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5.13.1.1.1: Transitions Exercise- Traveling to Nashville by Bus or by Car

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    Transitions Exercise:  Traveling to Nashville by Bus or by Car

    Exercise 39:  Circle the correct transition word or phrase, please.

    My friend Roger and I are going to go to Nashville soon, (but, additionally, as a result) we can’t decide if we will go by car or by bus.  Roger, who doesn’t like to drive, prefers traveling by bus.  I, (thus, on the other hand, as a result) prefer to drive my car.  Roger has his own reasons for going by bus (because, therefore, as opposed to) driving there.  (First, Second, But), it costs much less; (indeed, so, however), it is much more economical to go by bus than by car.  The price of gasoline these days is not really cheap.  (Yet, Nevertheless, Second), traveling by bus would give both of us a better chance to see the cities and countryside along the way; neither of us would have to look at the road.  (In addition, However, As a matter of fact), we could take naps on the bus when there is nothing of interest to look at.  From Seattle to Nashville is a very long way.  There are lots of areas in the central parts of America that have nothing to see except grassland, especially on major freeways.  (Yet, Unfortunately, Third), as Roger and I are both in our seventies, he feels there would be more people our age whom we could talk to along the way to kill the time.  Roger, (nonetheless, in fact, however), loves to talk all the time.  I, (in contrast, similarly, likewise), don’t enjoy talking to strangers all that much.  Sometimes, other people don’t want to be quiet and let a fellow seat mate just sit and enjoy the ride.  (Unlike, Instead, In fact) Roger, I enjoy the quiet of a car and the lack of distractions that other passengers sometimes force upon me.  (Moreover, On the contrary, Consequently), I like the freedom to listen to music or books on tape while traveling along on a long journey.  (However, Still, Indeed), with just the two of us, we can listen and comment on whatever we listen to without worrying about bothering the ride for others.  (Thus, Yet, For instance), Roger and I are going to have to decide soon how we are going to go to Nashville.

    In Contrast versus On the Contrary

           In contrast and on the contrary are often misused by ESL students because their meanings are similar; however, they are used by native speakers in very different situations and their meanings are quite different.

    In Contrast:

    1.  Shows a contrast or difference, often surprising in nature to the listener or reader, between two people, events, states, conditions, situations, etc.
    2.  Contrasts different subjects
    3.  Does not show opposites but does show differences

    For Example:

    Young children like to eat cheap candy because they enjoy the sweetness and they can easily burn off the sugar quickly.  In contrast, adults don't usually eat much candy at all, and they certainly don't burn off the sugar as easily as children do.

    Children and adults are two different subjects in two different sentences.  However, they are only different, not opposites.  Children and adults are different in their attitude toward candy.

    On the Contrary:

    1.  Contrasts some aspect of the same subject in the same time frame
    2.  Is used to express the opposite of what has just been said or heard
    3.  Is not used to show a difference

    For Example:

    Young boys don't like to sit still and be quiet for very long.  On the contrary, they like to move around a lot and make a lot of noise.

    In both sentences, we are talking about the same subject - young boys.  The ideas expressed about the subject - young boys - are opposite:  sit still versus run around and quiet versus noisy.

    Therefore, in contrast shows a difference in different subjects, while on the contrary points out opposites in the same subject.

    On the contrary may also be used as the beginning of a response to what someone else has just said.  It indicates that you think the person's statement is wrong or incorrect.

    John:  "I think that it is a good idea to give children lots of candy." Fred:  "On the contrary, I think it is a bad idea for many reasons." 

    In Contrast versus On the Contrary 

    Exercise 40:  Fill in the blanks with either in contrast or on the contrary, please. 

    1.  In the past, many people immigrated to the United States with almost nothing in their pockets.  --------------------, nowadays people often come with money to invest.

    2.  Many Italian people immigrated to America for economic reasons.  -----------------, Jewish people came for religious or political reasons, especially after World War Two.

    3.  Many people think that there was a lot more immigration a long time ago than there is now. 

    -------------------, we have had more immigration in the last 20 years than at any other time in American history.

    4.  A lot of people believe that immigrants take away jobs from people who already live in the US.  --------------------, new immigrants tend to create more jobs than they take away.

    5.  Many university researchers have shown that immigrants are not lazy. 

    --------------------, they tend to be very hard workers and strong supporters of the economy.

    6.  A funny thing about first generation immigrants in the early 20th century versus those in the later 20th and 21st centuries was that they tried to assimilate as fast as possible and often tried to forget "the old country" and language.  --------------------, immigrants nowadays try to keep their former culture and language.

    7.  Some immigrant families in the past changed their last names to sound more "American."  My family, --------------------, never changed our name.  --------------------, we have always kept our name and been proud of it.


    5.13.1.1.1: Transitions Exercise- Traveling to Nashville by Bus or by Car is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Don Bissonnette.

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