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8.9: Conjunct Verb

  • Page ID
    120312
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    Conjunct Verb with करना Video

    Lecture: Conjunct Verb

    In English, one can use a noun or an adjective like a verb. To use a noun or adjective as a verb in Hindi, one can combine verbs such as करना and होना with them. These combinations cannot be used to create a verb which already exists. However, Hindi does not always have a single verb equivalent to English verbs: such as to close (बंद करना).

      Adjectival conjunct verb Nominal conjunct verb
    Forms Adjective + करना Noun + करना
    Properties
    • Conjunct verbs with करना act like a transitive verb and hence the subject must appear with the -ne (-ने) marker when the conjunct verb comes in the perfective tense (or express a completed action). Conjunct verb with करना focuses on the doer of an action.
    • Negative sentence: To form a negative conjunct verb, the word नहीं should be placed between the noun/adjective and the verb करना, in a standard word order.
    • Agreement system: In a conjunct verb, the noun/adjective part of the conjunct verb remains unchanged and the verb करना agrees with the potential subject/object in the sentence. Based on the agreement, the verb करना changes its form.

    Examples of Adjectival Conjunct Verbs

    • मैंने अपना कमरा साफ़ किया| “I cleaned my room.”
    • तुम अपना घर गंदा करते हो| “You make your house dirty.”
    • वे कार्यक्रम की तैयारी कर रहे हैं| “They are preparing for the program.”

    Examples of Nominal Conjunct Verbs

    Nominal conjunct verbs can be further divided into two categories:

    (a) one that requires a connecter such as kaa/kii.

    Examples of nouns that require connectors:

    • हमने उसकी मदद की| “We helped him/her.”
    • राहुल ने गाड़ी की मरम्मत की| “Rahul fixed the car.”
    • छात्र हिन्दी का अभ्यास कर रहे हैं| “Students are practicing Hindi.”
    • राहुल ने घर की सफ़ाई की| “Rahul cleaned a house.”

    (b) one that does not require any connector.

    Examples of nouns that do not require connectors:

    • राम ने मुझे क्षमा किया| “Rahul forgave me.”
    • बच्चे शोर कर रहे हैं| “Children are making noise.”
    • मैंने अपनी माँ को फ़ोन किया| “I called my mother.”

    Conjunct Verb with होना

    Conjunct verbs with होना are intransitive verbs and hence the subject must not appear with the -ne (-ने) marker when the conjunct verb comes in the perfective tense (or expresses a completed action). All the conjunct verbs with करना also have a construction with होना in which the doer of the action is usually not expressed.

    Adjective + होना

    Examples of adjectival conjunct verbs

    • मेरा कमरा साफ़ हुआ | “My room got cleaned.”
    • उसका कमरा गंदा हुआ | “His house became dirty.”
    • कार्यकर्म की तैयारी हो रही है | “Preparation for the program is taking place.”

    Noun + होना

    Like करना conjunct verb, Nominal conjunct verbs with होना can also be further dived into two categories

    (a) one that requires connecter such as kaa/kii.

    Examples of nouns that require connectors:

    • उसकी मदद हुई | “His/her help happened (literally)./ S/he was helped.”
    • गाड़ी की मरम्मत हुई | “The fixing of the car happened (literally)./ The car was fixed.”
    • हिन्दी का अभ्यास हो रहा है | “Practice of Hindi is happening (literally)./Urdu is being practiced.”

    (b) one that does not require any connector.

    Examples of nouns that do not require connectors:

    • यहाँ शोर हो रहा है | “It is noisy here.”
    • कार्यकर्म खत्म हो गया | “The program ended.”
    • भूल हो गयी | “The mistake happened.”

    Activity 1

    Please write two sentences with each of the following conjunct verbs.

    फ़ैसला करना “To decide”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    साफ़ करना “To clean”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    वापस करना “To return”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    ख़त्म करना “To finish”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    कम करना “To reduce”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    ठीक करना “To fix up”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    तैयार करना “To prepare”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    शुरू करना “To start”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    मरम्मत करना “To repair”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    x की मदद करना “To help X”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    x का इंतज़ार करना “To wait for X”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    x की कोशिश करना “To try X”
    • 1.
    • 2.
    x का अभ्यास करना “To practice X”
    • 1.
    • 2.

    Activity 2

    Please write a response of these following personalized questions and then record yourself.

    An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
    https://openbooks.lib.msu.edu/ll151/?p=1367

    धन्यवाद !


    This page titled 8.9: Conjunct Verb is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Rajiv Ranjan (Michigan State University Libraries) .

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