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13.15: Putting It Together: ¿Sabes toda la historia de tus tradiciones?

  • Page ID
    50005
  • Click on each link below for a review summary to help you complete the assignments and prepare for the quiz to demonstrate your mastery of the objectives.

    [reveal-answer q=”754849″]Vocabulario: Celebraciones tradicionales[/reveal-answer]
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    Palabras asociadas con tradiciones y celebraciones tradicionales

    • Los antepasados (ancestors)
    • El Año Nuevo (New Year’s)
    • Las artesanías (handicrafts)
    • El carnaval (Carnival)
    • La cocina (cuisine)
    • La costumbre (habit, tradition, custom)
    • La creencia (belief)
    • El desfile (parade)
    • El Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead)
    • El día de Independencia (Independence Day)
    • El Día de San Patricio (Saint Patrick’s Day)
    • La fiesta / El día feriado (holiday)
    • El folclor (folklore)
    • El hábito (habit)
    • La herencia cultural (cultural heritage)
    • La identidad (identity)
    • El Jánuca (Hanukkah)
    • El legado (legacy)
    • El nacionalismo (nationalism)
    • La Navidad (Christmas)
    • La Noche de las Brujas (Halloween)
    • La ofrenda (offering / altar)
    • La Pascua (Easter)
    • La práctica (practice)
    • El pueblo (people)
    • Las relaciones (relationships)
    • El valor (value)

    Verbos

    • Conmemorar (to commemorate)
    • Disfrazarse (to wear a disguise or costume)
    • Festejar (to celebrate)
    • Heredar (to inherit)
    • Recordar (to remember)
    • Respetar (to respect)

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    [reveal-answer q=”399188″]Pretérito e imperfecto III[/reveal-answer]
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    In the beginning of this unit you learned that the imperfect is used for past actions in progress and the preterit is used for past completed actions. The same distinction can be applied to emotions, mental states and similar conditions:

    1. Verbs that describe a mental or physical state are called non-action verbs. These change meaning when you use them in the preterit or imperfect. For example, the verb estar in the preterit means “became” or “got”, whereas in the imperfect it means “was”.
    2. The stem-changing verb sentirse means “to feel”, and you can use the imperfect to describe an ongoing feeling, or the preterit to describe the onset or a completed feeling.
    3. Reflexive verbs that portray emotions similarly use the imperfect and the preterit to distinguish between *being* in a condition in the past and *becoming* in a condition in the past. Here are a few of the ones you learned in the chapter on reflexive verbs: aburrirse (to become bored); alegrarse (to become happy); enojarse (to become angry); frustrarse (to become frustrated); sorprenderse (to be surprised)
    4. Another irregular verb that expresses a change of emotion in the preterit is ponerse (to become); in the imperfect it expresses a continuous or habitual emotional state.
    5. Also, as you learned in Spanish 1, don’t forget the expressions with “tener” that show physical states and emotions: tener hambre (to be hungry), tener sed (to be thirsty), tener frío (to be cold), tener calor (to be hot), tener suerte (to be lucky).

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    [reveal-answer q=”337598″]Pretérito e imperfecto IV[/reveal-answer]
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    When to use the imperfect: When to use the preterit:
    1. Circumstance, description, setting
    2. Telling what the day/date was
    3. Telling what time it was
    4. Telling someone’s age
    5. Emotional/mental conditions (thinking, wishing, wanting)
    6. Habitual, repeated, ongoing past action
    7. Simultaneous actions (e.g. “I was reading while you were sleeping.”)
    1. Sudden or completed action
    2. Single event at a specific time (e.g. “left at 7 pm”)
    3. Happened a specific number of times
    4. For a specific amount of time
    5. Consecutive past actions
    6. Action that interrupts something
    7. Onset of a condition
    Key words for the imperfect: Key words for the preterit:
    • Muchas veces
    • Mucho
    • A menudo
    • Siempre
    • Todos los días
    • Usualmente
    • Mientras
    • Cada noche
    • Nunca
    • Cada verano
    • Los martes, los veranos
    • A veces
    • Ayer, anteayer
    • El viernes, el lunes pasado…
    • Anoche
    • El mes pasado
    • El año pasado
    • Una vez, dos veces
    • Esta mañana
    • Al mediodía
    • A las siete
    • La semana pasada
    • El 8 de marzo…

    Understanding the subtle differences between these two tenses will help you understand that non-action verbs change meaning when used in the imperfect or the preterit.

    Non-action verb imperfect preterit
    conocer was acquainted with met (for the first time)
    saber knew (about things/facts) discovered, came to know
    haber there was/were (background information) there was/were (incident)
    poder was able to (situational: had ability) accomplished (demonstrated ability)
    no poder was not able to (situational: did not have ability) did not accomplish (demonstrated lack of ability)
    querer wanted (situational: had desire) attempted to (demonstrated desire)
    no querer didn’t want (situational: had no desire) declined to (demonstrated lack of desire)
    hacer (in weather expressions) was (background description) became or was (onset of weather condition, or condition lasting for a specific amount of time)

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