4.6: Lesson 3 Grammar - Expressing "and also" with 还 (hái)
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In English we use "and also" when we want to connect separate and different thoughts. We can do the same thing in Chinese by using 还 (hái). The adverb 还 (hái) can be used to link two phrases together. In this case, 還 (hái) begins a new phrase or clause.
Subj. + Verb + Obj. 1， 还 + Verb + Obj. 2
Tā yǒu yī gè dìdi, hái yǒu yī gè mèimei.
She has a younger brother and also has a younger sister.
Wǒ lǎobǎn huì shuō Fǎyǔ, hái huì shuō Rìyǔ.
My boss can speak French and can also speak Japanese.
Nǐ yào yī bēi kāfēi, hái yào shénme?
You want a cup of coffee, and what else do you want?
Wǒ xiǎng chī bīngqílín, hái xiǎng chī hànbǎo.
I want to eat ice cream and I also want to eat a hamburger.
- 爸爸有一个小米手机，还有一个 iPhone。
Bàba yǒu yī gè Xiǎomǐ shǒujī, hái yǒu yī gè iPhone.
Dad has a Xiaomi phone and also has an iPhone.
Nǐ wǎnshang zài jiā zuò le zuòyè, hái zuò le shénme?
You did your homework at home tonight, and what else did you do?
Tā jiéhūn de shíhou, qǐng le tóngshì, hái qǐng le shéi?
When he got married, he invited his co-workers. Who else did he invite?
Shēngrì de shíhou, wǒmen huì chī dàngāo, hái yào sòng lǐwù.
During a birthday, we eat cake and also give presents.
- 去美国要带钱、护照，还要带 什么？
Qù Měiguó yào dài qián, hùzhào, hái yào dài shénme?
To go to the USA, you need to take money and a passport. What else do you need to take with you?
The Difference Between 还 (hái) and 也 (yě)
It should be noted that another common way to express "also" is with the word 也 (yě). What's the difference? With 还 (hái), ONE subject is doing TWO different things, whereas when 也 (yě) is used, TWO subjects are doing ONE thing.
It's the difference between these two English sentences:
- He fixed dinner and also washed the dishes.
- She washed the dishes too.
If you translated these into Chinese, the first one (one subject, two actions) would use 还 (hái), and the second one (second subject, no new actions) would use 也 (yě). Let's do that!
Tā zuò le fàn, hái xǐ le wǎn.
He fixed dinner and also washed the dishes.
Tā yě xǐ le wǎn.
She washed the dishes too.
How about a few more similar examples?
Wǒ xǐ le zǎo, hái xǐ le yīfu.
I took a shower and also did my laundry.
Tā yě xǐ le yīfu.
She did her laundry too.
Wǒmen jīntiān wǎnshang chūqù chīfàn le, hái kàn le diànyǐng.
We went out for dinner tonight and also watched a movie.
Tāmen jīntiān wǎnshang yě kàn le diànyǐng.
They watched a movie tonight too.
[adapted from AllSet Learning Chinese Grammar Wiki, Creative Commons License BY-NC-SA 3.0]
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