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12.5: Matumizi ya Lugha

  • Page ID
    79971
  • Sarufi: Kudogowesha na Kukubwisha

    KUDOGOWESHA

    Nouns may take on a diminutive meaning by adding the prefixes ki-/vi– and ka-/tu- to the noun stem. The second pair suggests a greater degree of diminution. The tu– plural is rarely used. The rules for forming the diminutives follow the division of noun stems into:

    consonant stems (polysyllabic) m-toto
    vowel stems (polysyllabic) ny-umba
    monosyllabic stems m-bwa
    ki-stems ki-tabu
    ch-stems ch-umba
    Class 14 u-baridi

    Examples:

    1 m-toto ki-toto ka-toto
    2 ny-umba ki-j-umba ka-j-umba
    3 m-bwa ki-ji-bwa ka-ji-bwa
    4 ki-tabu ki-ji-tabu ka-ji-tabu
    5 ch-umba ki-ch-umba ka-ch-umba
    6 u-baridi ki-u-baridi ka-u-baridi

     

    Usages exist outside these categories, e.g. ki-m-radi, ‘little/negligible/silly little project’.

    Translation depends on context, as the diminutive may express a small size or endearment, or both, or may be used to belittle.

    Zoezi la kwanza. TAFSIRI

    1 kijia
    2 vijiji
    3 kijito
    4 kijiko
    5 kilima
    6 vijoka
    7 kabarua
    8 kasichana
    9 kadege
    10 kawimbo
    11 kipenzi

     

    KUKUBWISHA

    Augmentatives convey the meaning of large size or derogation and disrespect. They are formed by adding the prefix ji-/ma– to the noun stem. Similar rules apply as for diminutives. Note the nouns that originally belong to Classes 5/6, i.e. those whose secondary use is augmentation.

    Examples:

    1 m-toto ji-toto/ma-toto
    2 ny-umba j-umba/ma-j-umba
    3 m-bwa ji-bwa/ma-ji-bwa
    4 n-goma goma/ma-goma
    5 ki-tabu tabu/ma-tabu OR ji-tabu/ma-ji-tabu
    6 jambazi ji-jambazi/ma-ji-jambazi

    Zoezi la kwanza. TAFSIRI
    1         jiji
    2         jitu
    3         jike: ng’ombe jike
    4         majoka
    5         buzi
    6         a huge bird
    7         big cats
    8         (Thereza na Rosa wanazungumza)
    “Sijui mavulana mengine yakoje! Kuna mvulana mmoja
    nimekwishamjibu vikali kwamba simtaki. […] Lakini yeye
    anajibu: ‘Aksante sana kwa barua yako: hiyo ni alama
    ya mapenzi.’ (34) 
    9         (Thereza na Rosa wanaendelea)
    “Wanasema sijui ni jitu la wapi – lina miguu mirefu kama mbuni!” (34).

    Zoezi la pili. MCHEZO
    Tunga mchezo mfupi pamoja na mwanafunzi mwenzako mkitumia sarufi hii.

     

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