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7.6: Key Terms

  • Page ID
    236486
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    Committee of Public Safety
    the provisional government of revolutionary France from 1793 to 1794
    Congress of Vienna
    an 1814–1815 meeting of Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria to restore the balance of power and assert principles of conservatism
    conservatism
    a political ideology that emerged in reaction to the freedoms associated with the revolutions of the eighteenth century and advocated submitting to government authority and giving religious doctrine a central role in maintaining social order and stability
    Continental Congresses
    two assemblies of elected colonial representatives that met in Philadelphia in 1774 and 1775, the second time to adopt the powers of government and approve the Declaration of Independence from Britain
    deductive reasoning
    a form of logical reasoning that begins with a general statement and applies it to specific conclusions
    Directory
    an executive council of five men established by the Convention in France to replace the Committee of Public Safety after the decline of the Reign of Terror
    empiricism
    a philosophical concept based on the belief that all knowledge derives from sensory experience
    enlightened despot
    an absolutist ruler influenced by the principles of the Enlightenment
    Estates General
    a legislative assembly of the three estates, or orders, of French society: the clergy, the nobility, and commoners
    general will
    a concept in political philosophy by which the state can be legitimate only if it is guided by the will of the people as a whole
    gens de couleur libres
    a French term that referred to free people of color in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, now Haiti
    Germanic Confederation
    an alliance of thirty-nine mostly German-speaking states developed to replace the Holy Roman Empire in 1815
    Girondins
    a moderate faction of the Jacobin political club in revolutionary France
    inductive reasoning
    a form of logical reasoning that gathers specific examples and observations to arrive at a broad generalization
    Jacobins
    a radical political club in revolutionary France that supported overthrowing the monarchy
    liberalism
    a political ideology that promotes freedom of expression, popular sovereignty, the protection of civil rights and private property, and representative government
    Mountain
    a radical faction of the Jacobin club in revolutionary France that supported executing the king
    nationalism
    a political ideology that promotes the interests of the nation over international concerns and advocates the uniqueness and inherent superiority of the individual’s own country over others
    natural rights
    universal and inalienable rights that cannot be revoked or rescinded by human laws
    popular sovereignty
    the idea that government should exist only by the consent of the governed
    Proclamation Line
    the boundary of westward settlement that Britain marked out in its thirteen North American colonies
    public sphere
    shared spaces that enabled the exchange of ideas and information outside the control of state and church, like coffeehouses and salons
    Reign of Terror
    a period of the French Revolution during which the revolutionary government adopted repressive measures to prevent dissent
    Risorgimento
    an Italian term that refers to the unification of Italy
    salon
    informal gathering in the homes of wealthy aristocrats, generally hosted by women, that served as a site for the discussion of Enlightenment ideas and philosophies
    sans-culottes
    a French term that referred to radicals from the lower and working classes during the French Revolution
    Stamp Act
    an act of the British Parliament that imposed taxes on legal documents and other printed materials in its North American colonies in 1765
    the social contract
    an implicit agreement among members of a society to surrender their natural rights to the state, which is then charged with maintaining and protecting those rights
    Vodou
    a mix of Roman Catholic and indigenous West African religious practices popular in Haiti

    This page titled 7.6: Key Terms is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by OpenStax.

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