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2.5: Key Patterns and Forms

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    128501
  • 1. Level 1: ParticleUsage –이/가;을/를;은/는;도;한테/에

    • The Korean language has a rich particle system. In this section, we’ll review a few sets of basic particles.
    • 이/가 Particle: –이 follows a noun ending with a consonant and –가 follows a noun ending with a vowel. With a few exceptions, this set is usually attached to the subject of a sentence. These particles highlight or single out the noun to which they are attached. In folktales like the ones you are reading in this book, a story usually begins with “옛날 옛날에 (noun)이/가 살았습니다” Once upon a time ~ there lived (noun). (You may see a different form of the verb 살다 to live in terms of the speech style and the level, depending on who is telling the story and who the audience is.) Here are a few examples from Version 1 of the story

    - 옛날 옛날에 콩쥐하고 홀아버지 살았어요. Once upon a time there lived KongJwi and her widowed father.

    - 황소 도와줬어요. An ox helped.

    - 참새들 도와줬어요. Sparrows helped.

    - 두꺼비 도와줬어요. A toad helped

    - 선녀 도와줬어요. A fairy helped.

    • 을/를 Particle: –을 follows a noun ending with a consonant and –를 follows a noun ending with a vowel. This set is attached to the object of a sentence. Here are a few examples from Version 1 of the story:

    - 팥쥐 엄마 만났어요. (He) met PaJwi’s mother.

    - 콩쥐 미워했어요. (They) hated KongJwi.

    - 콩쥐 도와줬어요. (They) helped KongJwi.

    - 일 다 끝냈어요. (She) finished the work.

    - 꽃신 잃어버렸어요. (She) lost her floral shoe.

    • 은/는 Particle: –은 follows a noun ending with a consonant and –는 follows a noun ending with a vowel. This set can be attached to both the subject and the object of a sentence. The 은/는 set is used to mark the topic of a discourse; and is also used to indicate that the noun it follows is being compared or contrasted with something else that may or may not be mentioned in the discourse. Here are a few examples from Version 1 of the story:

    - 하루 ~ One day ~

    - 다른 하루 ~ Another day ~

    - 이번에 This time (as opposed to other times)

    - 팥쥐 엄마 마음씨가 나빴어요. PatJwi’s mother (compare to good-natured KongJwi,) was mean-spirited.

    - 팥쥐하고 팥쥐엄마 원님잔치에 갔어요. PatJwi and PatJwi’s mother (as opposed to KongJwi who stayed and started working) went to the Magistrate’s party.

    • 도 Particle: –도 indicates that the noun it follows is an addition to something. Here are a few examples from Version 1 of the story:

    - 팥쥐 마음씨가 나빴어요. PatJwi too (in addition to her mother) was mean-spirited.

    - 비단옷하고 꽃신 주었어요. (She) gave her silk clothes and floral shoes too (in addition to the help she offered)

    • 한테/에 Particle: –한테 follows an animate object and –에 an inanimate object to mean ‘to,’ indicating to whom/which the action is directed. When -에 is used with a place or a time expression, it means ‘in’, ‘on’, or ‘at.’ -한테 and –에 can be combined with the particle 은/는 for comparison and 도 for addition. Here are a few examples from Version 1 of the story:

    - 콩쥐한테 일을 많이 시켰어요. (She) ordered KongJwi to do a lot of work.

    - 콩쥐한테 돌밭 일을 주었어요. (She) gave KongJwi stone-field-work.

    - 원님 잔치 갔어요. (They) went to the Magistrate’s party.

    - 이번에는 참새들이 콩쥐를 도와줬어요. Sparrows helped KongJwi this time (compared to the other time when an ox helped).

    - 콩쥐한테는 잘 맞았어요. (The shoes) fit KongJwi well (as opposed to PatJwi for whom the shoes were too small)

    2-1. Level 2: Expressing favor-VCS+주다

    • The VCS in VCS+주다 is an action performed on behalf of someone. Here are a few examples from Version 2 of the story:

    - 황소가 돌밭을 갈아 주었어요. An ox plowed the stone field (for KongJwi).

    - 참새들이 벼를 찧어 주었어요. Sparrows pounded unhulled rice (for KongJwi).

    - 두꺼비가 항아리 구멍을 막아 주었어요. A toad blocked the hole in the pot (for KongJwi).

    - 선녀가 베 옷을 짜 주었어요. The fairy weaved hemp clothes (for KongJwi).

    2-2. Level 2:Obligatory -VCS+야되다/하다

    • The VCS in VCS+야 되다/하다 is an action that must be performed. Here are a few examples from Version 2 of the story:

    - 돌밭을 갈아야 했어요. (She) had to plowed the stone field

    - 벼를 찧어야 했어요. (She) had to pound unhulled rice.

    - 항아리에 물을 채워야 했어요. (She) had to fill up the pot with water.

    - 베 옷을 짜야 했어요. (She) had to weave hemp clothes.

    3-1. Level 3: “No matter how much one doesV” -아무리VCS+도

    • This construction, 아무리 VCS+도, means “no matter how much one does VCS ~ .” It is used when the VCS action brings no fruition or result. The futile aspect can be more emphasized by adding VS+고 after 아무리, thus creating this form: 아무리 VS+고 VCS+도. Here are a few examples from Version 3 of the story:

    - 아무리 찧고 찧어도 쌀더미는 줄지 않았습니다. No matter how much she pounded and pounded, the rice pile didn’t get smaller.

    - 아무리 붓고 부어도 항아리는 채워지지 않았습니다. No matter how much she poured and poured, the pot wouldn’t fill up.

    - 아무리 열심히 짜도 다 끝낼 수 없었기 때문에 ~ Because she could not finish no matter how hard she weaved ~

    - 아무리 가고 싶어도 갈 수 없었습니다. No matter how much she wanted to go, she could not go.

    3-2. Level 3: “VS ends up happening (unfortunately)” –그만VS+고말다

    • This construction, 그만 VS+고 말다, means “VS ends up happening” and suggests that it is unfortunate for the one who undergoes the experience. We have several events in the story that 콩쥐 unfortunately had to undergo. Here are the sentences from Version 3 of the story:

    - 콩쥐 어머니가 병으로 그만 돌아가시고 말았습니다. KongJwi’s mother ended up passing away due to an illness.

    - 나무 호미가 그만 부러지고 말았습니다. The wooden hoe ended up broken.

    - 꽃신 하나를 그만 잃어버리고 말았습니다. She ended up losing the floral shoe.

    - 콩쥐를 원님으로부터 그만 떼어 놓고 말았습니다. They ended up having KongJwi separated from the magistrate.

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