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2.4: 会話4

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    Getting ready to take out customers for the evening

    Michael: Suutsu kinakute mo ii deshou? スーツ、着 き なくてもいいでしょう。 It’s probably okay if I don’t wear a suit, right?

    Honda: Iya, kinakucha mazui yo. いや、着 き なくちゃ、まずいよ。 No, it would be bad if you don’t.

    Michael showed up in a suit.

    Honda: Waa, oshare! わあ、おしゃれ! Wow! Fashionable!

    Michael: Kono tai hade-suginai?. このタイ、派手 は で すぎない。 Isn’t this tie too loud?

    Honda: Uun, yoku niau yo! ううん、よく似合 に あ うよ! No, you look good!


    suutsu スーツ suit
    kiru きる 着る put on, wear (on upper body)
    +haku はく put on, wear (on lower body)
    +kaburu かぶる put on, wear (on head)
    +nugu ぬぐ take off
    kinakute mo きなくても 着なくても        even if you don't wear (it’s ok)
    kinakucha きなくちゃ 着なくちゃ        if you don’t wear ( it’s not ok)
    mazui まずい not good; awkward; bad-tasting
    oshare (na) おしゃれ stylish; fashionable; fashion
    tai タイ necktie
    hade (na) はで 派手 flashy, showy
    +jimi (na) じみ 地味 quiet (style, color)
    niau にあう 似合う becoming, look good

    Screen Shot 2020-07-10 at 3.07.23 PM.png

    Screen Shot 2020-07-10 at 3.07.39 PM.png


    Grammar Notes

    Expressing Negative Permission ‘Do Not Have To’

    In Dialogue 2, we discussed the /affirmative ~te mo/ in permission patterns. Now we discuss the /negative ~nakute mo/ in negative permission patterns. Negative permission means ‘It’s okay NOT to do X’ or ‘You do not have to do X.’

    Matanakute mo ii desu yo. You don’t have to wait.
    Mou ganbaranakute mo ii desu. You don’t have to try so hard anymore.
    Honyaku-shinakute mo ii desu ka. Is it okay if I don't translate it?

    You can also combine more than one permission pattern together to indicate options.
    Kite mo konakute mo ii desu. It’s okay whether you come or not.
    Kekkon-shite mo, shinakute mo ii desu. It doesn't matter if you get married or not.
    Meeru-site mo denwa-shite mo ii desu. It’s okay whether you email or call.

    Expressing Necessities ‘must’

    In Dialogue 3, we discussed the /affirmative ~te wa/ in prohibition patterns. Now we consider the /negative ~nakute wa/ in necessity patterns. Necessity means ‘you must do X’ or ‘it’s no good if you do NOT do X.’ The sound change of /te wa/to /cha/ and /de wa / to /ja/ occurs with this pattern as well. In addition to ikenai, other negative expressions can follow this pattern.

    Benkyou-shinakute wa ikemasen. You must study.
    Shigoto ni ikanakute wa dame na n desu. I must go to work, so…
    Suutsu kinakucha mazui yo. It’s not good if you do not wear a suit.

    We have seen all the four patterns involving the ~te form—Permissions, prohibitions, negative permissions, and necessities. Now let’s see how they complement each other.

    Tabako suttee mo ii desu ka? Is it okay if I smoke?
    -Iya, suttee wa ikemasen yo. No, it’s no good if you do.
    Shigoto ni ikanakute mo ii desu ka. Is it okay if I do not go to work?
    -Iya, ikanakute wa ikemasen yo. No, it’s no good if you do not.

    Note that in some situations, it may be rude to use these patterns. Do not forget to use softer or indirect patterns including apologies, requests, chotto, kedo, n desu, shi, etc.

    Tabako sutte mo ii desu ka?
    -Iya, sumimasen kedo, kodomo ga imasu shi….
     Well, Sorry, but children are here, and…
    -Chotto, soto de onegai-dekimasen ka. Can I just ask you to do it outside?
    - Asoko ni kinen tte… Over there it says ‘no smoking’

    Shigoto ni ikanakute mo ii desu ka.
    - Kyou wa sugoku isogashii n desu kedo..
     It’s just that we are extremely busy today, and…
    - Iya, kite kudasai yo. Onegaishimasu. Please come. I’m begging you.



    The verb sugiru means ‘pass something.’ It can be attached to a verb stem (verb masu-form without masu), adjective root (adjective i-form without i) or na-nouns to make a compound verb that means ‘overly so’ or ‘too much for X’. The resulting compound form is a RU-verb.

    With Verb Stem: Chotto tabe-sugimashita. I ate a little too much.
    With Adj. Root: Taka-sugiru kara, kawanai. I won't buy it because it’s too expensive.
    With Na-Aoun: Ano hito, majime-sugiru. He is too serious.

    When -ru of sugiru is dropped, it becomes a noun and often used in a casual speech.
    Ano hito sugo-sugi! He is too amazing!
    Chotto, nomi-sugi ja nai no? Aren’t you drinking a little too much?


    Verbs of Dressing

    There are different verbs in Japanese for the English verb ‘put on (pieces of clothing)’ or ‘wear’. The choice is based on where you put on the item. Kiru for the upper body, haku for the lower body, kaburu for on top of the head, and suru for smaller items such as accessories and ties. Note the difference in meaning among the following.

    Shatsu o kiru. I’ll put on a shirt. (Action)
    Shatsu o kite iru. I’m wearing a shirt/ I’m dressed in a shirt. (State)
    Nekutai o shinai. I’ll not put on a tie. (Action)
    Nekutai o shite inai. I have no tie. (State)


    2.4: 会話4 is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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