Skip to main content
Humanities LibreTexts

2.4: 2.2-

  • Page ID
    82682
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    Einheit 2.2 (online)

    light-bulb-2223050_1280.png Grammatik

    Cases: The Nominative

    You already know that all nouns in German are classified grammatically as masculine, neuter, or feminine, which is indicated by a form of the definite article: “der” (masculine), “die” (feminine), or “das” (neuter), all meaning “the”.

    When we use a noun or pronoun in a sentence, we also assign specific cases to those nouns and pronouns to signal their function in the sentence. There are four cases in German. Today, we are focusing on the nominative case. Look at the following example sentences:

    Die Tafel ist weiß.

    Meine Partnerin heiβt Karla.

    Das ist ein Buch.

    Es ist blau.

    Monique wohnt in Montreal.

    The bolded parts are in the nominative case, because they are the subjects of the sentences.

    *ACHTUNG* The subject of a sentence is always in the nominative case.

    star-1364092_1280.png Übung 1. Drag the noun to the correct article. 
    The original version of this chapter contained H5P content. You may want to remove or replace this element.

    light-bulb-2223050_1280.png Grammatik

    Definite and Indefinite Articles

    German uses three definite articles, “der” (masculine), “die” (feminine), or “das” (neuter), all meaning “the”, to show the gender of a noun.

    There are also indefinite articles in German, meaning “a” or “an” in English, for the three grammatical genders: “ein” (masculine), “eine” (feminine), and “ein” (neuter). Obviously, there is no indefinite article for the plural (just like in English, you couldn’t say “a books”).

      Singular Plural
    masculine der Tisch

    ein Tisch

    die Tische

    Tische

    feminine die Lampe

    eine Lampe

    die Lampen

    Lampen

    neuter das Buch

    ein Buch

    die Bücher

    Bücher

    der (m.)  –> ein      die (f.) –> eine      das (n.) –> ein       die (pl.) –> ∅

    star-1364092_1280.pngÜbung 2 (Reminder: If you get it wrong you can correct it right away. Just continue typing in the “red” box to make your correction.)
    The original version of this chapter contained H5P content. You may want to remove or replace this element.

    light-bulb-2223050_1280.png Grammatik

    Negation with “kein”

    There are several ways to express negation in German. Look at the following three sentences:

    Ist das ein Tisch? Nein, das ist kein Tisch.

    Ist das eine Lampe? Nein, das ist keine Lampe.

    Sind das Amerikaner? Nein, das sind keine Amerikaner, das sind Kanadier.

    The negative form of the indefinite article “ein” is “kein” (for masculine and neuter) and the negative form of the indefinite article “eine” is “keine” (for feminine). There is also a plural form “keine”. In English, they mean “not a”, “not any”, “no”.

    masculine ein –> kein
    feminine eine –> keine
    neuter ein –> kein
    plural ∅ –> keine

    We can also negate a sentence by using “nicht” (not). It can be placed in different parts of a sentence depending on what we want to negate or emphasize. Over the next few units we will begin to see the different placements of “nicht”.

    star-1364092_1280.pngÜbung 3
    The original version of this chapter contained H5P content. You may want to remove or replace this element.


    light-bulb-2223050_1280.png Grammatik

    Plural Forms of Nouns

    IMG_7634.jpg

    In English, most plurals are formed by adding an “-s” or “-es” to the noun (e.g., students, classes, pens), although there are some irregular plural forms in English (e.g., women, children, geese).

    Forming the plural of nouns in German is a bit more complicated than in English. There are several rules one could memorize, but that wouldn’t account for the exceptions. We recommend that you learn the plural form of each noun when you are learning the noun itself: das Bücherregal, die Bücherregale.

    Some dictionaries (like dict.cc as shown in the screenshot) write out the plural forms. Other dictionaries only indicate the plural form by abbreviations; you need to understand how to form a plural when you see those abbreviations, for example:

    die Lampe, -n  (this means: you just add -n to the noun; die Lampen is the plural form)

    das Fenster, – (this means: you don’t add an ending to the noun; die Fenster is the plural form)

    die Mutter, -¨  (this means: you don’t add an ending to the noun, just the Umlaut on the vowel; die Mütter is the plural form)

    magnifying-glass-1083378_1280-300x300.png Online Wörterbuch. Use the online dictionary dict.cc to look up the plural forms of the following nouns. Put in the German word in order to get the plural form indicated as above. Or, if you put in an English word (if you need a translation first), click on the German translation provided and you will get the plural form on a separate page.

    Be sure to write down the forms as you will need them in the quiz.

    der Computer die Wand das Tablet der Bleistift die Uhr
    der Stuhl das Papier die Tafel das Auto das Haus

    link-4088190_1280-e1595714950247.png Wortschatz in Quizlet:

    Seminarraum

    Seminarraum (plurals)

     

    check-mark-corrected.pngWas wissen Sie jetzt? Klicken Sie hier für Quiz 2.2.


    Extra Practice (optional):

    play-1073616_1280-300x300.pngVideo Serie – Nicos Weg
    Click on the link and watch the video. Then click on “start” under the video and do the exercises.

     

    play-1073616_1280-300x300.pngExtra Hilfe – lingoni GERMAN
    Click on this link if you have any questions or want more examples of “Das ist… /Das sind…“.

    Media Attributions


    This page titled 2.4: 2.2- is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Claudia Kost & Crystal Sawatzky (Open Education Alberta) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

    • Was this article helpful?