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9.6: Key Terms

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    members of the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, an anti-foreign secret society in northern China
    Congo Free State
    a personal colony of Belgium’s King Leopold II where infamous abuse of African laborers took place
    a decline in a nation’s or region’s industrial activity
    export economy
    an economy that primarily provides raw materials for use by other nations
    Force Publique
    a native army commanded by European officers to enforce brutal discipline in the Congo Free State
    the policy of gaining direct or indirect control over parts of the world with low-cost resources and no competing mass-produced goods
    Meiji Restoration
    the period beginning in 1868 when, under Emperor Meiji, Japan began to industrialize
    Scramble for Africa
    the competition among European countries to establish colonies in Africa in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
    a Japanese system in which a military leader, the shogun, and an aristocratic military elite, the samurai, ruled in place of the emperor
    The Great Game
    the contest between Britain and Russia to dominate central Asia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

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