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14.3: Subjunctive I

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    In German, whenever someone else’s statements are reported or their feelings or opinions are expressed, the subjunctive I mood is used, and that mood is signaled by distinctive forms of the conjugated verbs. Contrast these examples:

    In the English sentence, “They say that she is going to Germany,” the verbs “say” and “is going” are in the indicative mood.

    In the German equivalent, Man sagt, daß sie nach Deutschland reise, the verb “sagt” is in the indicative mood, but the verb “reise” is in the subjunctive mood, because it is reported speech (indirect discourse).

    The meaning of the mood change is to signal that the author of the sentence does not necessarily vouch for the truth of the statement; it allows a writer to remain neutral regarding what he or she is reporting. Note that if the statement is given as a direct quotation, then the indicative mood of the original statement remains: Er sagte: “Sie reist nach Deutschland.”

    The forms of the verb in the subjunctive are as follows (using the weak verb reisen (to travel) as our example):

    Present Tense

    1ST ich reise wir reisen
    2ND du reisest ihr reiset
    3RD er/sie/es reise sie/Sie reisen

    Note: This only differs from the indicative mood in the second person singular and plural (-est and –et instead of –st and –t) and the third person singular (-e instead of –t). Compare the chart of indicative endings in Unit 2.

    All verbs in German except for the verb sein follow this conjugation in the present tense subjunctive mood. Thus even the irregular (strong) verb wissen (to know a fact) follows the same pattern:

    1ST ich wisse wir wissen
    2ND du wissest ihr wisset
    3RD er/sie/es wisse sie/Sie wissen

    The only exception is, however, very important: sein (to be)

    1ST ich sei wir seien
    2ND du seiest ihr seiet
    3RD er/sie/es sei sie/Sie seien

    Note that sein takes no ending in the first and third person singular. These forms are important because they correspond to English “be” and “let be,” dependent on context (explained in the last section of this unit). Compare the equivalent indicative chart for sein in Unit 1.

    Past Tenses

    The verb forms in the past tense subjunctive are likewise very simple. They are based upon the present tense forms of haben and sein plus the past participle of the verb in question.

    Present perfect:

    Man sagt, daß sie nach Deutschland gereist sei.
    They say that she went (has gone) to Germany.

    Man sagt, daß er fleißig gearbeitet habe.
    They say that he (has) worked diligently.

    Past perfect:

    Es wurde berichtet, daß sie nach Deutschland gereist seien.
    It was reported that they had travelled to Germany.

    Es wurde berichtet, daß sie das Examen bestanden habe.
    It was reported that she had passed the examination.

    You can see that we translate the forms of haben and sein in the subjunctive past tense according to how the reported statement is introduced. Generally speaking, if the context is in the future tense or present tense (man sagt) then we translate the reported statement in simple past or present perfect; if the context is already in past tense (es wurde berichtet) then the reported statement is best translated in the past perfect tense.

    Future Tense

    Just as in the indicative mood, we can recognize future tense by the use of werden with an infinitive. The conjugated verb, werden, appears in its subjunctive I form:

    1ST ich werde wir werden
    2ND du werdest ihr werdet
    3RD er/sie/es werde sie/Sie werden


    Man sagt, daß sie nach Deutschland reisen werde.
    They say that she will travel to Germany.

    Es wurde berichtet, daß sie nach Deutschland reisen werde.
    It was reported that she would travel to Germany.

    Note: The subjunctive forms of werden can optionally be translated as “would.”

    This page titled 14.3: Subjunctive I is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Howard Martin revised by Alan Ng.

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