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7.7: Grammar- Tense and Aspect

  • Page ID
    120300
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    Tense

    Instructor Video: Tense and Aspect

    Tense is a time of an action. In all languages, tense is categorized in three types, namely, (a) present tense, (b) past tense, and (c) future tense.

    In Hindi, tense is marked with auxiliary verbs and/or morphemes attached to the verb stem, as shown below.

    Past tense Present tense Future tense
    Auxiliary verbs: था, थे, थी, थीं Auxiliary verbs: हूँ, हो, है, हैं Auxiliary verbs: होगा, होगे, होगी, होंगी
    Examples:
    • कल बारिश हो रही थी | “It was raining yesterday.”
    • पिछले साल, मैं भारत गया था | “I had gone to India last year.”
    Examples:
    • आज बारिश हो रही है | “It is raining today.”
    • मैं भारत जा रहा हूँ | “I am going to India.”
    Examples:
    • कल बारिश होगी | “It will rain tomorrow.
    • अगले साल, मैं भारत जाऊँगा | “I will go to India next year.”

    Aspect

    Aspect shows the manner of an action. Grammatical aspects are categorized in two types, namely, (a) imperfective aspect, and (b) perfective aspect. Imperfective aspect shows that the action is not completed. Perfective aspect shows that the action is complete.

    Imperfective aspect is further categorized in two types, namely, (a) habitual and (b) progressive/continuous.

    All grammatical aspects in Hindi are marked as morphemes with verb stem, as shown below.

    Imperfective Aspect Perfective Aspect
    Habitual Progressive/Continuous  
    Morphemes: -ता. -ते, -ती रहा, रहे, रही -आ, -ए, -ई, -ईं
    Examples:
    • मैं किताब पढ़ता हूँ | “I read a book.”
    • सीता क्रिकेट खेलती है | “Sita plays cricket.”
    • लड़के कमरा साफ़ करते हैं | “Boys cleans a room.”
    Examples:
    • मैं किताब पढ़ रहा हूँ | “I am reading a book.”
    • सीता क्रिकेट खेल रही है | “Sita is playing cricket.”
    • लड़के कमरा साफ़ कर रहे हैं | “Boys are cleaning a room.”
    Examples:
    • मैंने किताब पढ़ी | “I read a book.”
    • सीता ने क्रिकेट खेला | “Sita played cricket.”
    • लड़कों ने कमरा साफ़ किया | “Boys cleaned a room.”

    Activity

    Please read these sentences carefully and identify the tense and aspect.

    An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
    https://openbooks.lib.msu.edu/ll151/?p=1089

    धन्यवाद !


    This page titled 7.7: Grammar- Tense and Aspect is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Rajiv Ranjan (Michigan State University Libraries) .

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