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Humanities Libertexts

2.55: Lição 28

  • Page ID
    55184
    • Contributed by Severino J. Albuquerque, Mary H. Schil, & Claude E. Leroy
    • Department of Spanish & Portuguese at UW-Madison

    Lesson Objectives- Objetivos da Lição

    Lição 28 presents:

    • the formation and usage of the personal infinitive,
    • expressions of time, and
    • new vocabulary.

    After completing this lesson, the student will be able to:

    • distinguish between personal and impersonal infinitives and use both.
    • use new expressions of time.

    Grammar – Gramática

    The Personal Infinitive – O infinitivo pessoal

    In Portuguese the infinitive can be inflected to show the person and number of the subject. Because it can be inflected, the personal infinitive frequently is used instead of dependent clauses introduced by que.

    The first and third persons singular are indistinguishable in form from the impersonal infinitive. The endings –mos and –em are attached to the impersonal infinitive to form the first and third persons plural of the personal infinitive. There are no irregular forms of the personal infinitive.

    falar dizer pôr ser ir
    falar dizer pôr ser ir
    falarmos dizermos pormos sermos irmos
    falarem dizerem porem serem irem
    28.1 Practice- Prática

    Query \(\PageIndex{28.1 A. }\)

    The personal infinitive is used:

    After prepositions to avoid ambiguity of subject:

    Olhei para eles antes de atravessar a rua. [I looked at them before crossing the street.]
    Olhei para eles antes de atravessarem a rua. [I looked at them before they crossed the street.]

    With impersonal expressions to designate a subject:

    É impossível saber tudo. [It is impossible to know everything.]
    É impossível sabermos tudo. [It is impossible for us to know everything.]

    As a verbal subject:

    Ficarmos aqui não vai adiantar nada. [Our staying here is not going to help at all.]
    Você pedir outro aumento pode lhe causar problemas. [Your asking for another raise may create problems for you.]

    To simplify complex sentences:

    Eu fiquei calado porque não tinha o que dizer. [I kept quiet because I had nothing to say]
    Eu fiquei calado por não ter o que dizer.
    O Pedro vai esperar até que vocês terminem. [Pedro will wait until you are done.]
    O Pedro vai esperar até vocês terminarem.
    Saímos da festa sem que ninguém nos visse. [We left the party without anyone seeing us.]
    Saímos da festa sem ninguém nos ver.

    Here are a list of simplifications common when using personal infinitive to avoid or simplify complex sentences:

    • até que > até
    • antes que > antes de
    • apesar de que > apesar de
    • com a condição de que > com a condição de
    • caso > em/no caso de
    • depois que > depois de
    • dizer que > dizer para
    • para que > para
    • pedir que > pedir para
    • porque > por
    • sem que > sem

    When the subject of the dependent and independent clauses is the same, the impersonal infinitive is used in the simplification:

    Pegamos um táxi para que pudéssemos chegar na hora. [We took a taxi in order to be able to arrive on time.]
    Pegamos um táxi para poder(mos) chegar na hora.

    The construction ao + infinitive (either personal or impersonal) indicates simultaneity and is often used instead of dependent clauses:

    Ao embarcar, entregue o cartão ao comissário. [On/upon boarding the plane, give the flight attendant your ticket stub.]
    Fiquei contentíssima ao saber o resultado do exame. [I was delighted when I found out the test scores.]
    28.2 Practice – Prática

    Query \(\PageIndex{28.2 A.}\)

    28.2 B. Escreva em português usando o infinito pessoal:

    1. Here’s a good question for you two to answer.
    2. It is better that they do the shopping right now.
    3. Don’t take those pills without eating something first.
    4. Your coughing all night really worries me.
    5. On entering the emergency room, I saw blood everywhere.

    Query \(\PageIndex{28.2 C. }\)

    Expressions of time – Expressões de tempo

    The following are common time expression which have not yet been introduced:

    • um dia sim, (mas, etc.) outro não [every other day]

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    • dia sim, dia não [every other day]

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    • de seis em seis horas [every six hours]

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    • cada seis horas [every six hours]

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    • daqui a pouco [in a little while]

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    • daqui em diante [from now on]

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    • de hoje em diante [from today on]

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    • daí a três anos [three years from then]

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    • daí em diante [from then on]

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    • dia trás dia [day after day]

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    • entra ano, sai ano [year in, year out]

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    • ano bissexto [leap year]

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    • a toda hora [constantly]

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    • a todo momento [constantly]

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    • a todo instante [constantly]

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    • mais dia, menos dia [soon or later, someday]

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    • mais cedo ou mais tarde [soon or later, someday]

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    • para a/pra semana [next week]

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    28.3 Practice- Prática

    28.3 B. Responda às seguintes perguntas, incluindo nas suas respostas traduções das frases à direita.

    Quando é que ele vai chegar? Next month
    Ele vai chegar no próximo mês.

    1. Quando é que vamos fazer o teste? One week from today
    2. Quantas vezes por ano você vai ao médico? Every six months
    3. Quando é que eles se casarão? Five months from now
    4. Quando é que você viu o Rui? The day before yesterday
    5. Quando é que a Ana começou a faculdade? Three years ago
    6. Quando é que vocês têm aula de português? Every morning
    7. Quando é que você vai deitar-se? In a little while
    8. Quanto tempo ele passará no Brasil? All year
    9. Quando é que eles vão consertar a televisão? Tomorrow afternoon
    10. Quando é que você tem que levantar-se cedo? Every other day
    11. Quando ela vai se dar conta do problema? Sooner or later
    12. Quando é que tem Jogos Olímpicos? In leap years

    Vocabulary – Vocabulário

    • o comprimido [pill]

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    • a coceira[itch]

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    • a diarréia [diarrhea]

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    • o esparadrapo [adhesive tape]

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    • o espirro [sneeze]

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    • o gesso [orthopedic cast]

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    • a gripe[flu]

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    • a luxação [sprain]

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    • a morte [death]

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    • a mudança [change]

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    • o nascimento [birth]

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    • o parto [delivery, childbirth]

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    • o Pronto Socorro [emergency hospital]

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    • a queda[fall]

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    • a queimadura [burn]

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    • a radiografia[X-ray]

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    • o resfriado [cold]

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    • o sangue [blood]

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    • o susto [fright]

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    • a tosse [cough]

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    Verbs – Verbos

    • afogar-se[to drown]

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    • atropelar [to run over]

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    • coçar[to itch]

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    • concordar (com)[to agree (with)]

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    • desmaiar[to faint]

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    • discordar (de) [to disagree]

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    • engolir (engulo) [to swallow]

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    • espirrar [to sneeze]

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    • inchar [to swell]

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    • levar um susto [to have a scare]

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    • levar pontos [to get stitches]

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    • queimar[to burn]

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    • receitar [to prescribe]

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    • sangrar [to bleed]

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    • tossir (tusso) [to cough]

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    Expressions – Expressões

    • à tardinha [in the late afternoon]

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    • de madrugada [in the early morning hours]

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    28.4 Practice- Prática

    Query \(\PageIndex{28.4 A. }\)

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