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10.3: Los mandatos de nosotros- afirmativos y negativos

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    62628
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    "Nosotros" affirmative and negative commands

    You have learned to give commands affirmatively and negatively to someone you address:

    • Informally (tú)
    • Formally (usted and ustedes)

    In this lesson, you will learn the “nosotros” commands. "Nosotros" commands  happen when the speaker and other people are included in the command. This is the equivalent to the English "Let’s + [verb]".

    Vamos a...

    "Vamos a + [infinitive]" can be used for the English "let’s + [verb]". However, it can also mean "we’re going to + [verb]. The tone and the context will tell you if it is a command or a statement. 

    • Vamos a leer ahora. (Let’s read now.)
    • Vamos a estudiar en la biblioteca mañana. (We’re going to study in the library tomorrow.)

    We use the present indicative of the verb "ir" (to go) to express "let’s + verb" as in "vamos al cine" (let’s go to the movie). "Vamos" is only used in affirmative commands. In negative "nosotros" commands with the verb "ir" (to go), use the subjunctive form instead: no vayamos al cine (let’s not go to the movies).

    “Let’s” with the present subjunctive

    The same rules used to conjugate informal negative (tú) and formal commands are used to conjugate the “nosotros” commands.

    Follow these steps to conjugate "nosotros" commands:

    1. Conjugate the verb in the "yo" form in the present tense of the indicative mood.
    2. Drop the final “-o”.
    3. Add new endings. (For "-ar" verbs, add “-emos”. For "-er" and "-ir" verbs, add “-amos”.)

    Conjugation of "nosotros" commands

    Look at the examples of conjugations in "nosotros" commands in the chart below. Note that all command endings are in bold.

    Infinitive

    Present tense

    "Yo" form

    Stem (raíz)

    "Nosotros" command

    estudiar

    estudio

    estudi-

    (No) estudiemos

    cerrar (ie)
    (no stem change)

    cierro

    cierr  cerr-

    (No) cerremos

    leer

    leo

    le-

    (No) leamos

    volver (ue)
    (no stem change)

    vuelvo

    vuelv  volv

    (No) volvamos

    abrir

    abro

    abr-

    (No) abramos

    servir (i)*
    (stem change)

    sirvo

    sirv-

    (No) sirvamos

    hacer

    hago

    hag-

    (No) hagamos

    traducir

    traduzco

    traduzc-

    (No) traduzcamos

    ver

    veo

    ve-

    (No) veamos

    *There is a stem change in nosotros, nosotras command only with "-ir" ending verbs. There are two types of stem change: "e→i"; and "o→u".

    Stem change in "nosotros" commands 

    Verb ending in -ar

    (no stem change)

    Verb ending in -er

    (no stem change)

    Verb ending in -ir

    (Stem-change from "ei" or "ou")

    Pensar, contar

    Entender, volver

    Pedir, dormir

    Pensemos
    Let’s think

    Entendamos
    Let’s understand

    Pidamos
    Let’s ask (for), order

    Contemos
    Let’s count (tell)/Let's not count (tell)

    Volvamos
    Let’s return

    Durmamos
    Let’s sleep

    Verbs that end in -car, -gar, -zar

    Infinitive ending in:

    Present tense

    "yo" form

    Spelling change

    "Nosotros" commands

    -car

    sacar, secar, colocar, pescar, tocar, destacar, atacar

    sacar – saco

    c changes to qu 

    sac → saqu

    Saquemos fotos
    Let’s take photos

    -gar

    jugar, regar, pegar, pagar, agregar, apagar, colgar, entregar

    llegar – llego

    g changes to gu

    lleg llegu

    Lleguemos a tiempo

    Let’s arrive on time

    -zar

    abrazar, almorzar, cruzar, comenzar, rezar, danzar

    empezar – empiezo

    z changes to c

    empiez → empiec

    (no stem change for nosotros)

    empec-

    Empecemos a leer

    Let’s begin to read

    Irregular verbs in "nosotros" commands

    "Nosotros" commands have the same six irregular verbs as formal commands. Remember the acronym D.I.S.H.E.S. To make negative nosotros commandas with irregular verbs, add "no" before the verb.

    Infinitive

    Nosotros commands

    Dar (No) demos
    Ir (No) vayamos
    Saber (No) sepamos
    Hacer (No) hagamos
    Estar (No) estemos
    Ser (No) seamos

    Affirmative commands

    In the affirmative commands, the direct, indirect, reflexive, or double pronouns are always attached to the end of the verb. In the following examples, all pronouns are in bold.

    • Leámoslo con atención. (Let’s read it with attention.)
    • Escribámosles unas tarjetas postales. (Let’s write them some postal cards.)

    When "se" or "nos" are attached to the affirmative "nosotros" command, the final “s” in "-emos" or "-amos" is dropped from the verb. In the examples below, the extra "s" of the incorrect version of the command is noted in bold. The second version of the command indicates the correct ending in bold.

    • Digámossela    Digámosela (Let’s tell them about it.)
    • Levantémosnos     Levantémonos (Let’s get up.)

    In negative commands, the word "no" must be placed before the verb.

    Negative commands 

    To express negative command in nosotros form, we add the negative word "no" before the verb in bold shown in the examples below.

    • No hablemos ahora (Let's not talk/chat right now.)
    • No lleguemos tarde a la reunión. (Let's not arrive late to the meeting.)
    • No durmamos en clase (Let's not sleep in class.)

    Pronouns must be placed after the word "no" and before the verb in negative commands. In the examples below, note the placement of "no" in bold.

    • No se la digamos. (Let’s not tell them about it.)
    • No nos levantemos. (Let’s not get up.)
    • No nos acostemos tarde. (Let's not go to bed late.)