Check Your Understanding Questions
What motivation did Orthodox Christians have for accepting Ottoman rule?
Why did the Ottoman state grant timars?
In what ways did the empire founded by Timur geographically resemble that founded by Chinggis Khan?
Why do some historians regard the fall of Constantinople as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the early modern era?
How did the intellectual movement of humanism affect Europeans’ view of human beings?
Why did the Abbasid, Ayyubid, and Ottoman states prefer to train enslaved male children to become soldiers and administrators?
In what ways was the Janissary system of the Ottomans similar to the mamluk system in Egypt?
What was the main difference between the two Mamluk dynasties?
Other than religious piety, what motives did the Mamluk sultans have for establishing mosques and charitable institutions?
What effect did the Mongols have on the Ming dynasty?
How successful was Zhu Yuanzhang at improving life for China’s poor?
What impact did the adoption of gunpowder have on the European aristocracy?
What impact did the adoption of gunpowder have on the Ottoman Empire?
Why did nomadic societies begin to decline beginning in the early modern era?