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2.5: "Estar" con preposiciones y adjetivos

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    75227
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    "Estar" with prepositions and adjectives

    In 1.4.0 you learned how to conjugate the verb "ser" (to be). Unlike English, Spanish has a second verb that translates as "to be": "estar".

    Conjugation

    While it looks like a regular "-ar" verb, "estar" is an irregular verb because the "yo" form is irregular; and the endings of "tú, usted, él, ella, ustedes, ellos, ellas" require a written accent.

    Singular Conjugation Plural Conjugation
    yo estoy nosotros/nosotras estamos
    estás vosotros/vosotras estáis
    usted, él/ella está ustedes, ellos/ellas están

    Uses of "estar"

    The acronym used to help you remember the uses of "estar" is PLACE:

    Decorative
     

    In the following list, the words that refer to the acronym PLACE are indicated in bold.

    • Position: "El libro está encima de la mesa." "El lápiz está en la mochila." ("The book is on top of the table." "The pencil is in the backpack.")
    • Location: "Ramiro está en la oficina." "Inés está en casa." ("Ramiro is at the office."  "Inés is at home.")
    • Action: "Ellos están hablando". "Beto está caminando." ("They are talking."  "Beto is walking.")
    • Condition: "Estoy enfermo." "Laura está preocupada." ("I am sick (ill)." "Laura is worried.")
    • Emotion: "Tú estás feliz." "Vosotros estáis tristes." ("You are happy."  "You are sad.")
    Inés está en casa.

                 Inés está en casa. 

    "laptop" by Hatice EROL, Pixabay is licensed under CC0 1.0

    Beto está caminando.

           Beto está caminando.

    "Walking" by ijmaki, Pixabay is licensed under CC0 1.0

    Estoy enfermo.

                     Estoy enfermo.

    "Catch a cold" by Conmongt, Pixabay is licensed under CC0 1.0

    Common prepositions and adverbs used with location are:

    al lado de next to delante de in front of (not facing)
    a la derecha de to the right of detrás de behind
    a la izquierda de to the left of en in; on; at
    allá over there encima de on top of
    allí there en frente de in front of (facing)
    aquí here entre between
    cerca de near lejos de far from
    con with sin without
    debajo de below sobre on; over

    Common adjectives of condition and emotion are:

    abierto/a open contento/a content listo/a ready
    aburrido/a bored desordenado/a messy; disorderly nervioso/a nervous
    alegre happy enamorado/a (de) in love (with) ocupado/a busy
    avergonzado/a embarrassed enojado/a angry ordenado/a tidy; orderly
    cansado/a tired enfermo/a sick (ill) preocupado (por) worried (about)
    cerrado/a closed equivocado/a wrong seguro/a sure
    cómodo/a comfortable feliz happy sucio/a dirty
    confundido/a confused limpio/a clean triste sad