned entirely by touch of the craftman

    From the dragon’s skin by the devil’s devices:

    He down in its depths would do me unsadly

    One among many, deed-doer raging,

    Though sinless he saw me; not so could it happen

    When I in my anger upright did stand.

    ’Tis too long to recount how requital I furnished

    For every evil to the earlmen’s destroyer;

    ’Twas there, my prince, that I proudly distinguished

    Thy land with my labors. He left and retreated,

    He lived his life a little while longer:

    Yet his right-hand guarded his footstep in Heorot,

    And sad-mooded thence to the sea-bottom fell he,

    Mournful in mind. For the might-rush of battle

    The friend of the Scyldings, with gold that was plated,

    With ornaments many, much requited me,

    When daylight had dawned, and down to the banquet

    We had sat us together. There was chanting and joyance:

    The age-stricken Scylding asked many questions

    And of old-times related; oft light-ringing harp-strings,

    Joy-telling wood, were touched by the brave one;

    Now he uttered measures, mourning and truthful,

    Then the large-hearted land-king a legend of wonder

    Truthfully told us. Now troubled with years

    The age-hoary warrior afterward began to

    Mourn for the might that marked him in youth-days;

    His breast within boiled, when burdened with winters

    Much he remembered. From morning till night then

    We joyed us therein as etiquette suffered,

    Till the second night season came unto earth-folk.

    Then early thereafter, the mother of Grendel

    Was ready for vengeance, wretched she journeyed;

    Her son had death ravished, the wrath of the Geatmen.

    The horrible woman avengèd her offspring,

    And with mighty mainstrength murdered a hero.

    There the spirit of Æschere, agèd adviser,

    Was ready to vanish; nor when morn had lightened

    Were they anywise suffered to consume him with fire,

    Folk of the Danemen, the death-weakened hero,

    Nor the belovèd liegeman to lay on the pyre;

    She the corpse had offcarried in the clutch of the foeman

    ’Neath mountain-brook’s flood. To Hrothgar ’twas saddest

    Of pains that ever had preyed on the chieftain;

    By the life of thee the land-prince then me

    Besought very sadly, in sea-currents’ eddies

    To display my prowess, to peril my safety,

    Might-deeds accomplish; much did he promise.

    I found then the famous flood-current’s cruel,

    Horrible depth-warder. A while unto us two

    Hand was in common; the currents were seething

    With gore that was clotted, and Grendel’s fierce mother’s

    Head I offhacked in the hall at the bottom

    With huge-reaching sword-edge, hardly I wrested

    My life from her clutches; not doomed was I then,

    But the warden of earlmen afterward gave me

    Jewels in quantity, kinsman of Healfdene.

    Part XXXI

    “So the belovèd land-prince lived in decorum;

    I had missed no rewards, no meeds of my prowess,

    But he gave me jewels, regarding my wishes,

    Healfdene his bairn; I’ll bring them to thee, then,

    Atheling of earlmen, offer them gladly.

    And still unto thee is all my affection:

    But few of my folk-kin find I surviving

    But thee, dear Higelac!” Bade he in then to carry

    The boar-image, banner, battle-high helmet,

    Iron-gray armor, the excellent weapon,

    In song-measures said: “This suit-for-the-battle

    Hrothgar presented me, bade me expressly,

    Wise-mooded atheling, thereafter to tell thee

    The whole of its history, said King Heregar owned it,

    Dane-prince for long: yet he wished not to give then

    The mail to his son, though dearly he loved him,

    Hereward the hardy. Hold all in joyance!”

    I heard that there followed hard on the jewels

    Two braces of stallions of striking resemblance,

    Dappled and yellow; he granted him usance

    Of horses and treasures. So a kinsman should bear him,

    No web of treachery weave for another,

    Nor by cunning craftiness cause the destruction

    Of trusty companion. Most precious to Higelac,

    The bold one in battle, was the bairn of his sister,

    And each unto other mindful of favors.

    I am told that to Hygd he proffered the necklace,

    Wonder-gem rare that Wealhtheow gave him,

    The troop-leader’s daughter, a trio of horses

    Slender and saddle-bright; soon did the jewel

    Embellish her bosom, when the beer-feast was over.

    So Ecgtheow’s bairn brave did prove him,

    War-famous man, by deeds that were valiant,

    He lived in honor, belovèd companions

    Slew not carousing; his mood was not cruel,

    But by hand-strength hugest of heroes then living

    The brave one retained the bountiful gift that

    The Lord had allowed him. Long was he wretched,

    So that sons of the Geatmen accounted him worthless,

    And the lord of the liegemen loth was to do him

    Mickle of honor, when mead-cups were passing;

    They fully believed him idle and sluggish,

    An indolent atheling: to the honor-blest man there

    Came requital for the cuts he had suffered.

    The folk-troop’s defender bade fetch to the building

    The heirloom of Hrethel, embellished with gold,

    So the brave one enjoined it; there was jewel no richer

    In the form of a weapon ’mong Geats of that era;

    In Beowulf’s keeping he placed it and gave him

    Seven of thousands, manor and lordship.

    Common to both was land ’mong the people,

    Estate and inherited rights and possessions,

    To the second one specially spacious dominions,

    To the one who was better. It afterward happened

    In days that followed, befell the battle-thanes,

    After Higelac’s death, and when Heardred was murdered

    With weapons of warfare ’neath well-covered targets,

    When valiant battlemen in victor-band sought him,

    War-Scylfing heroes harassed the nephew

    Of Hereric in battle. To Beowulf’s keeping

    Turned there in time extensive dominions:

    He fittingly ruled them a fifty of winters

    (He a man-ruler wise was, manor-ward old) till

    A certain one ’gan, on gloom-darkening nights, a

    Dragon, to govern, who guarded a treasure,

    A high-rising stone-cliff, on heath that was grayish:

    A path ’neath it lay, unknown unto mortals.

    Some one of earthmen entered the mountain,

    The heathenish hoard laid hold of with ardor;

    * * * * * * *

    * * * * * * *

    * * * * * * *

    * * * * * * *

    * * * * * * *

    Part XXXII

    * * * * * * *

    He sought of himself who sorely did harm him,

    But, for need very pressing, the servant of one of

    The sons of the heroes hate-blows evaded,

    Seeking for shelter and the sin-driven warrior

    Took refuge within there. He early looked in it,

    * * * * * * *

    * * * * * * *

    * * * * * when the onset surprised him,

    He a gem-vessel saw there: many of suchlike

    Ancient ornaments in the earth-cave were lying,

    As in days of yore some one of men of

    Illustrious lineage, as a legacy monstrous,

    There had secreted them, careful and thoughtful,

    Dear-valued jewels. Death had offsnatched them,

    In the days of the past, and the one man moreover

    Of the flower of the folk who fared there the longest,

    Was fain to defer it, friend-mourning warder,

    A little longer to be left in enjoyment

    Of long-lasting treasure. A barrow all-ready

    Stood on the plain the stream-currents nigh to,

    New by the ness-edge, unnethe of approaching:

    The keeper of rings carried within a

    Ponderous deal of the treasure of nobles,

    Of gold that was beaten, briefly he spake then:

    “Hold thou, O Earth, now heroes no more may,

    The earnings of earlmen. Lo! erst in thy bosom

    Worthy men won them; war-death hath ravished,

    Perilous life-bale, all my warriors,

    Liegemen belovèd, who this life have forsaken,

    Who hall-pleasures saw. No sword-bearer have I,

    And no one to burnish the gold-plated vessel,

    The high-valued beaker: my heroes are vanished.

    The hardy helmet behung with gilding

    Shall be reaved of its riches: the ring-cleansers slumber

    Who were charged to have ready visors-for-battle,

    And the burnie that bided in battle-encounter

    O’er breaking of war-shields the bite of the edges

    Moulds with the hero. The ring-twisted armor,

    Its lord being lifeless, no longer may journey

    Hanging by heroes; harp-joy is vanished,

    The rapture of glee-wood, no excellent falcon

    Swoops through the building, no swift-footed charger

    Grindeth the gravel. A grievous destruction

    No few of the world-folk widely hath scattered!”

    So, woful of spirit one after all

    Lamented mournfully, moaning in sadness

    By day and by night, till death with its billows

    Dashed on his spirit. Then the ancient dusk-scather

    Found the great treasure standing all open,

    He who flaming and fiery flies to the barrows,

    Naked war-dragon, nightly escapeth

    Encompassed with fire; men under heaven

    Widely beheld him. ’Tis said that he looks for

    The hoard in the earth, where old he is guarding

    The heathenish treasure; he’ll be nowise the better.

    So three-hundred winters the waster of peoples

    Held upon earth that excellent hoard-hall,

    Till the forementioned earlman angered him bitterly:

    The beat-plated beaker he bare to his chieftain

    And fullest remission for all his remissness

    Begged of his liegelord. Then the hoard5 was discovered,

    The treasure was taken, his petition was granted

    The lorn-mooded liegeman. His lord regarded

    The old-work of earth-folk—’twas the earliest occasion.

    When the dragon awoke, the strife was renewed there;

    He snuffed ’long the stone then, stout-hearted found he

    The footprint of foeman; too far had he gone

    With cunning craftiness close to the head of

    The fire-spewing dragon. So undoomed he may ’scape from

    Anguish and exile with ease who possesseth

    The favor of Heaven. The hoard-warden eagerly

    Searched o’er the ground then, would meet with the person

    That caused him sorrow while in slumber reclining:

    Gleaming and wild he oft went round the cavern,

    All of it outward; not any of earthmen

    Was seen in that desert. Yet he joyed in the battle,

    Rejoiced in the conflict: oft he turned to the barrow,

    Sought for the gem-cup; this he soon perceived then

    That some man or other had discovered the gold,

    The famous folk-treasure. Not fain did the hoard-ward

    Wait until evening; then the ward of the barrow

    Was angry in spirit, the loathèd one wished to

    Pay for the dear-valued drink-cup with fire.

    Then the day was done as the dragon would have it,

    He no longer would wait on the wall, but departed

    Fire-impelled, flaming. Fearful the start was

    To earls in the land, as it early thereafter

    To their giver-of-gold was grievously ended.

    Part XXXIII

    The stranger began then to vomit forth fire,

    To burn the great manor; the blaze then glimmered

    For anguish to earlmen, not anything living

    Was the hateful air-goer willing to leave there.

    The war of the worm widely was noticed,

    The feud of the foeman afar and anear,

    How the enemy injured the earls of the Geatmen,

    Harried with hatred: back he hied to the treasure,

    To the well-hidden cavern ere the coming of daylight.

    He had circled with fire the folk of those regions,

    With brand and burning; in the barrow he trusted,

    In the wall and his war-might: the weening deceived him.

    Then straight was the horror to Beowulf published,

    Early forsooth, that his own native homestead,

    The best of buildings, was burning and melting,

    Gift-seat of Geatmen. ’Twas a grief to the spirit

    Of the good-mooded hero, the greatest of sorrows:

    The wise one weened then that wielding his kingdom

    ’Gainst the ancient commandments, he had bitterly angered

    The Lord everlasting: with lorn meditations

    His bosom welled inward, as was nowise his custom.

    The fire-spewing dragon fully had wasted

    The fastness of warriors, the water-land outward,

    The manor with fire. The folk-ruling hero,

    Prince of the Weders, was planning to wreak him.

    The warmen’s defender bade them to make him,

    Earlmen’s atheling, an excellent war-shield

    Wholly of iron: fully he knew then

    That wood from the forest was helpless to aid him,

    Shield against fire. The long-worthy ruler

    Must live the last of his limited earth-days,

    Of life in the world and the worm along with him,

    Though he long had been holding hoard-wealth in plenty.

    Then the ring-prince disdained to seek with a war-band,

    With army extensive, the air-going ranger;

    He felt no fear of the foeman’s assaults and

    He counted for little the might of the dragon,

    His power and prowess: for previously dared he

    A heap of hostility, hazarded dangers,

    War-thane, when Hrothgar’s palace he cleansèd,

    Conquering combatant, clutched in the battle

    The kinsmen of Grendel, of kindred detested.

    ’Twas of hand-fights not least where Higelac was slaughtered,

    When the king of the Geatmen with clashings of battle,

    Friend-lord of folks in Frisian dominions,

    Offspring of Hrethrel perished through sword-drink,

    With battle-swords beaten; thence Beowulf came then

    On self-help relying, swam through the waters;

    He bare on his arm, lone-going, thirty

    Outfits of armor, when the ocean he mounted.

    The Hetwars by no means had need to be boastful

    Of their fighting afoot, who forward to meet him

    Carried their war-shields: not many returned from

    The brave-mooded battle-knight back to their homesteads.

    Ecgtheow’s bairn o’er the bight-courses swam then,

    Lone-goer lorn to his land-folk returning,

    Where Hygd to him tendered treasure and kingdom,

    Rings and dominion: her son she not trusted,

    To be able to keep the kingdom devised him

    ’Gainst alien races, on the death of King Higelac.

    Yet the sad ones succeeded not in persuading the atheling

    In any way ever, to act as a suzerain

    To Heardred, or promise to govern the kingdom;

    Yet with friendly counsel in the folk he sustained him,

    Gracious, with honor, till he grew to be older,

    Wielded the Weders. Wide-fleeing outlaws,

    Ohthere’s sons, sought him o’er the waters:

    They had stirred a revolt ’gainst the helm of the Scylfings,

    The best of the sea-kings, who in Swedish dominions

    Distributed treasure, distinguished folk-leader.

    ’Twas the end of his earth-days; injury fatal

    By swing of the sword he received as a greeting,

    Offspring of Higelac; Ongentheow’s bairn

    Later departed to visit his homestead,

    When Heardred was dead; let Beowulf rule them,

    Govern the Geatmen: good was that folk-king.

    Part XXXIV

    He planned requital for the folk-leader’s ruin

    In days thereafter, to Eadgils the wretched

    Becoming an enemy. Ohthere’s son then

    Went with a war-troop o’er the wide-stretching currents

    With warriors and weapons: with woe-journeys cold he

    After avenged him, the king’s life he took.

    So he came off uninjured from all of his battles,

    Perilous fights, offspring of Ecgtheow,

    From his deeds of daring, till that day most momentous

    When he fate-driven fared to fight with the dragon.

    With eleven companions the prince of the Geatmen

    Went lowering with fury to look at the fire-drake:

    Inquiring he’d found how the feud had arisen,

    Hate to his heroes; the highly-famed gem-vessel

    Was brought to his keeping through the hand of th’ informer.

    That in the throng was thirteenth of heroes,

    That caused the beginning of conflict so bitter,

    Captive and wretched, must sad-mooded thenceward

    Point out the place: he passed then unwillingly

    To the spot where he knew of the notable cavern,

    The cave under earth, not far from the ocean,

    The anger of eddies, which inward was full of

    Jewels and wires: a warden uncanny,

    Warrior weaponed, wardered the treasure,

    Old under earth; no easy possession

    For any of earth-folk access to get to.

    Then the battle-brave atheling sat on the naze-edge,

    While the gold-friend of Geatmen gracious saluted

    His fireside-companions: woe was his spirit,

    Death-boding, wav’ring; Weird very near him,

    Who must seize the old hero, his soul-treasure look for,

    Dragging aloof his life from his body:

    Not flesh-hidden long was the folk-leader’s spirit.

    Beowulf spake, Ecgtheow’s son:

    “I survived in my youth-days many a conflict,

    Hours of onset: that all I remember.

    I was seven-winters old when the jewel-prince took me,

    High-lord of heroes, at the hands of my father,

    Hrethel the hero-king had me in keeping,

    Gave me treasure and feasting, our kinship remembered;

    Not ever was I any less dear to him

    Knight in the boroughs, than the bairns of his household,

    Herebald and Hæthcyn and Higelac mine.

    To the eldest unjustly by acts of a kinsman

    Was murder-bed strewn, since him Hæthcyn from horn-bow

    His sheltering chieftain shot with an arrow,

    Erred in his aim and injured his kinsman,

    One brother the other, with blood-sprinkled spear:

    ’Twas a feeless fight, finished in malice,

    Sad to his spirit; the folk-prince however

    Had to part from existence with vengeance untaken.

    So to hoar-headed hero ’tis heavily crushing

    To live to see his son as he rideth

    Young on the gallows: then measures he chanteth,

    A song of sorrow, when his son is hanging

    For the raven’s delight, and aged and hoary

    He is unable to offer any assistance.

    Every morning his offspring’s departure

    Is constant recalled: he cares not to wait for

    The birth of an heir in his borough-enclosures,

    Since that one through death-pain the deeds hath experienced.

    He heart-grieved beholds in the house of his son the

    Wine-building wasted, the wind-lodging places

    Reaved of their roaring; the riders are sleeping,

    The knights in the grave; there’s no sound of the harp-wood,

    Joy in the yards, as of yore were familiar.

    Part XXXV

    “He seeks then his chamber, singeth a woe-song

    One for the other; all too extensive

    Seemed homesteads and plains.

    So the helm of the Weders Mindful of Herebald heart-sorrow carried,

    Stirred with emotion, nowise was able

    To wreak his ruin on the ruthless destroyer:

    He was unable to follow the warrior with hatred,

    With deeds that were direful, though dear he not held him.

    Then pressed by the pang this pain occasioned him,

    He gave up glee, God-light elected;

    He left to his sons, as the man that is rich does,

    His land and fortress, when from life he departed.

    Then was crime and hostility ’twixt Swedes and Geatmen,

    O’er wide-stretching water warring was mutual,

    Burdensome hatred, when Hrethel had perished,

    And Ongentheow’s offspring were active and valiant,

    Wished not to hold to peace oversea, but

    Round Hreosna-beorh often accomplished

    Cruelest massacre. This my kinsman avengèd,

    The feud and fury, as ’tis found on inquiry,

    Though one of them paid it with forfeit of life-joys,

    With price that was hard: the struggle became then

    Fatal to Hæthcyn, lord of the Geatmen.

    Then I heard that at morning one brother the other

    With edges of irons egged on to murder,

    Where Ongentheow maketh onset on Eofor:

    The helmet crashed, the hoary-haired Scylfing

    Sword-smitten fell, his hand then remembered

    Feud-hate sufficient, refused not the death-blow.

    The gems that he gave me, with jewel-bright sword I

    ’Quited in contest, as occasion was offered:

    Land he allowed me, life-joy at homestead,

    Manor to live on. Little he needed

    From Gepids or Danes or in Sweden to look for

    Trooper less true, with treasure to buy him;

    ’Mong foot-soldiers ever in front I would hie me,

    Alone in the vanguard, and evermore gladly

    Warfare shall wage, while this weapon endureth

    That late and early often did serve me

    When I proved before heroes the slayer of Dæghrefn,

    Knight of the Hugmen: he by no means was suffered

    To the king of the Frisians to carry the jewels,

    The breast-decoration; but the banner-possessor

    Bowed in the battle, brave-mooded atheling.

    No weapon was slayer, but war-grapple broke then

    The surge of his spirit, his body destroying.

    Now shall weapon’s edge make war for the treasure,

    And hand and firm-sword.” Beowulf spake then,

    Boast-words uttered—the latest occasion:

    “I braved in my youth-days battles unnumbered;

    Still am I willing the struggle to look for,

    Fame-deeds perform, folk-warden prudent,

    If the hateful despoiler forth from his cavern

    Seeketh me out!” Each of the heroes,

    Helm-bearers sturdy, he thereupon greeted

    Belovèd co-liegemen—his last salutation:

    “No brand would I bear, no blade for the dragon,

    Wist I a way my word-boast to ’complish

    Else with the monster, as with Grendel I did it;

    But fire in the battle hot I expect there,

    Furious flame-burning: so I fixed on my body

    Target and war-mail. The ward of the barrow

    I’ll not flee from a foot-length, the foeman uncanny.

    At the wall ’twill befall us as Fate decreeth,

    Each one’s Creator. I am eager in spirit,

    With the wingèd war-hero to away with all boasting.

    Bide on the barrow with burnies protected,

    Earls in armor, which of us two may better

    Bear his disaster, when the battle is over.

    ’Tis no matter of yours, and man cannot do it,

    But me and me only, to measure his strength with

    The monster of malice, might-deeds to ’complish.

    I with prowess shall gain the gold, or the battle,

    Direful death-woe will drag off your ruler!”

    The mighty champion rose by his shield then,

    Brave under helmet, in battle-mail went he

    ’Neath steep-rising stone-cliffs, the strength he relied on

    Of one man alone: no work for a coward.

    Then he saw by the wall who a great many battles

    Had lived through, most worthy, when foot-troops collided,

    Stone-arches standing, stout-hearted champion,

    Saw a brook from the barrow bubbling out thenceward:

    The flood of the fountain was fuming with war-flame:

    Not nigh to the hoard, for season the briefest

    Could he brave, without burning, the abyss that was yawning,

    The drake was so fiery. The prince of the Weders

    Caused then that words came from his bosom,

    So fierce was his fury; the firm-hearted shouted:

    His battle-clear voice came in resounding

    ’Neath the gray-colored stone. Stirred was his hatred,

    The hoard-ward distinguished the speech of a man;

    Time was no longer to look out for friendship.

    The breath of the monster issued forth first,

    Vapory war-sweat, out of the stone-cave:

    The earth re-echoed. The earl ’neath the barrow

    Lifted his shield, lord of the Geatmen,

    Tow’rd the terrible stranger: the ring-twisted creature’s

    Heart was then ready to seek for a struggle.

    The excellent battle-king first brandished his weapon,

    The ancient heirloom, of edges unblunted,

    To the death-planners twain was terror from other.

    The lord of the troopers intrepidly stood then

    ’Gainst his high-rising shield, when the dragon coiled him Quickly together: in corslet he bided.

    He went then in blazes, bended and striding,

    Hasting him forward. His life and body

    The targe well protected, for time-period shorter

    Than wish demanded for the well-renowned leader,

    Where he then for the first day was forced to be victor,

    Famous in battle, as Fate had not willed it.

    The lord of the Geatmen uplifted his hand then,

    Smiting the fire-drake with sword that was precious,

    That bright on the bone the blade-edge did weaken,

    Bit more feebly than his folk-leader needed,

    Burdened with bale-griefs. Then the barrow-protector,

    When the sword-blow had fallen, was fierce in his spirit,

    Flinging his fires, flamings of battle

    Gleamed then afar: the gold-friend of Weders

    Boasted no conquests, his battle-sword failed him

    Naked in conflict, as by no means it ought to,

    Long-trusty weapon. ’Twas no slight undertaking

    That Ecgtheow’s famous offspring would leave

    The drake-cavern’s bottom; he must live in some region

    Other than this, by the will of the dragon,

    As each one of earthmen existence must forfeit.

    ’Twas early thereafter the excellent warriors

    Met with each other. Anew and afresh

    The hoard-ward took heart (gasps heaved then his bosom):

    Sorrow he suffered encircled with fire

    Who the people erst governed. His companions by no means

    Were banded about him, bairns of the princes,

    With valorous spirit, but they sped to the forest,

    Seeking for safety. The soul-deeps of one were

    Ruffled by care: kin-love can never

    Aught in him waver who well doth consider.

    Part XXXVI

    The son of Weohstan was Wiglaf entitled,

    Shield-warrior precious, prince of the Scylfings,

    Ælfhere’s kinsman: he saw his dear liegelord

    Enduring the heat ’neath helmet and visor.

    Then he minded the holding that erst he had given him,

    The Wægmunding warriors’ wealth-blessèd homestead,

    Each of the folk-rights his father had wielded;

    He was hot for the battle, his hand seized the target,

    The yellow-bark shield, he unsheathed his old weapon,

    Which was known among earthmen as the relic of Eanmund,

    Ohthere’s offspring, whom, exiled and friendless,

    Weohstan did slay with sword-edge in battle,

    And carried his kinsman the clear-shining helmet,

    The ring-made burnie, the old giant-weapon

    That Onela gave him, his boon-fellow’s armor,

    Ready war-trappings: he the feud did not mention,

    Though he’d fatally smitten the son of his brother.

    Many a half-year held he the treasures,

    The bill and the burnie, till his bairn became able,

    Like his father before him, fame-deeds to ’complish;

    Then he gave him ’mong Geatmen a goodly array of

    Weeds for his warfare; he went from life then

    Old on his journey. ’Twas the earliest time then

    That the youthful champion might charge in the battle

    Aiding his liegelord; his spirit was dauntless.

    Nor did kinsman’s bequest quail at the battle:

    This the dragon discovered on their coming together.

    Wiglaf uttered many a right-saying,

    Said to his fellows, sad was his spirit:

    “I remember the time when, tasting the mead-cup,

    We promised in the hall the lord of us all

    Who gave us these ring-treasures, that this battle-equipment,

    Swords and helmets, we’d certainly quite him,

    Should need of such aid ever befall him:

    In the war-band he chose us for this journey spontaneously,

    Stirred us to glory and gave me these jewels,

    Since he held and esteemed us trust-worthy spearmen,

    Hardy helm-bearers, though this hero-achievement

    Our lord intended alone to accomplish,

    Ward of his people, for most of achievements,

    Doings audacious, he did among earth-folk.

    The day is now come when the ruler of earthmen

    Needeth the vigor of valiant heroes:

    Let us wend us towards him, the war-prince to succor,

    While the heat yet rageth, horrible fire-fight.

    God wot in me, ’tis mickle the liefer

    The blaze should embrace my body and eat it

    With my treasure-bestower. Meseemeth not proper

    To bear our battle-shields back to our country,

    ’Less first we are able to fell and destroy the

    Long-hating foeman, to defend the life of

    The prince of the Weders. Well do I know ’tisn’t

    Earned by his exploits, he only of Geatmen

    Sorrow should suffer, sink in the battle:

    Brand and helmet to us both shall be common,

    Shield-cover, burnie.” Through the bale-smoke he stalked then,

    Went under helmet to the help of his chieftain,

    Briefly discoursing: “Beowulf dear,

    Perform thou all fully, as thou formerly saidst,

    In thy youthful years, that while yet thou livedst

    Thou wouldst let thine honor not ever be lessened.

    Thy life thou shalt save, mighty in actions,

    Atheling undaunted, with all of thy vigor;

    I’ll give thee assistance.” The dragon came raging,

    Wild-mooded stranger, when these words had been uttered

    (’Twas the second occasion), seeking his enemies,

    Men that were hated, with hot-gleaming fire-waves;

    With blaze-billows burned the board to its edges:

    The fight-armor failed then to furnish assistance

    To the youthful spear-hero: but the young-agèd stripling

    Quickly advanced ’neath his kinsman’s war-target,

    Since his own had been ground in the grip of the fire.

    Then the warrior-king was careful of glory,

    He soundly smote with sword-for-the-battle,

    That it stood in the head by hatred driven;

    Nægling was shivered, the old and iron-made

    Brand of Beowulf in battle deceived him.

    ’Twas denied him that edges of irons were able

    To help in the battle; the hand was too mighty

    Which every weapon, as I heard on inquiry,

    Outstruck in its stroke, when to struggle he carried

    The wonderful war-sword: it waxed him no better.

    Then the people-despoiler—third of his onsets—

    Fierce-raging fire-drake, of feud-hate was mindful,

    Charged on the strong one, when chance was afforded,

    Heated and war-grim, seized on his neck

    With teeth that were bitter; he bloody did wax with

    Soul-gore seething; sword-blood in waves boiled.

    Part XXXVII

    Then I heard that at need of the king of the people

    The upstanding earlman exhibited prowess,

    Vigor and courage, as suited his nature;

    He his head did not guard, but the high-minded liegeman’s

    Hand was consumed, when he succored his kinsman,

    So he struck the strife-bringing strange-comer lower,

    Earl-thane in armor, that in went the weapon

    Gleaming and plated, that ’gan then the fire

    Later to lessen. The liegelord himself then

    Retained his consciousness, brandished his war-knife,

    Battle-sharp, bitter, that he bare on his armor:

    The Weder-lord cut the worm in the middle.

    They had felled the enemy (life drove out then

    Puissant prowess), the pair had destroyed him,

    Land-chiefs related: so a liegeman should prove him,

    A thaneman when needed. To the prince ’twas the last of

    His era of conquest by his own great achievements,

    The latest of world-deeds. The wound then began

    Which the earth-dwelling dragon erstwhile had wrought him

    To burn and to swell. He soon then discovered

    That bitterest bale-woe in his bosom was raging,

    Poison within. The atheling advanced then,

    That along by the wall, he prudent of spirit

    Might sit on a settle; he saw the giant-work,

    How arches of stone strengthened with pillars

    The earth-hall eternal inward supported.

    Then the long-worthy liegeman laved with his hand the

    Far-famous chieftain, gory from sword-edge,

    Refreshing the face of his friend-lord and ruler,

    Sated with battle, unbinding his helmet.

    Beowulf answered, of his injury spake he,

    His wound that was fatal (he was fully aware

    He had lived his allotted life-days enjoying

    The pleasures of earth; then past was entirely

    His measure of days, death very near):

    “My son I would give now my battle-equipments,

    Had any of heirs been after me granted,

    Along of my body. This people I governed

    Fifty of winters: no king ’mong my neighbors

    Dared to encounter me with comrades-in-battle,

    Try me with terror. The time to me ordered

    I bided at home, mine own kept fitly,

    Sought me no snares, swore me not many

    Oaths in injustice. Joy over all this

    I’m able to have, though ill with my death-wounds;

    Hence the Ruler of Earthmen need not charge me

    With the killing of kinsmen, when cometh my life out

    Forth from my body. Fare thou with haste now

    To behold the hoard ’neath the hoar-grayish stone,

    Well-lovèd Wiglaf, now the worm is a-lying,

    Sore-wounded sleepeth, disseized of his treasure.

    Go thou in haste that treasures of old I,

    Gold-wealth may gaze on, together see lying

    The ether-bright jewels, be easier able,

    Having the heap of hoard-gems, to yield my

    Life and the land-folk whom long I have governed.”

    Part XXXVIII

    Then heard I that Wihstan’s son very quickly,

    These words being uttered, heeded his liegelord

    Wounded and war-sick, went in his armor,

    His well-woven ring-mail, ’neath the roof of the barrow.

    Then the trusty retainer treasure-gems many

    Victorious saw, when the seat he came near to,

    Gold-treasure sparkling spread on the bottom,

    Wonder on the wall, and the worm-creature’s cavern,

    The ancient dawn-flier’s, vessels a-standing,

    Cups of the ancients of cleansers bereavèd,

    Robbed of their ornaments: there were helmets in numbers,

    Old and rust-eaten, arm-bracelets many,

    Artfully woven. Wealth can easily,

    Gold on the sea-bottom, turn into vanity

    Each one of earthmen, arm him who pleaseth!

    And he saw there lying an all-golden banner

    High o’er the hoard, of hand-wonders greatest,

    Linkèd with lacets: a light from it sparkled,

    That the floor of the cavern he was able to look on,

    To examine the jewels. Sight of the dragon

    Not any was offered, but edge offcarried him.

    Then I heard that the hero the hoard-treasure plundered,

    The giant-work ancient reaved in the cavern,

    Bare on his bosom the beakers and platters,

    As himself would fain have it, and took off the standard,

    The brightest of beacons; the bill had erst injured

    (Its edge was of iron), the old-ruler’s weapon,

    Him who long had watched as ward of the jewels,

    Who fire-terror carried hot for the treasure,

    Rolling in battle, in middlemost darkness,

    Till murdered he perished. The messenger hastened,

    Not loth to return, hurried by jewels:

    Curiosity urged him if, excellent-mooded,

    Alive he should find the lord of the Weders

    Mortally wounded, at the place where he left him.

    ’Mid the jewels he found then the famous old chieftain,

    His liegelord belovèd, at his life’s-end gory:

    He thereupon ’gan to lave him with water,

    Till the point of his word piercèd his breast-hoard.

    Beowulf spake (the gold-gems he noticed),

    The old one in sorrow: “For the jewels I look on

    Thanks do I utter for all to the Ruler,

    Wielder of Worship, with words of devotion,

    The Lord everlasting, that He let me such treasures

    Gain for my people ere death overtook me.

    Since I’ve bartered the agèd life to me granted

    For treasure of jewels, attend ye henceforward

    The wants of the war-thanes; I can wait here no longer.

    The battle-famed bid ye to build them a grave-hill,

    Bright when I’m burned, at the brim-current’s limit;

    As a memory-mark to the men I have governed,

    Aloft it shall tower on Whale’s-Ness uprising,

    That earls of the ocean hereafter may call it

    Beowulf’s barrow, those who barks ever-dashing

    From a distance shall drive o’er the darkness of waters.”

    The bold-mooded troop-lord took from his neck then

    The ring that was golden, gave to his liegeman,

    The youthful war-hero, his gold-flashing helmet,

    His collar and war-mail, bade him well to enjoy them:

    “Thou art latest left of the line of our kindred,

    Of Wægmunding people: Weird hath offcarried

    All of my kinsmen to the Creator’s glory,

    Earls in their vigor: I shall after them fare.”

    ’Twas the aged liegelord’s last-spoken word in

    His musings of spirit, ere he mounted the fire,

    The battle-waves burning: from his bosom departed

    His soul to seek the sainted ones’ glory.

    Part XXXIX

    It had wofully chanced then the youthful retainer

    To behold on earth the most ardent-belovèd

    At his life-days’ limit, lying there helpless.

    The slayer too lay there, of life all bereavèd,

    Horrible earth-drake, harassed with sorrow:

    The round-twisted monster was permitted no longer

    To govern the ring-hoards, but edges of war-swords

    Mightily seized him, battle-sharp, sturdy

    Leavings of hammers, that still from his wounds

    The flier-from-farland fell to the earth

    Hard by his hoard-house, hopped he at midnight

    Not e’er through the air, nor exulting in jewels

    Suffered them to see him: but he sank then to earthward

    Through the hero-chief’s handwork. I heard sure it throve then

    But few in the land of liegemen of valor,

    Though of every achievement bold he had proved him,

    To run ’gainst the breath of the venomous scather,

    Or the hall of the treasure to trouble with hand-blows,

    If he watching had found the ward of the hoard-hall

    On the barrow abiding. Beowulf’s part of

    The treasure of jewels was paid for with death;

    Each of the twain had attained to the end of

    Life so unlasting. Not long was the time till

    The tardy-at-battle returned from the thicket,

    The timid truce-breakers ten all together,

    Who durst not before play with the lances

    In the prince of the people’s pressing emergency;

    But blushing with shame, with shields they betook them,

    With arms and armor where the old one was lying:

    They gazed upon Wiglaf. He was sitting exhausted,

    Foot-going fighter, not far from the shoulders

    Of the lord of the people, would rouse him with water;

    No whit did it help him; though he hoped for it keenly,

    He was able on earth not at all in the leader

    Life to retain, and nowise to alter

    The will of the Wielder; the World-Ruler’s power

    Would govern the actions of each one of heroes,

    As yet He is doing. From the young one forthwith then

    Could grim-worded greeting be got for him quickly

    Whose courage had failed him. Wiglaf discoursed then,

    Weohstan his son, sad-mooded hero,

    Looked on the hated: “He who soothness will utter

    Can say that the liegelord who gave you the jewels,

    The ornament-armor wherein ye are standing,

    When on ale-bench often he offered to hall-men Helmet and burnie, the prince to his liegemen,

    As best upon earth he was able to find him,—

    That he wildly wasted his war-gear undoubtedly

    When battle o’ertook him. The troop-king no need had

    To glory in comrades; yet God permitted him,

    Victory-Wielder, with weapon unaided

    Himself to avenge, when vigor was needed.

    I life-protection but little was able

    To give him in battle, and I ’gan, notwithstanding,

    Helping my kinsman (my strength overtaxing):

    He waxed the weaker when with weapon I smote on

    My mortal opponent, the fire less strongly

    Flamed from his bosom. Too few of protectors

    Came round the king at the critical moment.

    Now must ornament-taking and weapon-bestowing,

    Home-joyance all, cease for your kindred,

    Food for the people; each of your warriors

    Must needs be bereavèd of rights that he holdeth

    In landed possessions, when faraway nobles

    Shall learn of your leaving your lord so basely,

    The dastardly deed. Death is more pleasant

    To every earlman than infamous life is!”

    Part XL

    Then he charged that the battle be announced at the hedge

    Up o’er the cliff-edge, where the earl-troopers bided

    The whole of the morning, mood-wretched sat them,

    Bearers of battle-shields, both things expecting,

    The end of his lifetime and the coming again of

    The liegelord belovèd. Little reserved he

    Of news that was known, who the ness-cliff did travel,

    But he truly discoursed to all that could hear him:

    “Now the free-giving friend-lord of the folk of the Weders,

    The folk-prince of Geatmen, is fast in his death-bed,

    By the deeds of the dragon in death-bed abideth;

    Along with him lieth his life-taking foeman

    Slain with knife-wounds: he was wholly unable

    To injure at all the ill-planning monster

    With bite of his sword-edge. Wiglaf is sitting,

    Offspring of Wihstan, up over Beowulf,

    Earl o’er another whose end-day hath reached him,

    Head-watch holdeth o’er heroes unliving,

    For friend and for foeman. The folk now expecteth

    A season of strife when the death of the folk-king

    To Frankmen and Frisians in far-lands is published.

    The war-hatred waxed warm ’gainst the Hugmen,

    When Higelac came with an army of vessels

    Faring to Friesland, where the Frankmen in battle

    Humbled him and bravely with overmight ’complished

    That the mail-clad warrior must sink in the battle,

    Fell ’mid his folk-troop: no fret-gems presented

    The atheling to earlmen; aye was denied us

    Merewing’s mercy. The men of the Swedelands

    For truce or for truth trust I but little;

    But widely ’twas known that near Ravenswood Ongentheow

    Sundered Hæthcyn the Hrethling from life-joys,

    When for pride overweening the War-Scylfings first did

    Seek the Geatmen with savage intentions.

    Early did Ohthere’s age-laden father,

    Old and terrible, give blow in requital,

    Killing the sea-king, the queen-mother rescued,

    The old one his consort deprived of her gold,

    Onela’s mother and Ohthere’s also,

    And then followed the feud-nursing foemen till hardly,

    Reaved of their ruler, they Ravenswood entered.

    Then with vast-numbered forces he assaulted the remnant,

    Weary with wounds, woe often promised

    The livelong night to the sad-hearted war-troop:

    Said he at morning would kill them with edges of weapons,

    Some on the gallows for glee to the fowls.

    Aid came after to the anxious-in-spirit

    At dawn of the day, after Higelac’s bugle

    And trumpet-sound heard they, when the good one proceeded

    And faring followed the flower of the troopers.

    Part XLI

    “The blood-stainèd trace of Swedes and Geatmen,

    The death-rush of warmen, widely was noticed,

    How the folks with each other feud did awaken.

    The worthy one went then with well-beloved comrades,

    Old and dejected to go to the fastness,

    Ongentheo earl upward then turned him;

    Of Higelac’s battle he’d heard on inquiry,

    The exultant one’s prowess, despaired of resistance,

    With earls of the ocean to be able to struggle,

    ’Gainst sea-going sailors to save the hoard-treasure,

    His wife and his children; he fled after thenceward

    Old ’neath the earth-wall. Then was offered pursuance

    To the braves of the Swedemen, the banner to Higelac.

    They fared then forth o’er the field-of-protection,

    When the Hrethling heroes hedgeward had thronged them.

    Then with edges of irons was Ongentheow driven,

    The gray-haired to tarry, that the troop-ruler had to Suffer the power solely of Eofor:

    Wulf then wildly with weapon assaulted him,

    Wonred his son, that for swinge of the edges

    The blood from his body burst out in currents,

    Forth ’neath his hair. He feared not however,

    Gray-headed Scylfing, but speedily quited

    The wasting wound-stroke with worse exchange,

    When the king of the thane-troop thither did turn him:

    The wise-mooded son of Wonred was powerless

    To give a return-blow to the age-hoary man,

    But his head-shielding helmet first hewed he to pieces,

    That flecked with gore perforce he did totter,

    Fell to the earth; not fey was he yet then,

    But up did he spring though an edge-wound had reached him.

    Then Higelac’s vassal, valiant and dauntless,

    When his brother lay dead, made his broad-bladed weapon,

    Giant-sword ancient, defence of the giants,

    Bound o’er the shield-wall; the folk-prince succumbed then,

    Shepherd of people, was pierced to the vitals.

    There were many attendants who bound up his kinsman,

    Carried him quickly when occasion was granted

    That the place of the slain they were suffered to manage.

    This pending, one hero plundered the other,

    His armor of iron from Ongentheow ravished,

    His hard-sword hilted and helmet together;

    The old one’s equipments he carried to Higelac.

    He the jewels received, and rewards ’mid the troopers

    Graciously promised, and so did accomplish:

    The king of the Weders requited the war-rush,

    Hrethel’s descendant, when home he repaired him,

    To Eofor and Wulf with wide-lavished treasures,

    To each of them granted a hundred of thousands

    In land and rings wrought out of wire:

    None upon mid-earth needed to twit him

    With the gifts he gave them, when glory they conquered;

    And to Eofor then gave he his one only daughter,

    The honor of home, as an earnest of favor.

    That’s the feud and hatred—as ween I ’twill happen—

    The anger of earthmen, that earls of the Swedemen

    Will visit on us, when they hear that our leader

    Lifeless is lying, he who longtime protected

    His hoard and kingdom ’gainst hating assailers,

    Who on the fall of the heroes defended of yore

    The deed-mighty Scyldings, did for the troopers

    What best did avail them, and further moreover

    Hero-deeds ’complished. Now is haste most fitting,

    That the lord of liegemen we look upon yonder,

    And that one carry on journey to death-pyre

    Who ring-presents gave us. Not aught of it all

    Shall melt with the brave one—there’s a mass of bright jewels,

    Gold beyond measure, grewsomely purchased

    And ending it all ornament-rings too

    Bought with his life; these fire shall devour,

    Flame shall cover, no earlman shall wear

    A jewel-memento, nor beautiful virgin

    Have on her neck rings to adorn her,

    But wretched in spirit bereavèd of gold-gems

    She shall oft with others be exiled and banished,

    Since the leader of liegemen hath laughter forsaken,

    Mirth and merriment. Hence many a war-spear

    Cold from the morning shall be clutched in the fingers,

    Heaved in the hand, no harp-music’s sound shall

    Waken the warriors, but the wan-coated raven

    Fain over fey ones freely shall gabble,

    Shall say to the eagle how he sped in the eating,

    When, the wolf his companion, he plundered the slain.”

    So the high-minded hero was rehearsing these stories

    Loathsome to hear; he lied as to few of

    Weirds and of words. All the war-troop arose then,

    ’Neath the Eagle’s Cape sadly betook them,

    Weeping and woful, the wonder to look at.

    They saw on the sand then soulless a-lying,

    His slaughter-bed holding, him who rings had given them

    In days that were done; then the death-bringing moment

    Was come to the good one, that the king very warlike,

    Wielder of Weders, with wonder-death perished.

    First they beheld there a creature more wondrous,

    The worm on the field, in front of them lying,

    The foeman before them: the fire-spewing dragon,

    Ghostly and grisly guest in his terrors,

    Was scorched in the fire; as he lay there he measured

    Fifty of feet; came forth in the night-time

    To rejoice in the air, thereafter departing

    To visit his den; he in death was then fastened,

    He would joy in no other earth-hollowed caverns.

    There stood round about him beakers and vessels,

    Dishes were lying and dear-valued weapons,

    With iron-rust eaten, as in earth’s mighty bosom

    A thousand of winters there they had rested:

    That mighty bequest then with magic was guarded,

    Gold of the ancients, that earlman not any

    The ring-hall could touch, save Ruling-God only,

    Sooth-king of Vict’ries gave whom He wished to

    (He is earth-folk’s protector) to open the treasure,

    E’en to such among mortals as seemed to Him proper.

    Part XLII

    Then ’twas seen that the journey prospered him little

    Who wrongly within had the ornaments hidden

    Down ’neath the wall. The warden erst slaughtered

    Some few of the folk-troop: the feud then thereafter

    Was hotly avengèd. ’Tis a wonder where,

    When the strength-famous trooper has attained to the end of

    Life-days allotted, then no longer the man may

    Remain with his kinsmen where mead-cups are flowing.

    So to Beowulf happened when the ward of the barrow,

    Assaults, he sought for: himself had no knowledge

    How his leaving this life was likely to happen.

    So to doomsday, famous folk-leaders down did

    Call it with curses—who ’complished it there—

    That that man should be ever of ill-deeds convicted,

    Confined in foul-places, fastened in hell-bonds,

    Punished with plagues, who this place should e’er ravage.

    He cared not for gold: rather the Wielder’s

    Favor preferred he first to get sight of.

    Wiglaf discoursed then, Wihstan his son:

    “Oft many an earlman on one man’s account must

    Sorrow endure, as to us it hath happened.

    The liegelord belovèd we could little prevail on,

    Kingdom’s keeper, counsel to follow,

    Not to go to the guardian of the gold-hoard, but let him

    Lie where he long was, live in his dwelling

    Till the end of the world. Met we a destiny

    Hard to endure: the hoard has been looked at,

    Been gained very grimly; too grievous the fate that

    The prince of the people pricked to come thither.

    I was therein and all of it looked at,

    The building’s equipments, since access was given me,

    Not kindly at all entrance permitted

    Within under earth-wall. Hastily seized I

    And held in my hands a huge-weighing burden

    Of hoard-treasures costly, hither out bare them

    To my liegelord belovèd: life was yet in him,

    And consciousness also; the old one discoursed then

    Much and mournfully, commanded to greet you,

    Bade that remembering the deeds of your friend-lord

    Ye build on the fire-hill of corpses a lofty

    Burial-barrow, broad and far-famous,

    As ’mid world-dwelling warriors he was widely most honored

    While he reveled in riches. Let us rouse us and hasten

    Again to see and seek for the treasure,

    The wonder ’neath wall. The way I will show you,

    That close ye may look at ring-gems sufficient

    And gold in abundance. Let the bier with promptness

    Fully be fashioned, when forth we shall come,

    And lift we our lord, then, where long he shall tarry,

    Well-beloved warrior, ’neath the Wielder’s protection.”

    Then the son of Wihstan bade orders be given,

    Mood-valiant man, to many of heroes,

    Holders of homesteads, that they hither from far,

    Leaders of liegemen, should look for the good one

    With wood for his pyre: “The flame shall now swallow

    (The wan fire shall wax) the warriors’ leader

    Who the rain of the iron often abided,

    When, sturdily hurled, the storm of the arrows

    Leapt o’er linden-wall, the lance rendered service,

    Furnished with feathers followed the arrow.”

    Now the wise-mooded son of Wihstan did summon

    The best of the braves from the band of the ruler

    Seven together; ’neath the enemy’s roof he

    Went with the seven; one of the heroes

    Who fared at the front, a fire-blazing torch-light

    Bare in his hand. No lot then decided

    Who that hoard should havoc, when hero-earls saw it

    Lying in the cavern uncared-for entirely,

    Rusting to ruin: they rued then but little

    That they hastily hence hauled out the treasure,

    The dear-valued jewels; the dragon eke pushed they,

    The worm o’er the wall, let the wave-currents take him,

    The waters enwind the ward of the treasures.

    There wounden gold on a wain was uploaded,

    A mass unmeasured, the men-leader off then,

    The hero hoary, to Whale’s-Ness was carried.

    Part XLIII

    The folk of the Geatmen got him then ready

    A pile on the earth strong for the burning,

    Behung with helmets, hero-knights’ targets,

    And bright-shining burnies, as he begged they should have them;

    Then wailing war-heroes their world-famous chieftain,

    Their liegelord beloved, laid in the middle.

    Soldiers began then to make on the barrow

    The largest of dead-fires: dark o’er the vapor

    The smoke-cloud ascended, the sad-roaring fire,

    Mingled with weeping (the wind-roar subsided)

    Till the building of bone it had broken to pieces,

    Hot in the heart. Heavy in spirit

    They mood-sad lamented the men-leader’s ruin;

    And mournful measures the much-grieving widow

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    The men of the Weders made accordingly

    A hill on the height, high and extensive,

    Of sea-going sailors to be seen from a distance,

    And the brave one’s beacon built where the fire was,

    In ten-days’ space, with a wall surrounded it,

    As wisest of world-folk could most worthily plan it.

    They placed in the barrow rings and jewels,

    All such ornaments as erst in the treasure

    War-mooded men had won in possession:

    The earnings of earlmen to earth they entrusted,

    The gold to the dust, where yet it remaineth

    As useless to mortals as in foregoing eras.

    ’Round the dead-mound rode then the doughty-in-battle,

    Bairns of all twelve of the chiefs of the people,

    More would they mourn, lament for their ruler,

    Speak in measure, mention him with pleasure,

    Weighed his worth, and his warlike achievements

    Mightily commended, as ’tis meet one praise his

    Liegelord in words and love him in spirit,

    When forth from his body he fares to destruction.

    So lamented mourning the men of the Geats,

    Fond-loving vassals, the fall of their lord,

    Said he was kindest of kings under heaven,

    Gentlest of men, most winning of manner,

    Friendliest to folk-troops and fondest of honor.

    1.5.2 Reading and Review Questions

    • Are Grendel and his mother symbolic? Do they represent something to the characters? Does the dragon at the end symbolize something else?
    • What do each of the stories-within-the-story add to the overall theme of
    • Beowulf? How do they foreshadow later events?
    • What is explicitly Christian in Beowulf, and what isn’t? How much does Christianity influence the story?
    • How does Beowulf represent ideas about family/kinship? What should the audience emulate, and are there warnings about kin?
    • Is Beowulf a good hero and/or a good king? To what extent in each case? Give evidence.
    • Was this article helpful?