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7.35: Putting It Together: ¿Cómo son las personas de tu familia?

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    50226
  • Click on each link below for a review summary to help you complete the assignments and prepare for the quiz to demonstrate your mastery of the objectives.

    [reveal-answer q=”473461″]Indicate possession with ser + de and possessive adjectives[/reveal-answer]
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    There are two ways to indicate possession in Spanish. One way is to use the verb ser in the following pattern: object(s) + ser de + person who has the object(s)

    Play AudioEl libro es de María. (The book is María’s.)

    Los adjetivos posesivos

    A more common way to express possession, especially when it is clear to whom something belongs, is to use possessive adjectives:

    singular possessor plural possessor
    Play Audiomi (my) Play Audionuestro (our)
    Play Audiotu (your) Play Audiovuestro (your)
    Play Audiosu (his, her, your) Play Audiosu (their, your)
    Remember that in Spanish, and usted both mean “you”. Therefore, the possessive adjective for “your” needs to follow the correct register: Tú – tu/tus; Usted – su/sus.

    Atención a la acentuación: Tú con tilde, se refiere a la persona (, with accent mark, refers to the person “you”); Tu, sin tilde, es el adjetivo posesivo (Tu, without accent mark, is the possessive adjective “your”).

    The chart above, however, only shows the basic form. Possessive adjectives in Spanish – like all adjectives! – must agree in number. In the case of nosotros and vosotros, they also must agree in gender with what is owned.

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    [reveal-answer q=”603306″]Use family vocabulary to describe members of a family[/reveal-answer]
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    • Play AudioEl abuelo / La abuela (Grandfather/Grandmother)
    • Play AudioEl amigo / La amiga (friend)
    • Play AudioEl esposo / La esposa (husband wife)
    • Play AudioEl hermano / La hermana (brother sister)
    • Play AudioEl hijo / La hija (son daughter)
    • Play AudioLa madre / mamá (mother/ mom)
    • Play AudioEl nieto / La nieta (grandchild granddaughter)
    • Play AudioEl novio / La novia (boyfriend girlfriend)
    • Play AudioEl padre / papá (father dad)
    • Play AudioLa pareja (couple)
    • Play AudioEl pariente (relative)
    • Play AudioEl primo / La prima (cousin)
    • Play AudioEl sobrino / La sobrina (nephew / niece)
    • Play AudioEl tío / La tía (uncle aunt)
    • Play AudioLa cuñada / el cuñado (sister-in-law brother-in-law)
    • Play AudioLos medio hermanos / el medio hermano/ la media hermana (half brothers half brother half sister)
    • Play AudioLos hermanastros / el hermanastro / la hermanastra (stepbrothers stepbrother stepsister)
    • Play AudioEl hijastro / La hijastra (stepson stepdaughter)
    • Play AudioLa madrastra / El padrastro (stepmother stepfather)
    • Play Audiola suegra / el suegro (mother-in-law father-in-law)

    Tipos de familias:

    • Familia nuclear o pequeña
    • Familia extendida o grande
    • Primera, segunda, tercera generación
    • La familia política
    • La familia moderna
    • La familia tradicional

    Mascotas

    dog
    el perro / la perra

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    [reveal-answer q=”975643″]Describe people using physical and mental adjectives[/reveal-answer]
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    El aspecto físico

    Photo of a tall dog
    alto/a
    A short dachshund on a leash
    bajo/a
    Image of a yorkshire terrier dog with a pink flower in its hair
    bonito/a
    A picture of a poodle looking ugly
    feo/a
    A photo of an overweight beagle
    gordo/a
    Photo of a dog looking handsome in soft focus
    guapo/a
    A picture of a black lab dog
    moreno/a (dark-haired or dark-skinned)
    A picture of a red-haired irish setter
    pelirrojo (red-haired)
    A picture of a blond yellow lab
    rubio (blond-haired)
    Photo of an elderly dog
    viejo/a

    La personalidad

    An image of a bored cat
    aburrido/a (boring [w. ser])
    An angry cat hissing
    antipático/a
    famous
    famoso/a
    cat-3634020_960_720-150x150.jpg
    honesto/a (honest)
    lazy
    perezoso/a
    poor
    pobre (poor)
    rich
    rico/a
    serious
    serio/a
    nice
    simpático/a (nice)
    sociable
    sociable
    foolish
    tonto/a (foolish, silly)
    hard-working
    trabajador/a

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    [reveal-answer q=”113025″]Ask and answer questions with ¿cuántos y quién(es)?[/reveal-answer]
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    You may recall using cuánto in the question “¿Cuántos años tienes?”. We use this question word before a noun when that noun may be counted or measured. ¿Cuánto/cuántos? means “how many” if the noun is countable (meaning you can count up by adding more of the items), and means “how much” if the noun is uncountable (meaning an indivisible, collective thing).

    Por ejemplo:

    • ¿Cuánto cuesta? (How much does it cost?)
    • ¿Cuántos dólares tienes? (How many dollars do you have?)

    ¡Be careful! ¿Cuánto? must agree in number and gender with the noun it describes.

    • Masculine singular: ¿Cuánto tiempo tenemos?
    • Feminine singular: ¿Cuánta luz entra por la ventana?
    • Masculine plural: ¿Cuántos perros tienes en casa?
    • Feminine plural: ¿Cuántas hermanas tienes?

    ¿Quién?

    The question “Who speaks Spanish?” uses the pronoun “who” as a subject. Just like in English, the Spanish question ¿Quién habla español? uses the pronoun quién as the subject. Quién is the singular version of “who,” and is meant to represent one person. Therefore, the verb is conjugated in the él/ella form as if one person were the subject of the sentence.

    Por ejemplo:

    • ¿Quién es tu hermano? Who is your brother? (assuming that you only have one brother)

    Quiénes is the plural version of “who,” and is meant to represent multiple people. Here you would use the ellos/ellas form of the verb.

    • Por ejemplo: ¿Quiénes son tus padres? Who are your parents? (assuming that you have both parents)

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    [reveal-answer q=”215310″]Use adjectives of nationality to describe people[/reveal-answer]
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    To answer the question “¿De dónde eres?”, one can either answer with a country or with a nationality:

    • Soy de Puerto Rico. (I am from Puerto Rico.)
    • Soy puertorriqueña. (I am Puerto Rican.)
    • Mis primos son de Colombia. (My cousins are from Colombia.)
    • Son colombianos. (They are Colombian.)

    A description of nationality is an adjective, so its ending has to correspond to the gender and number of the subject.

    Argentina, argentina/o
    Belice, beliceña/o
    Bolivia, boliviana/o
    Brasil, brasileña/o
    Canadá, canadiense
    Chile, chilena/o
    Colombia, colombiana/o
    Costa Rica, costarricense
    Cuba, cubana/o
    Ecuador, ecuatoriana/o
    El Salvador, salvadoreña/o
    Estados Unidos, estadounidense
    Guatemala, guatemalteca/o
    Haití, haitiana/o
    Honduras, hondureña/o
    Jamaica, jamaicana/o
    México, mexicana/o
    Nicaragua, nicaragüense
    Panamá, panameña/o
    Paraguay, paraguaya/o
    Perú, peruana/o
    República Dominicana, dominicana/o
    Surinam, surinamés
    Uruguay, uruguaya/o
    Venezuela, venezolana/o

    España, español/ española

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    [reveal-answer q=”663963″]Use gustar+infinitive to express what you and others like to do[/reveal-answer]
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    The verb gustar is used to indicate things or activities you like, but it is a little different in Spanish than in English. You’ll learn more about how gustar and other verbs like it work later, but for now you can see how it is used with infinitives:

    singular plural
    1a (1st) Play Audiome gusta Play Audionos gusta
    2a (2nd) Play Audiote gusta Play Audioos gusta
    3a (3rd) Play Audiole gusta Play Audioles gusta

    As you see, instead of conjugating gustar to match the subject as you do with most verbs, only the third person ending is used along with different pronouns (me, te, le, nos, os, les). Gustar is frequently used in Spanish with infinitives to indicate likes (and dislikes):

    • Play Audio¿Qué te gusta hacer? (What do you like to do?)
    • Play AudioMe gusta comer en restaurantes buenos. (I like to eat in good restaurants.)

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    [reveal-answer q=”469374″]Identify rooms and furniture in the home[/reveal-answer]
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    Play Audioel baño (bathroom)

    1. Play Audioel inodoro (toilet)
    2. Play Audiola bañera (bathtub)
    3. Play Audiola ducha (shower)
    4. Play Audioel espejo (mirror)
    5. Play Audioel lavabo (sink)

    Play Audioel dormitorio (bedroom)

    1. Play Audiola cama (bed)
    2. Play Audiola mesita de noche (night stand)
    3. Play Audiola lámpara (lamp)
    4. Play Audioel armario (closet)

    Play Audiola sala (living room)

    1. Play Audioel sofá (sofa/couch)
    2. Play Audioel sillón (armchair)
    3. Play Audiola cortina (curtain)
    4. Play Audiola mesita (the little table)
    5. Play Audiola alfombra (carpet)
    6. Play Audioel comedor (dining room)
    7. Play AudioLa mesa (table)

    Play Audiola cocina (kitchen)

    1. Play Audioel refrigerador (refrigerator)
    2. Play Audiola nevera (freezer)
    3. Play Audioel fregadero (sink)
    4. Play Audiola estufa (stove)
    5. Play Audioel microondas (microwave)
    6. Play Audioel horno (oven)
    7. Play Audioel patio (patio)
    8. Play Audioel jardín (garden)

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    [reveal-answer q=”904808″]Use the verb estar and prepositions to signify location[/reveal-answer]
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    You have already learned the verb ser, and you’ve used it to: introduce yourself and others, to describe physical characteristics and personality traits, to indicate place of origin or nationality, to tell time, and to give dates. Spanish has another verb that also means “to be” – estar. You used estar at the beginning of this course to indicate how you are feeling (¿Cómo estás? Estoy bien, gracias.) In addition to indicating how you and others are feeling (which we’ll discuss in a future chapter), estar is used to express location. So, if you are talking about where a person or a thing is located, you will use estar:

    estar (to be)
    singular plural
    1a Play Audioyo estoy Play Audionosotros estamos
    2a Play Audiotú estás Play Audiovosotros estáis
    3a Play Audioel ella usted está Play Audioellos ellas ustedes están

    As you should notice, estar has an irregular yo form along with accented endings in all but the nosotros form.

    Estar y la locación

    To use estar to express the locations of people and things, you’ll need to know some prepositions of location as well:


    Play Audioalrededor (around)
    Play Audio
    al lado de (beside)
    Play Audioenfrente de (in front of)
    Play Audioa la derecha de (to the right of)
    Play Audioa la izquierda de (to the left of)
    Play Audioenfrente (in front)
    Play Audiodebajo de (under)
    Play Audioen (on, in)
    Play Audiodetrás de (behind)
    Play Audiocerca de (close to)
    Play Audiolejos de (far from)
    Play Audioencima (on, above)

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    [reveal-answer q=”938764″]Learn about some typical family celebrations in the Spanish-speaking world[/reveal-answer]
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    See the Cultura section in the Study Plan for these activities.

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